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Full text of "A grammar of the Turkish language : with a preliminary discourse on the language and literature of the Turkish nations, a copious vocabulary, dialogues, a collection of extracts in prose and verse, and lithographed specimens of various ancient and modern manuscripts"

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GRAMMAR: p m . 

Of Letters 1 

Alphabet 2 

Pronunciation of the Letters 4 

Of Vowels &c 7 

Of Nouns — The Article 9 

Gender, Number, Declension 10 

Case 11 

Paradigm of Declension 12 

Of Adjectives 16 

Numeral Adjectives 17 

Of Pronouns — Personal 21 

Demonstrative 23 

Relative &c 24 

Possessive 26 

Of Verbs 30 

Auxiliary and Irregular 34 

The Defective Verb jjl Im 35 

The Verb Substantive Jfvijl Olmak, 37 
The Verb Negative ,J»w>j1 Olmamak, 43 
The Tatar Verb JfUjJ Bolmak ... 46 

The Irregular Verb .'. Far 49 

Analysis of the Tenses 51 

Conjugation of Regular Verbs : 

CXj } ii Dogmek 59 

i^ji' Korkmak 67 

Conjugation of the Verb Negative, 74 
Conjugation of the Verb Passive . . 81 
Of Derivation and Composition : 

Nominal Derivation 88 

Verbal Derivation 92 

Compounds 94 

Of Adverbs 99 

Of Prepositions and Postpositions .... 103 

Of Conjunctions 105 

Of Interjections 106 

Of Syntax 107 


Of Days. Months 119 

The Universe. Time 120 

The Stars, Natural Phenomena, &c. ... 121 
The Elements. The Seasons. Mankind, 124 

Parts of the Body 125 

The Soul. Properties. Diseases 126 

Imperfections of the Body. Kindred . . 128 

Arts, Trades, and Professions 129 

Dignities 131 

Diversions. Beasts 132 

Birds 133 

Fish '. 134 

Reptiles, Insects, and Amphibious Ani- 
mals. Trees and Shrubs 135 

Fruits 137 

Herbs and Vegetables 138 

Colours. Metals, and Minerals'. Of the 

Earth 141 

Naval Affairs. Military Affairs 142 

Of a City 143 

Household Utensils and Furniture. Parts 

of a House 144 

Clothes. Of Fire 145 

Of Writing. Eating and Drinking. . . . 146 

Precious Stones. Qualities 147 

Verbs 148 

Countries, Kingdoms, Nations &c 150 


Modes of Salutation 155 

Of Eating and Drinking 157 

To Speak Turkish 159 

Of Writing 160 

Of Buying and Selling 161 

Of Dressing 162 

Of Travelling J64 

Conversation between Friends 165 

Of the Weather 168 

CONTENT S— continue d. 


I. Ouigour : 

from the Balcktiar Namek .... 171 
Kaoudat kou Bilik. ... 178 

Miradg 180 

Tezkerei Evlia 181 

II. Jaghataian: 

from the Baber Nameh 182 

Abulghazi 189 

Mir Ali Shir Nuvai. .191 



III. Kaptchak — (kasan): 

from Ibrahim Khalifi's 

IV. Osmanli :— A Ghazel of Baki 195 

Mesihi 196 

Extract from Evlia Efendi 197 

Hadgi Khalifeh's }j&\ '&*s? 200 

Naima 202 

Adgaib al Makhlukat .... 204 
Humaiun Nameh 206 


THE inhabitants of the vast countries of Central Asia, extending from the The name 
Northern Ocean to the confines of Persia, India and China, and from the Gulf to the Turkish 
of Corea to the shores of the Caspian, have received from the nations of Europe 
the undistinguishing name of Tartars a . This appellation, unknown to most of 
the people to whom it is applied, is a corruption of the Oriental J3S Tatar, the 
designation of a tribe derived, according to Abulghazi " and other Mohammedan 
authors, from a prince of that name, who, with his brother Mongol, was de- 
scended from the race of Turk. Some of the Eastern writers have derived the 
name ^li'lS Tatar from a river, on the banks of which was the original seat of this 
tribe ; but all coincide in employing the term as the designation of a particular 
body of people, and not as that of a race. The alteration of this name into 
Tartar, by the Latin writers of the thirteenth century, appears to have arisen 
from the similarity of its sound to their own Tartarus ; the corruption being 
rendered somewhat appropriate by the terrors which the incursions of Tchingis 
Khan and his descendants excited . The term Tartar is therefore not only 
vague and indefinite, but also improper; and can only be compared to the 
equally undistinguishing name CJjji Frank, by which, as if actuated by a 
desire of retaliation, the Orientals designate the various nations of Europe. 
In reducing to its proper compass so extensive an appellation, Physiology 

( a ) Remusat Recherches sur les Langues Tartares, torn. I. p. 1. 

(*) J J jsA> i_jW Abulghazi Bahadur Chani Hist. Mongol. etTartar. nunc prim. ed. a C. M. Froehn. 
fol. Casan, 1825. Hist. Gen. des Tartars, &c. p. 27. 

( c ) The words of St. Louis to his Mother are remarkable : " Erigat nos, Mater, cceleste solatium, quia, 
si perveniant ipsi, vel nos ipsos quos vocamus Tartaros, ad suas Tartareas sales unde exierunt retrudemus, 
vel ipsi nos omnes ad coelum advehent" Ap. Balk Intr. a V All. Ethnogr. p. 150. 


( ii ) 

and Language must be our guides; each of which will enable us to draw 
a strongly marked line between the race of the Mongols and that which has 
been termed Caucasian d . To the former, admitting the greatest extent we can 
allow the name, the appellation of Tatar must be confined : to that part of the 
latter which is the subject of this essay we apply the more comprehensive 
name of Turks. 
or the Turks. Of all the people who have issued from Central Asia, the Turks are perhaps 

the most interesting. They present to us materials for the study of the 
human race. Emerging from a primitive state of society, we view them passing 
through the various gradations which mark the progressive advancement of 
mankind, until arriving at the highest degree of civilization that the Asiatic race 
has ever attained. While the accomplished Osmanlis are making rapid strides 
towards rivalling the most learned and polished of the European States, then- 
wandering brethren in the farthest North, whose language is the only proof of 
their relationship, are plunged in the depths of primitive ignorance and barbarism ; 
and these form the two extremities of that extended chain of society and civiliza- 
tion, of which the connecting links are regularly formed by the various inter- 
mediate nations of Turkish origin. The Scythians of antiquity, the Tartars 
and Turks of later ages, they have influenced the destinies of half the globe. 
Overturning empires, founding kingdoms, they possessed themselves of some of 
the fairest regions of the earth. Bending beneath the rushing tide of conquest, 
the Empire of China laid its tribute at their feet. Italy, Germany, France, and all 
the countries of Northern Europe, felt their power. The thrones of Persia, India, 
Syria, Egypt, and Arabia, were theirs. The dominion of the Khalifs was crushed 
beneath their feet ; and the ruins of the Eastern Empire formed the foundation 
of a powerful kingdom, which all the united strength of Christendom could not 
subvert, and which still maintains a great political consequence in the eyes 
of Modern Europe. But the possession of those arts which do not elevate the 
man above the brute creation would entitle them to little of our attention. The 
beasts of the desert might equally have effected the destruction of mankind: and 
it is only when we view them cultivating the arts of peace, encouraging and pro- 
tecting literature, and making advances in science and learning, that we discover 
an object worthy of our contemplation. 

C 11 ) "La race Caucasienne d'une conleur plus ou moins blanche, a joues colorizes, a cheveux longs, 
plats, et plus ou moins bruns, a menton et front plus saillans que la bouche. 

" La race Mongole couleur de froment, peu de cheveux noirs et roides, les paupieres fendues et comme 
gonflees, la figure plate, et les poramettes saillantcs." — Klaproth Mem. relatifs a TAsie, torn. II. p. 1. 

( iii ) 

The clouds of darkness which surround the early history of all ancient nations Ancient history 
have veiled in obscurity the origin of the Turkish race, while the want or mixed with 
destruction of early national annals has left a fruitful soil for the production of 
fable. The opportunity thus afforded has not been neglected, either by the Turks 
themselves, or by the Chinese, Persians, Arabians, or even Europeans ; and 
fanciful genealogies, monstrous traditions, and unfounded theories, have been the 
abundant offspring of a soil so well adapted to their propagation. These, how- 
ever, though little deserving a place in the page of the historian, are still valuable ; 
inasmuch as they serve to indicate the antiquity of the people to which they 
relate, as well almost by their existence, as by the express accordance of the 
traditions themselves. 

The earliest of the Mohammedan writers from whom we can acquire any Traditions of 
knowledge of the ancient history of the Turks is Rashideddin e . This author dans respecting 
was Secretary to Gazan Khan, a descendant of Tchingis, who reigned in Persia antiqultyof the 
about the end of the thirteenth century. He was directed by this prince to Turks- 
compile a history of the Asiatic nations : and his accounts of the early history of 
the Turks are partly drawn from ancient annals then existing in the archives of 
the state, and partly from the traditions the most aged men had received from 
their ancestors. Unfortunately, in the execution of this work, the author has 
intermingled and confounded the traditions of the Turks with those of the 
Mongols; and has so mixed these up with the religious genealogies of the 
Moslems, that it is now almost impossible to separate them. It is from this work 
that Abulghazi and the other Mohammedan writers have drawn their materials ; 
and they have, consequently, fallen into the same errors. We can, therefore, 
expect nothing unalloyed by this mixture of nations and fables, in the accounts of 
the Mohammedans ; which, however, will give us the most ancient opinions of 
Persia and Arabia respecting the Turks : for though, in imitation of the Book of 
Genesis, the Believers of Mohammed have ascribed the origin of nations to indi- 
vidual princes, there is little doubt they consulted the general opinion of the 
East with regard to relative antiquity, and that it is the genealogy alone that is 

The origin of the Turkish race is ascribed, by most of the Mohammedan writers, Turk, son of 
to a son of Japhet, named Turk ; to whom they assign the rank of primogeniture Japbet - 
among the children of that patriarch ; styling him, by way of pre-eminence, 
Jitj] C^iu Yafet oghlan, or " the son of Jafet ;" while Japhet, the father of so 

( e ) JC.Lx'1 jkL»- Dgemau AUavarikh. 

( iv ) 


illustrious a son, receives the appellation of CJji Jl^l Abou'l Turk, "the father 
of Turk." There are some few writers indeed, but not of equal authority or im- 
portance, who deny the claim of Turk to primogeniture ; awarding that distinction 
to his brother Tchin, the ancestor of the Chinese: but the preponderance of testi- 
mony in favour of the right of Turk does not allow us to give much credit to 
these authors. Making due allowance for the accuracy of the genealogy, one 
fact alone remains evident — that all the Mohammedan writers assert the 
antiquity of the Turks, and that they are only doubtful whether to declare them 
or the Chinese the more ancient. The establishment of the Turks as a nation, 
and the founding their seat of empire, are likewise assigned to almost as early 
a period. After the death of Japhet, we are told that the knowledge and attain- 
ments of Turk rendered him the superior of his brethren, and he was universally 
acknowledged as sovereign over all the countries which their families inhabited. 
Turk being thus situated, turned his mind towards founding a seat suited to the 
grandeur of his empire ; and made the tour of his dominions, in order to select 
a place adapted to his purpose. He at length discovered a beautiful valley, on 
the banks of a lake, encompassed by mountains ; and being pleased with the 
situation, he built a city of wood and earth. The place in which this city was 
built, our authors tell us, was called, by the Turks and Chinese, Selinga, and by the 
Arabians Siluk. It may be urged, in support of this tradition, that the Chinese 
annals, and the most ancient accounts of the Turks themselves, also place the ori- 
ginal seat of the Turkish race in the neighbourhood of the Toula and Selinga ; and 
there is little doubt of the correctness of this position : but whether it was the 
seat of a Turkish empire at so early a period as that winch is assigned for the 
age of Turk must be determined by better authority. 
Chinese tradi- The annals of the Celestial Empire do not display a much greater degree of 

thToriguTand^ information, in their accounts of the origin and antiquity of the Turkish race, than 
theTurks"^ the authors of Persia or Arabia. Traditions of a wolf or a tree giving birth to 
the ancestor of the Turks seem but little superior to the precise genealogies of 
the Mohammedans, though they equally favour the presumption of an origin 
nearer the age of fable than truth. The first nation of Tatary f noticed by the 
Chinese carries us back to a period as remote as that assigned by the Moham- 
medans for the commencement of the empire of the Turks. Yen-yue, the son of 
2436 b.c. the Emperor Ty-ko, or Kao-sin, who commenced Ins reign 2i36 years before the 

( f ) It is rather for want of a better designation, than from a consciousness of its propriety, that this 
indefinite name is employed. Central Asia might perhaps, with some propriety, be substituted ; but 
custom has not yet attached a sufficient definite idea to warrant its usage. 

( v ) 

Christian aera, is said to have been the progenitor of the Toum-hou, or Oriental 
Tartars g : but with so few data as we possess, it is difficult to decide whether this 
nation may be considered as part of the Turkish Family ; and it is not until about 
1763 B.C. that we discover historical traces of a nation of undoubted Turkish 1763 B.C. 

The writers of the East have not been singular in attributing a great degree M. BaiUy's 
of antiquity to the Turkish race. The ingenious and learned M. Bailly h applied 
his ingenuity and research to prove that the plains of Tatary had given arts, 
sciences and civilization to the world, and that its ancient inhabitants were 
the enlightened preceptors of mankind. It cannot be supposed that such an 
hypothesis, unsupported by historical proofs, and formed by a chain of theories, 
however ingeniously connected, could command the attention of the unpre- 
judiced : but although we must reject the system as a whole, we are yet forced 
to admit that great and incontestable proofs exist of the advances made by the 
inhabitants of Tatary in knowledge. The invention of the cycle of animals, the 
use of metals and the works executed to obtain them in the bowels of the earth, 
the existence of monuments whose ruins still attract the curiosity of the 
Learned, and the early possession if not the invention of alphabetical characters, 
at least evince a certain degree of science : but that this should entitle them to 
become the preceptors of mankind, even the ingenuity of M. Bailly will fall far 
short of proving. 

In the absence of information from the annals of China, we must again turn Mohammedan 

-ii accounts of the 

to our Mohammedan guides ; who, as usual, can till up the lacuna with the utmost descendants of 
exactitude. Turk, we are informed, was succeeded in his kingdom by Tunek, the 
eldest of his four sons, who was the author of many useful inventions. He is 
said to have been the cotemporary of Kaiumars, the first king of Persia. 
The fourth in descent from Turk was Alingeh Khan. In his reign, the nation 
forgot the faith of their ancestors, which is represented as a pure Theism, and 
became idolaters. He had two sons, Tatar and Mongol ; and it is from these 
princes that the tribes which they governed took their names. From Alingeh 
Khan, until the eighth descendant of Turk, we read of nothing very remarkable : 
but the birth of Oghuz, which is fixed at 2824 B.C., seems to be the com- 2824 B.C. 
mencement of the national traditions of the Turks. The birth of this illus- 
trious descendant of Turk was preceded by the most astonishing prodigies. 
At the age of one year, when Kara Khan, his father, was about to give him a 

(*) Visdelou Hist, de la Tartarie, p. 1. 
( h ) Lettres sur l'Atlantide de Platon, &c. 

( vi ) 

name, in the presence of the chief men of his kingdom, he anticipated him by 
declaring aloud that his name was Oghuz. In his cradle he was a believer in the 
Unity of the Deity ; and refused to receive the nourishment of his mother until 
she had professed the same faith. Kara Khan, infuriated that his son should 
renounce his idols and worship an Invisible Being, gave orders that he 
should be surrounded and taken prisoner wlule hunting. Oghuz received 
information of his father's intentions ; and some of his friends having come very 
opportunely to his assistance, Kara Khan was overthrown, and killed by an 
arrow. These friends, from the timely assistance they afforded him, Oghuz 
named Igour or Ouigour, signifying " auxiliaries" or " assistants." Being declared 
king on the death of his father, Oghuz endeavoured to propagate the faith he 
professed. Those who became converts were loaded with favours ; but those who 
still adhered to the worship of idols were either put to death or compelled to fly. 
A neighbouring prince declared war: Oghuz was victorious, and, entering his 
country, possessed himself of all his treasures : these were so great, that Oghuz 
was unable to transport them to his own territories, until some of his soldiers 
invented a sort of car or chariot in which the spoils could be conveyed. Oghuz 
named the inventors Kangli ; which became the appellation of a large tribe. He 
reduced the kingdoms of Khathai, Tangut, and Kara Khathai ; but was not so suc- 
cessful against the dominions of a prince named Itborak Khan : Oghuz was there 
obliged to act on the defensive, and to take up an advantageous position to 
prevent defeat. It was in this expedition that Kaptchak received its name, from 
a circumstance connected witli " a hollow tree ;" which was the signification of 
that name in the language of the Oghuzians. Seventeen years after this first 
attempt, Oghuz again invaded the dominions of Itborak Khan, and became master 
of his territories. Samarkand, Bokhara, and Balkh, submitted to his arms; and he 
advanced against the town of Khor in the midst of winter. The snow having 
fallen very deep, his troops were much harassed with the fatigues of the march, 
and a party who had lost their camels and horses were unable for some time to 
join the main body. These troops, on their arrival, were interrogated by Oghuz as 
to the cause of their absence. They replied, that so large a quantity of snow had 
fallen in their line of march, that their beasts had perished, and they had 
with difficulty accomplished the object on foot. The Khan, in derision of sucli 
a cause preventing their joining him in his engagement with the enemy, gave 
them the name of Karlik or "snowy;" and thus the tribe of Karlik acquired its 
name. The Prince of Kashmir successfully opposed his attacks for a whole year, 
but he was at length defeated. The next expedition Oghuz undertook was directed 

( vii ) 

against Iran. The reduction of Khorassan, the conquest of the cities of Irak, 
Azarbijan, and Armenia, added fresh laurels to his brow ; and these appear to have 
been among the last of the exploits of Oghuz Khan. In this expedition the 
tribe of Kaladg received its name. Some stragglers having remained behind, to 
provide food for their families, were surnamed by Oghuz, Kal-adg, from two words 
signifying " remain" and " hungry," and were dismissed to their homes to super- 
intend their domestic affairs : they afterwards became a tribe, and retained this 
appellation. In the same manner, almost all the Turkish tribes ascribe the origin 
of their names to Oghuz, who seems to have been very liberal in bestowing 
appellatives. The six sons of this monarch were named, Ghin, signifying "the 
sun;" Ai, "the moon;" Yolduz, "a star; 11 Giuk, "heaven;" Tag, " a mountain ;" and 
Tengiz, " the sea." Some time before his death, Oghuz commanded a trusty atten- 
dant to bury a golden bow in the eastern part of a certain forest frequented by 
the young princes in their hunting excursions ; and three arrows, of the same 
metal, in the western part. The princes, in following the chase, divided into two 
bodies : the elder brothers took the path which led to the eastern part of the 
forest ; the younger pursued that of the west : the former became the possessors 
of the golden bow; the latter discovered the three arrows. The spoils of the 
chace, and the treasures they had found, were, on their return, delivered to their 
father ; who immediately issued orders for the nobles of liis kingdom to assemble, 
and made a great feast at which he invited them to attend. During the banquet, 
he commanded the golden bow and arrows to be brought forth ; and dividing 
the bow into three parts, he bestowed one on each of his three eldest sons ; the 
younger receiving each an arrow. Accompanying the gift with its explanation, 
Oghuz told them, that in ancient times the bow was among them the symbol of 
sovereignty; the arrow typified the Minister or Ambassador. To Giun, the 
eldest of his sons, he committed the supreme and immediate government of his 
kingdom ; the descendants of his two other brothers being only entitled to the 
throne in case of failure of the descendants of Giun ; while the three younger 
brothers were to remain the Ministers of the elder for ever. The possessors 
of the broken bow were named, from that circumstance, Butchuk, which signi- 
fies "broken:" the three younger brothers were surnamed Utchok, or the 
"three arrows'." The death of Oghuz took place shortly after this event; 

( ' ) In a philological point of view, the traditions preserved hy the Chinese and Persians are of much 
value, as they frequently enable us to determine with some degree of certainty, notwithstanding the 
confusion introduced by mixing up the traditions of the Mongols and Turks, to which of those people they 
belong, by that best of proofs, the identity of language. The above account demonstrates the identity 


( viii ) 

and, after a reign of 1 16 years, he was succeeded by Giun, the eldest of his 
six sons. 

Though the history of Oghuz is thus embellished with fiction, his reign, the 
purity of his faith, and the laws which he established, were long remembered 
throughout the extent of Tatary ; and his birth forms the first epoch of national 
Turkish tradition and chronology, detached from the genealogies of the followers 
of Mohammed. 

In the reign of the thirteenth descendant of Turk the kingdom was entirely 
destroyed. The son and nephew of the prince, with the remnant of their people, 
escaped from the fury of their enemies, and fled for safety into the most in- 
accessible fastnesses, the wild-goats acting as their guides. Having, with the 
greatest difficulty, succeeded in gaining the summit of the mountains, they disco- 
vered an immense valley, abounding in fertility, but only accessible by a very 
narrow defile or ravine, through which a man could scarcely pass. Tempted by 
the security this valley offered, the princes there made a settlement ; and one by one 
their followers entered the defile. In the space of 450 years, during which the 
Turks remained in this valley, they became a great people : its limits were no 
longer equal to their subsistence or ambition. Determined on quitting their 
retreat, they attempted to pass their barriers ; but the same impracticable rocks 
which denied access to their enemies from without equally precluded egress from 
within. The ravine by which they entered had been closed by some convulsion 
of Nature : it was no longer visible, and all attempts to overcome the difficulty 
which opposed their passage proved fruitless. By some accident, however, it 
was at length discovered that the mountains in a certain part were of little 
thickness, and formed principally of iron ore. A daring spirit conceived the idea 
of procuring an opening by means of fire : innumerable bellows adding fury to a 
pile of blazing wood and fuel, accomplished his design ; and a crown rewarded 
his advice. Under Bertezena, their new chief, the Turks sallied forth from their 

of the language of Oghuz with the modern Osmanli : thus, Kaladg is derived from Jlj' Jcal, Imperative of 
sjli' kalmak, "to remain," and I adg, " hunger;" Jfl,V» Kar!ik,"snowy," from p kar," snow ;" Jjyij) 
Kabuk, "the bark of a tree," diminutively 2s?±ii Kabukdgak, is probably from the same root as 
Kaptchak or Kabdgiak. The names of the sons of Oghuz are pure Osmanli : & Giun, "the day ;" ^j\ 
Ai"the moon;" jjJ^j Yolduz, " astar;" L^ JS Grafc," heaven ;" elAa Tagh," a mountain ;" jSii Dehiz, 
"the sea." The names given to the three brothers give us the derivation of the Osmanli words for 
"great" and "small ;" ^<fsi Bulchuk is " broken" or " divided ;" i'.l _.l Utch-ok signifies " three 
arrows;" and a slight alteration of these has produced Cjyj iui'ut/'great," and \^Xs>-jS kotchek," small." 

( ix ) 

valley; and the neighbouring kingdoms were not long in ignorance of their 
existence and power. 

The Chinese Annals relate the history of the Turkish people under various The Chinese 

<• m • !•••<• • i_ history of the 

names; the revolutions of Tatary causing many divisions of tribes or nations, who Turkish people, 
either took the titles of their leaders, or derived their appellations from some 
circumstance connected with their origin. The Chinese, actuated by the hatred 
and dread they entertained of the Turks, have corrupted these appellations into 
expressions of ill-will, by using words somewhat similar in sound to the names 
which the Turks applied to themselves, but having usually a very different 
sense'. Some of these, however, are purely arbitrary, and entirely of Chinese 
invention ; the same people receiving different titles under successive dynasties, 
and the cause of their application being stated by the Chinese authors. 

The relations of the Chinese, though they throw great light on the history of 
the Turkish race, and, by preserving fragments of the languages of the people 
they describe, have enabled us to form juster notions concerning them, must 
yet be received with caution. Their hatred, their jealousy, their idea of all 
beyond the bounds of the Celestial Empire being barbarous, and their means of 
intelligence, must always be considered, in examining the accounts which they 
have preserved of the nations of Tatary. 

The most ancient nation which is ascertained to be of Turkish origin, mentioned Hiun-yo or 
by the Annalists of China, is that of the Hiun-yu, or Hioung-nou. The first loun 8~ nou 
monarch of this nation is said to have commenced his reign about 1763 B.C.'; 1763 B.C. 
but beyond this single epoch we find nothing but an immense and irreparable 
lacuna, until within a few centuries of the Christian aera. About 250 B. C. the 

Hioung-nou "VV/ |X| had extended their sway over all Tatary, and formed a 

powerful empire. From within ten degrees of the Polar Circle, to the Chinese 
provinces of Chensi and Chansi, the power of their Tanjou was acknowledged ; and 
his empire was bounded on the east and west by the Corea and the Caspian. 
The Great Wall opposed but a weak barrier to his advance ; and the " golden 
lances" of China parried, but were unable to repel, his attacks. 

( k ) The meaning of the appellation Hioung-nou is, " Bad Slaves ;" that of Thou-khiu, " Insolent Dogs." 
— M. Salverte, in his rules for the interpretation of the names of nations, says, " Jamais peuple ne 
s'est donne a lui-meme un nom peu honorable : tant d'humilit^ ou de sottise n'est pas dans la nature. 
Un nom offensant pour la nation qu'il designe, lui a ele impose par un autre peuple, et non accepte par 
elle, ou bien, il ne nous est parvenu que traduit inexactement" Essai sur les Noms Propres. Paris, 1824. 

( ) Herodotus says the first Scythian king did not live above a thousand years before Darius 
Hystaspes invaded Scythia, which was in the year 514 B.C. ; so that the age of that king would be about 
1514 B. C, very near the time mentioned by the Chinese Annalists. 


( x ) 

The power of the Hioung-nou did not continue long after the Christian aera : 
civil dissensions added force to the attacks of hostile nations ; famine and pesti- 
lence assisted in the work of destruction; and the haughty Tanjous were 
compelled either to submit to the monarch of China or to seek safety in flight. 
A part of the remnants of the Hioung-nou, after various attempts to regain their 
lost power, retired, with Assena their Prince, among the Jouan-jouan ; and 
established themselves in a valley of the Kin-chan, or Golden Mountains, called, 
by the Turks, Altai m . They there built a city, at the foot of a hill, which, in 
form, resembled a casque or helmet: and as, in their language, says Ma-touan-lin, 
the Chinese historian", a casque was called Thou-khiu, the people took that name. 

or the origin of The name -A^* Vdi* Thou-khiu, or Tou-kiue, thus applied to this remnant of the 

the name Turk. JTsZ /./A rr 

Hioung-nou, is the Chinese transcription of ^Js Turki, by which they appear to 
have called themselves. The transcription is perfect, according to Chinese ortho- 
graphy, which in the same manner writes Posse for \j~)j Pars or \_~J> Fars, 
Tou-loun for ^ } f Touroun, suppressing or changing the letter R °. Singular as 
the Chinese derivation may be considered, it is corroborated by the fact, that in 
the Modern Turkish the word alluded to by the Chinese historian does actually exist, 
and in the very sense he applies to it. The word ^Jj> terk, read with ustun, sig- 
nifies a casque or helmet ; which serves to support the testimony of the Chinese 
author, at the same time that it gives a far more probable etymology than that of 
a descent from an imaginary Patriarch p . Even the derivation from the Arabian 
t^Jj terk, " to forsake or wander," which the more learned have adopted, is perhaps 
mistaking the effect for the cause, and deriving the name from a word which was 

( m ) jjijjUl Allun means " Golden," in Modern Turkish. 

( n ) Wen-hian-thoung-khao, K, 342. p.l. Remusat Rech. 12. 

(°) The Chinese, in transcribing foreign words, always either suppress the letter R, or change it into L. 
Thus, in the Chinese and Ouigour Vocabulary in the Bibliotheque du Roi, we find Teng-he-li for Tangri, 
Ha-eul for Khar. Rem. Rech. 256. Visdelou, Suite des Observations, &c. p. 145. 

( p ) Klaproth sur les Thou-khiue. Meninski Onomasticon, torn. I. art. \^Jy. M. Remusat considered 
that the word alluded to by the Chinese author was <UJjj tukieh, which signifies "a cap ;" and &xso j^cii 
demir tukieh, " a casque" or " iron cap" ; but that word is of Arabic origin, and could not possibly be the 
derivation of the national name CJJ- Rem. Rech. 12. The adoption of this name must have been at 
least as early as the beginning of the Christian tcra, as we find it used by Pomponius Mela : 
" Geloni urbem ligneam habitant. Juxta Thyrsageta) Turcesque vastas sylvas occupant alunturque 
venando." Lib. I c. 19. Pliny also mentions them: — " Deinde Euazaj, Cotta;, Cicimeni, Messeniani, 
Costobocei, Choatrse, Ziga), Dandari, Tussagetai, Turcse, usque ad solitudines saltuosis convallibns, 
asperas, ultra quos Arymphffii qui ad Riphsos pertinent montes." Plm. Sec. lib. vi. c. 7. 

( xi ) 

most probably the offspring of the national appellation. The nomade habits of 
a portion of that people, to which the name was applied, might cause all wanderers 
to be so termed ; and the existence of the verb might thus be accounted for. 

The Chinese authors which we have in Europe are, for the most part, the 
Classics of the Celestial Empire, and relate more to the affairs of China than 
to those of the surrounding kingdoms : we have, therefore, little or no know- 
ledge of the literature of the earlier nations of Tatary. The Hioung-nou and 
the Tou-kiue, we are told, used " barbarous characters i" by which we are only 
to understand, that they did not employ the letters of the Chinese; except 
which, all characters were termed barbarous. When the authors of China assert 
that a nation had no characters or no literature, it is merely intended that 
they did not employ the Chinese Alphabet, or cultivate its literature ; all foreign 
languages and literature being estemed as of no account. Thus we read, in 
the Wen-hian-thoung-khao, that the Thou-fan or Tibetians had no letters, at 
a period when the Tibetian Alphabet is known to have been in constant use q . 
The most ancient writing of the Hioung-nou was inscribed on wood, in the manner 
of the ancient Runes of the Northern tribes. The orders of the Prince, and the 
memorial of their execution, were indented on slips of wood. The Tou-kiue also 
used skins for the like purposes : and the Chinese authors tell us, that in the 
country of Sa-ma-eul-han (Samarkand) " they write their books on the inner skins 
of sheep, on which the letters are traced in gold." The religion of the ancient 
inhabitants of the Plains of Tatary was pure and simple. They acknowledged 
one Supreme and All-powerful Being, on whom all Spirits and Created Beings 
were dependent : they worshipped this Supreme Being under the name of \^j& 
Tengri, which still, in the modern dialect of Constantinople, signifies God, or 
the Deity : they also seem to have paid some adoration to the material resem- 
blance of this Divine Being in the most magnificent of his works — the heavens. 
A Chinese author says r the Tou-kiue made, periodically, a grand sacrifice to the 
Spirit of Heaven ; and they also had a place appropriated to the worship of 
Po-tengri, which, in their language, signified God of the Earth. 

The Mohammedan traditions of the residence of the Turks in the valley, and 
the Chinese account of Assena retiring to the Kin-chan or Altai, relate to the 
same people and event ; and from this period the historical view of the Turks may 
be exhibited by the united light of the Mohammedans, Chinese, and Byzantines. 
Bertezena, the first king of the Turks after their issuing from their retreat, soon 

( q ) Ma-touan-lin ap. Remusat Bech. sur les Langues Tartares, p. 67. 
( r ) Ibid. Wen-hian-thoung-khao, K, 343. p. 4. 

( xii ) 

acquired power among the neighbouring States. The Khan of the Jouan-jouan 
having refused his daughter in marriage, a Chinese princess was solicited, 
and accorded him ; and the arms of Bertezena revenged the insult, by the total 
a.d.552. overthrow of the haughty Khan. This nation, about A. D. 552, became even 
more powerful than their ancestors the Hioung-nou had been ; and within fifty 
years from their quitting the valley they were the friends or enemies of China, 
a. d. 569. Persia, and Rome. In the year 569, Dizabul their Khan, the Ti-theou-pou-li of 
the Chinese, received the embassy of Justin the Second; and Zemarkh, the 
Roman Minister, was allowed to present the gifts of his imperial master to the 
monarch of the Turks, at the foot of the Altai. A curious account of the 
reception of the ambassador has been preserved. He was astonished at beholding 
the grandeur and magnificence of the Turkish encampment : the silk hangings 
and embroidered tapestries vied with the splendor of the pavilions and throne 
of massy gold ; and the vessels and statues of solid silver were carelessly heaped 
together before the entrance of their tents. The Roman envoys accompanied the 
Khan in his march towards the frontier; nor were they dismissed, until their 
vanity had been gratified by the precedency they were permitted to enjoy over 
the ambassadors of the Great King s . 

The empire of the Tou-kiue did not long remain united: their extended 
possessions and conquests rendered the creation of subordinate Governors ne- 
cessary to sustain the authority of the Prince ; and these, declaring themselves 
independent, finally separated the empire into distinct and hostile Principalities. 
Oriental and The t wo c hief divisions of the Tou-kiue were those of the Oriental and Occidental. 


Turks. The kingdom of the latter, about A.D. 585, was seated to the west of the Altai ; 

whence, by degrees, they extended themselves as far as the Persian frontier; 
into which they finally penetrated, advancing into the countries under the yoke of 
Rome. During this time, another branch of the Turkish race, also descended from 
the ancient Hioung-nou, acquired power in Tartary ; and these, coming in collision 
with the Oriental Tou-kiue, about A.D. 745, caused the overthrow of their 
formidable empire. 

Hoei-he or The Hoei-he '2£T [ pl , as they are called by the Chinese, appear to have 

Ifiivi-hou of the tkkW I «-•/ 

by JhemaeWe's,' 1 ' been originally named Tchhe-sse. To this portion of the Turkish people the 

Ouigours. Chinese have been most lavish of appellations. Towards the middle of the sixth 

century, under the dynasty of Tham, we find them named Tchy-le or Tie-le; then 

(*) Gibbon, vol. V. p. 219. ex Menander, p. 106 &c. 

( x iii ) 
Kiu-szu', Kao-tche, or Kao-tchang ; afterwards Hoei-he ; and since, about A.D.788, 
Hoei-hou *pfHt W\ • This variation of name seems to have created as much 

confusion among the authors of China, as among the Learned of Europe who have 
studied them; and we find one writer considering as identical, nations which 
another terms co-temporary or antecedent. The Tchhe-sse appear to be men- 
tioned under that title, for the first time, about 126 B.C., when they formed part of b. c. 126. 
the empire of the Hioung-nou. They were then a numerous people, divided into 
two nations, and represented as being very rich. 

In the Ouigour Chinese Vocabulary brought from Pekin by the Pere Amiot, 

Kao-tchang »-=[» HI is explained in Mandshu by Ouikhour (Ouigour), and 

the Thoung-kian-kang-mou, quoted by M. Klaproth, says, 

" The Oui-gou-eul (Ouigours) are the Kao-tchang of the dynasty of Thang." 

We have seen, that, in foreign names, the Chinese usually either reject the letter R, 
or liquify it into L : thus, in representing the name rfl^ Ouigour or ^\ Ighour, 
in Chinese characters, they may have used Hoei-hou, rejecting the final R, and 
softening the G. The learned M. Klaproth, who has been so successful in refuting 
the hypothesis of M. Schmidt u — that the Ouigours were not of the Turkish race, 
quotes the following passage, on the pronunciation of this name, and the identity 
of the Hoei-he and Hoei-hou with the Ouigours : — 


vz su 

( l ) 

p Ty) _Bff Kiu-szu, or 6 W^ 3k 1J Kau-szu, pronounced Gouz, is similar to the name of 

the tribe of ii Ghuz or Uz, from whom the Osmanlis trace their origin. 
( u ) Einwiirfe gegen die Hypothesen des Herrn Hofr. Klaproth. Mines de l'Orient. torn. VI. &c. 

( xi v ) 

" The primitive name of the Hoei-hou was Hoei-he, until the middle of the years 
Youan-ho (806 — 820). It was then that they hegan to call them Hoei-hou, 
which we usually pronounce Houi-houi. In the time of the Youan or Mongol 
dynasty, they were named Oui-gou-el m ? 

Of the language and literature of the Hoei-hou, or Ouigours, we have more 
traces than of any other ancient nation of Tatary. Both Chinese and Moham- 
medans have spoken of the literature of this people : and though the former are 
prejudiced, and the latter in a great measure ignorant, we have still sufficient to 
enable us to affirm that the Ouigours were a literary people ; that they possessed, 
from an ancient period, an Alphabet which gave birth to most of the various cha- 
racters of Tatary ; and that either they or a kindred tribe were the inventors of 
the famous Cycle of Twelve Animals, so valuable in rectifying the chronology of 
the different nations of Asia. 
' )f *• Ouigour The Chinese authors, in speaking of the characters used by the Hioung-nou, the 
Tchhe-sse, the Hoei-hou, and the Oui-gou-eul, use precisely the same terms to 
express them — " Barbarous letters;" but nothing in the characters of the former 
has been preserved : in those of the latter, several MSS. exist in the various libra- 
ries of Europe. The Ouigour Alphabet anciently consisted of fourteen letters; but 
was, subsequently, increased to the number of sixteen. The learned M. Remusat 
has endeavoured to prove that these characters were borrowed by the Ouigours 
from the Nestorian Syrians, who about the twelfth century were dispersed over 
Tatary, as Missionaries. Unsupported by his favourite authorities, the Chinese, 
and even contrary to their sentiments, M. Remusat principally grounds his opinion 
on the resemblance exhibited between the Nestorian Syriac characters and those 
of the Ouigours. But many and strong objections may be urged against this 
hypothesis. If the Nestorians had found the Ouigours destitute of alphabetical 
characters, and had taught them their use, should we not have received some in- 
formation respecting it from the Nestorians themselves? or would not the Chinese 
Annals, so particular in recording the slightest events of Tatary, have related the 
commencement of writing among the Turks, and their adoption of alphabetical, 
though barbarous, characters ? On the contrary, the Chinese tell us the Hioung-nou 
and the Tou-lriue used the barbarous letters before spoken of, and that the Tchhe-sse 
and Hoei-he employed the same characters. Ma-touan-lin tells us, that the 
Hoei-hou had characters proper to themselves ; that the Kie'i-kia-sse, or Kirgis, 
employed similar characters, and that their language was the same as that of the 

( x ) Sou-houng-kian-lou ; a History of the Mongols, written in Chinese by Tchao-youan-phing. ap. 
Klaproth Mgm. relatifs a l'Asie. 

( xv ) 

Hoei-hou. This author, who, as a Chinese, cannot be expected to say much 
of the language or literature of " Barbarians," nevertheless gives us the" following 
account of the Tchhe-sse or Ouigours : — " The insignia of the great Officers 
are, among them, conformable to the customs of the Barbarians. The vest- 
ments of the women, and their head-dress, have some analogy with those of the 
Chinese. Their arms are, the bow and arrow, the sabre, the buckler, the cuirass, 
and the spear. Their characters are the same as those of China; but they also 
use the barbarous characters. They have the Chi-king, the Lun-iu, the Hiao-king, 
the Poets and Historians of the dynasties. Their youth, and the sons of then- 
Chiefs, are instructed in schools ; and they not only learn to read, but they also 
compose pieces in verse and poems. 11 * 

The resemblance between the Nestorian Syriac and the Ouigour characters is 
not more than would be supposed to exist between any other two Alphabets of 
common origin. It is probable that the same characters which gave birth to the 
one were also the model on which the other was formed ; and perhaps the origin of 
both may be traced to the Ancient Zend. If the Nestorians gave their Alphabet 
to the Ouigours, why was it in such a diminished form ? How did the twenty- 
two letters of the Syrians become but fourteen in the hands of the Ouigours ? 
And how has it happened, that so singular a phsenomenon in the history of 
language has arisen — an Alphabet passing by itself? The learned Orientalist has 
himself observed, that the adoption of the Alphabet of one nation in preference to 
that of another indicates a tendency to the imitation of that particular nation, 
which ultimately will be strengthened and increased 1 . How is it, then, that the 
Ouigours received nothing but an Alphabet from the Nestorians — the people 
they imitated ? and that their language and literature were not influenced ? 
When, in after times, the characters of the Arabians were adopted by the Turks, 
and their ancient Alphabet was rejected, the case was very different ; their litera- 
ture and their language were most sensibly affected, and all the usual attendants 
of that demonstration of preference ensued. 

The resemblance of the Zend to the Ouigour seems greater than that of the 
Syriac : and when we remember the relations which the ancient followers of 
Zerdusht had with Tatary, if it was not the original seat of their religion, it does 
not seem so improbable that the Zend and Ouigour characters had a community 
of origin. The resemblance of the Syriac and the Ouigour is more apparent than 
real : the resemblance of the Ouigour and Zend is more real than apparent. In 

( y ) Wen-hian-thonng-khao, K.348. K.336. p. 14. ap. Remusat, pp. 45, 69, 284. 

(*) " L' adoption de 1' alphabet d'une nation, de preference a celui d'une autre nation, n'est-elle pas 
d'ailleurs le premier signe d'une tendance a l'imitation, qu'elle ne peut ensuite que fortifier et favoriser r" 
Remwat. Rech. Disc. Prel. p. xxvii. 

( xvi ) 

the one, the dissimilarity in uniting the letters causes a page of Zend and Ouigour, 
when viewed together, not to appear to have that resemblance which a com- 
parison of the separate letters will shew them to possess. In the other, the 
junction of the letters causes an appearance of resemblance which in reality does 
not exist. The I Olaph of the Nestorian Syrian is perpendicularly formed ; that 
of the Zend and Ouigour is horizontal. The J3 Beth in Syriac is a square letter, 
formed after the Hebrew model : the Zend and Ouigour, on the contrary, are curvi- 
linearly horizontal. The Zend and Ouigour have no <jc Sad or lSj Sa, inde- 
pendent of the (^~ Sin : the Syriac has ^ . The Ouigour expresses both isj and L 
by one letter : the Syriac has two, JL- and A- The Dal in Ouigour and Zend are 
somewhat similar: in the Syriac there is no resemblance. Zain • in Syriac is per- 
pendicular : in the Ouigour and Zend it is formed by three turns of a horizontal 
line. In Ouigour and Zend the same letter represents t> j (jo and )o, and in 
Ouigour u» also; but the Syriac has * exclusive of the SO- The Syriac has the 
letters ,X Ain and v*a Cheth, which are wanting in Ouigour : and we find in the 
Ouigour MSS., written after the conversion of the Turks to Islam, that whenever 
these letters are required to represent the Arabian proper names, they use the 
letters Alif and Kof, and put the harsh Arabian letters under the line a . A very 
slight examination will shew that a greater analogy exists between - the Zend and 
Ouigour than between that and the Syriac : and we may rather conclude that the 
sixteen letters of the Ouigour either gave birth to the Zend, or were derived from 
it, than that the Nestorian Syrians carried their Alphabet, and that alone, to the 
country of the Ouigours, and there left it, without any other gift and without 
deigning any instruction in its use. 

Ahmed ben Arabshah, who wrote about 1440 A.D., describes the Ouigour 
writing then used among most of the Turkish nations as nearly as possible as 
we now have it. He says — 
si>» j \ijo-JLc- &*ij) t3±Cj jyY^o ^y^' ($k y> 3 jfi£ l _s»"*i (& flA* S?^*'' ^ 3 

x )y) JjU i ,lall JoU 3 JJ] Jju ^J^sJl <_j» «*/£yl "-J^ 1 ^ ^3 ^ flr^" ^^ 3 
f&jiJiAx*) i^uil/o j f^f &3*^.. ias 1 ' li^J j M\ i Jl^ ,1311 JLo } lila] } (: ^J'_5 
U jjy^j ^U-lj p? "is") (*>M^3 (^=^3 f*>J"^3 f&Ofj ^^°3 f>jte*) f^^*3 

( a ) See Extracts from Ouigour MSS.— Lithographic Plates, at the end of the Grammar. 

( b ) A Specimen of the Characters is given, in the original, exactly of the same form as in the 
Ouigour MSS. 

( xvii ) 

" The Jagataians have a writing named Ouigour, which is also known as the 
writing of the Mongols : it consists of fourteen consonants, of which the following 
is the division . The reason of the consonants consisting only of this numher 
is, that they write all the gutturals in the same manner. They do the same 
with the other letters which belong to similar organs; such as, v-J and i_», 
j, <-. and <j6, <*l>, d, and )o. It is with these characters that they write their 
diplomas, their edicts, their ordinances, their books, their regulations, their 
measures, their annals, their poems, histories, public and judicial acts, the prices 
fixed by the law, and, in general, all that concerns the government and the law of 
Tchingis Khan. He who is acquainted with this writing will not want among 
them, for he possesses that which is the key of wealth.' 1 

Rubruquius, and the other Missionaries who travelled into the interior of Tatary Rubruquim. 
in the 13th and 14th centuries, also speak of the language and characters of 
the Ouigours. Rubruquius gives the following account of them : — 

" Their letters," says he, " the Tartars use as well as they. They begin 
to write at the top of their paper, drawing their lines right down; and so 
they read and multiply their lines from the left hand to the right. Mangu Khan 
hath sent letters unto your Majesty (St. Louis), written in the language of the 
Moals or Tartars, but in the characters of these Jugures. The Moals received 
their letters or characters from them ; and they are the Tartars 1 principal scribes. 
The Jugures are of a middle stature, like Frenchmen. The language of the 
Jugures is the original and root of the Turkish and Comanian languages d ." 

Mohammed Kafour Khan e , a Persian author, has the following passage Mohammed 
respecting the writing of the Ouigours : Ij t$ Jj^u, *^j <*£;$ ^*" ij^- i**J 'H £ 7 I * 
e^~«1 g)j lasyL/s iJImSj ^Ix* JU- " The Ouigour writing adopted in the time of 
Oghuz Khan is the same as at present generally used in Turkistan." 

Prior to the reign of Tchingis Khan, the Mongols had no letters ; but that 
prince, after the conquest of the Ouigours, ordered them to teach the nobility and 
cliiefs of his people their Alphabetical characters : and from this we may date the 
adoption of the Ouigour Alphabet by the Mongols and Mandshus ; who finally 
made some additions and alterations, to suit the nature of their language. 

Abulfaragius, or Bar Hebraeus, records this event, in his Syriac Chronicle : — Abuifaragiiw. 
" The Mongols, having no letters to write, Tchingis Khan ordered that the . 
Ighours should teach their characters to the Tartar youth. Thus they commenced 

( c ) See preceding Note. 

( d ) Harris's Collection of Voyages, vol. I. London, 1744. 

( e ) MS. in the Bibliotheque du Roi, quoted by M. Klaproth, Mem. rel. a VAsis. 


( xviii ) 

to write the Mongol language in the Ighour characters, as the Egyptians wrote 
in those of Greece, and the Persians in the Arabian f ." 

The Chinese historians have also preserved an account of the same circum- 
stance. " At the defeat of Tayang Khan, king of the Naiman, Tchingis Khan 
made prisoner the Ouigour Tata-tounggou, who was the secretary of that prince. 
He took him into his service; and gave him the same office, ordering him to 
instruct the Mongol princes, and the chief of his nobility, in the writing, the 
language, and the laws of the Ouigours C 

The Ouigours anciently wrote in perpendicular lines, and not in the horizontal 
direction in which the manuscripts that have been preserved are found. But as 
they multiplied their lines from left to right, the direction of the writing was the 
same as at present ; and on merely altering the page to an horizontal position, 
it would be read from right to left, in the same manner as the Modern Turkish. 
It is more than probable, as the direction of the writing was the same as at 
present, the lines alone being different, that this was an imitation of the Chinese 
style of writing, and was perhaps first used in making interlinear translations 
from that language. 
On the Litera- Of the ancient literature of the Ouigours but little has been preserved : the few 

ture-ofthe . 

Ouigonrs. manuscripts in the Ouigour dialect, known to the Learned of Europe, have all 

been written since their adoption of the religion of Mohammed ; and the oldest 
manuscript we possess is not of earlier date than the tenth century. We 
have already seen the account of a prejudiced authority, the Chinese author 
a. d. 1200. Ma-touan-lin, who wrote about A. D. 1 200 ; in which he tells us, that the Ouigours 
had " the Chi-king, the Lun-iu, the Hiao-king, the Poets and Historians of the 
dynasties ;" that " their youth, and the sons of their Chiefs, were instructed in 
schools ; and they not only learned to read, but they also composed verses and 
poems." We should not have gained this confession from a Chinese author re- 
specting the literature of the Ouigours, had not its existence been too well known 
to admit of concealment : yet M. Abel Remusat h , from this same passage, draws a 
contrary conclusion : it is thus given at length by him, paraphrasing the work of 
a.d. 478. Ma-touan-lin: — " Towards the year 478 A. D., the king of the Tchhe-sse (Ouigours), 
who was named Kia, acquired great power. The people of Yerkiyang having 
been beaten by the Ye-tha, demanded of him a king ; and Kia gave them his 
second son for a Governor. This circumstance increased his influence ; and 

( f ) Asseman. Bibliotheca. Orient 7. III. Part 2. p. 470. 

(«) History of the Youan, published at Peking, 1646 : ap. M. Klaproth sur les Ouigours. 

( h ) Rem. Rech. sur la Langues Tartares, 284. 

( xix ) 

he sought to extend it by ruling his kingdom after the model of that of 
China. He had a great many Mandarins; and he established, in marriages, 
funerals, and services of the people, customs which had a great analogy with those 
of the Empire. Kia caused to be painted in his council-chamber the conversation 
between Lou and Confucius, on the art of Government. He established public 
historians, charged to take note of the events of his reign. The characters which 
his subjects made use of were the same as those of China ; but they also employed 
the ' barbarous letters.' They had the Chi-king of Mao-tchi, the Lun-iu, the book 
of Filial Obedience, and several chronicles. The sons of the Mandarins were 
assembled together in colleges, where they learned the spirit of these works. 
They were also given to poetry." M. Remusat then adds : — " The taste of the 
Ouigours for the literature of China became augmented ; and under the reign of 
Hiao-ming (515 — 528) the Ouigours sent an ambassador to demand the ' Five 515—528. 
King 1 and different historical works, They prayed the Emperor to permit a 
doctor of the Imperial College, named Lieou-sie, to visit their country, to teach 
them the elements of the letters ; which was accorded them. 1 ' 

Instead of these extracts proving, as the learned author who quotes them sup- 
poses, that the Ouigours were not then a literary people, they seem rather to 
indicate that they were a people possessed of that relish for literature which its 
study and cultivation alone can give. By the same reasoning as M. Remusat 
draws his inference respecting the Ouigours, we might attempt to prove that the 
French and English have no literature, because they are represented, in the Annals 
of the Celestial Empire, " to have sent to China for the Chi-king, the Lun-iu, and 
the Annals of the Empire.' 1 Or if it is discovered that we are stated " to use the 
Chinese characters, and also our own barbarous letters, 11 what conclusion must we 
draw ? Not certainly that of M. Remusat ! Besides, unfortunately, in the Chinese 
author himself we find a slight discrepancy : probably in page 1 5 he had forgotten 
his statement in page 14. In the one, he tells us that the characters they made 
use of " were the same as those of China," but that they also employed the "bar- 
barous letters t" in the other, the same people are represented demanding a doctor 
of the Imperial College to teach them " the elements of the letters. 11 

A striking proof of the existence of ancient Ouigour Annals is exhibited in the 
identity of the relations preserved by the Chinese and Persians — two people whose 
intercourse has never been such as to admit of our believing that the one was 
indebted to the other for its information. This is fully illustrated by two extracts 
given by M. Klaproth; the one from the Chinese, the other from the Per- 
sian; which are singular specimens of the ancient traditions of the Ouigours. 

( xx ) 
The following is the translation of a fragment from the Chinese' 

Chinese " Idoukhou is the title of the kings of the Kao-tchhang (Ouigours), who 
anciently inhahited the country of Ouigour. In this country is Khorin (Kara- 
korum, hy which all the mountains situated in the neighbourhood of the 
Orkhon, the Toula, and the Selinga, are generally designated). Two rivers here 
take their rise; the Toukhoula and the Sielinga. One night, a supernatural 
light descended upon a tree which grew between these two rivers. The in- 
habitants of the neighbourhood, repairing to it, found the tree much swollen. 
After nine months and ten days, it was delivered of five boys. The people of the 
country were full of astonishment, and brought up the new-born infants. The 
youngest received the name of Bouka Khan : he was strong and brave : the 
neighbouring people submitted to him, and he became their king. His suc- 
cessor in the thirtieth generation was Jouloun Tieghin. The account of the 
events which took place until his reign has not come to us. Jouloun Tieghin 
was very powerful and valiant : he made frequent war against the Thang 
618-907. (a Chinese dynasty which reigned from 618 A.D. to 907), who were much afraid 
of him; and sought his alliance by marriage. In fact, they affianced the 
Princess Kiu-liau with Gali Tieghin, the son of Jouloun, who lived in the neigh- 
bourhood of Khorin, in a place named Bili-Polida, or ' Mount upon which dwells 
the bride. 1 There was in this country another mountain, which bore the 
name of Tengeri-yu-takh k ; that is ' Mount of celestial right.' 1 To the south 
of this was the Khouli-takh ', or ' Mountain of goodness.' When the ambassador 
of the Thang had arrived at the frontier of the two countries, he learned that 
the prosperity of Khorin was attached to the existence of this mountain, and 
that if he could destroy it the kingdom would be annihilated. The Chinese ambas- 
sador then addressed these artful words to the king : — ' As you are the father of 
the bridegroom, I have a right to make a request of you, which you must accede 
to. The rock called the Mountain of Goodness is of no use to your kingdom : the 
Chinese desire very much to become its possessors, and they ask it of you as the 
price of the marriage.'' Jouloun agreed to his request ; but, as the rock was very 
large, it was impossible to convey it away entire. They therefore made a great fire 
around it, until they caused it to redden ; after which they poured vinegar over it, 

(') " Su-houng-kian-lou," by Tchao-yuan-phing. Sec. xxix. fol. 14, verso ap. M. Klaproth sur les 

( ) clL &£ X> Tengriyeh tagh, in Osmanli, " The mountain towards heaven." 

(') silb it)1 Eiuli tagh, " The mountain of goodness." 

( xxi ) 

which caused it to shiver into small fragments, with which they loaded chariots to 
transport them. After the departure of the Mountain of Goodness, the birds and 
the animals of the country lost the faculty of motion, and sent forth cries which 
announced the greatest disasters. Jouloun Tieghin died seven days after : innu- 
merable calamities and troubles afflicted the country; and, after several generations, 
the increase of these calamities forced the inhabitants of the country to expatriate. 
They settled in the neighbourhood of Kiao-tcheou, or Ho-tcheou (100 li to the west 
of the town of Tourfan). Their principal establishment was at Bish-balik. To the 
north they extended as far as the River Ashou : to the south they had the Chinese 
Principality of Thsieou-thsiuan-kiun : to the east they were the neighbours of the 
Goudoun-Gachiklua; and to the west, of the Sifan (Tibetians)." 

The Persian version of this tradition, preserved by Alaeddin m , is as follows :— Persian 
■ At Koumlandgou, a place situated at the confluence of the rivers Tougola 
and Selinga, which have their source in the mountains of Kara-korum, 
there were two neighbouring trees; the one named Fistouk, like a pine, the 
foliage of which resembled that of a cypress, with fruit of the form and 
savour of the pine-apple ; the other was a birch-tree. The two trees were much 
swollen ; and were illumined by a celestial light. Continuing to increase, they 
became like a mountain, and emitted harmonious sounds. Every night they were 
surrounded by a vivid light, to the distance of thirty steps. When they arrived at 
their utmost size, an opening became visible, with five chambers similar to tents, 
surrounded by a cord of silver ; in each of which a child was seated, fed by means 
of a tube suspended above its mouth. The Chiefs of the tribes, struck with astonish- 
ment, came to admire, and pay adoration to these prodigies The five children 

were treated by the people of this country with the respect they paid to their 
kings. The eldest was named Sounkour-tekin ; the second, Koutour-tekin ; the third, 
Boukak-tekin ; the fourth, Or-tekin ; and the fifth, Boukou-tekin. The Ouigours, 
persuaded that they were sent from Heaven, resolved to elect one of them for 
their sovereign. Boukou seemed to them to be endowed with the greatest beauty, 
spirit, and capacity ; he was also well versed in languages : the Ouigours chose 
him for their Khan, and placed him upon the throne with great rejoicings. 

At this time, Boukou Khan had a new dream : he saw a 

man dressed in white, holding in his hand a baton of the same colour, who gave 
him a fragment of jade in the form of a pine, and said : ' If you can preserve 
this stone, you will rule over the four regions of the globe.' 

( m ) The Vizier Alaeddin, author of the ^\&S ^lya- f.j3 

( xxii ) 

Boukou Khan was succeeded by one of his sons. In his reign, the domestic and 
wild animals, and the very infants, were heard to utter the sounds, Getch ! getch .' n 
'Fly! fly!' Warned by this signal, they quitted their habitations, and emi- 
grated: but at every place where they stopped, they heard the same sounds; 
until they arrived at the place where Bish-balik was built, where these sounds 
ceased. They established themselves in this place, and built five quarters, to 
which they gave the name of Bish-balik, or ' The Five towns.' " 

A comparison of these traditions will be sufficient to prove their derivation 
from a common source, and that both the Chinese and Persian authors must have 
drawn their accounts from the same materials — the Ouigour Annals. No two 
nations, as unconnected as the Chinese and the Persians, could have agreed 
in the manufacture of such an extraordinary recital. The position of the Ouigours 
between the Toula and Selinga — the descent of the luminary upon the tree — the 
birth of five children, the youngest of whom, named in the one Boukou, in the 
other Bouka, is elected king — the dependence of the kingdom on the preservation 
of a rock or stone — the disastrous cries of the animals — and the emigration of 
the people to Bish-balik — all but the first and last being fabulous, are such a 
series of events as no two authors, unless they derived their materials from a 
common source, could coincide in imagining. 
Their Religion. The Religion of the Hoei-hou was, in their more ancient times, the same as that 
of the Hioung-nou ; but Buddhism appears to have also made some progress 
among them. A Chinese who travelled into the country of the Hoei-hou, about 

a.d. 981. A.D. 981, tells us that in their capital there were many temples of Fo, and that they 
had also some temples of the Moni, or priests of Pho-sse, who were no doubt the 
followers of Manes and Zoroaster, whom persecution in their native country had 

A. D. 728. driven into Tatary. About A. D. 728, a part of the Hoei-hou, together with several 
other Turkish tribes who had advanced towards the west, adopted the faith of 
Islam, which was carried by many of them into their native country °. At the 
same period, the conversion of the inhabitants of Samarkand was effected ; and 
from this time we may consider the greater part of the Turkish people as 

( n ) In Osmanli, J? getch is the Imperative of the Verb dA,-^r getchmek, "to fly." 

(°) From this circumstance, the Chinese called the new converts, as a jeu des mots on their name, 

1 1^1 I ^U Hoei - hoci >' signifying " returning " or " retracing their steps ;" and the abbreviation of this 
into -T \tt\ Hoei-tseu has become the designation of all the Mohammedans. 




One of the most interesting relics of the ancient Turks is the Tchagh, or 
Cycle of Twelve Animals, of wliich either the Ouigours or a kindred nation — the 
Kirghis — were the inventors. This Cycle was composed of the names of Twelve 
Animals ; which have been preserved by Uloug Beg, a descendant of Timour, 
who lived in the 15th century. They are as follow :— 

Cycle of 



JL»J Kesku, The Mouse. Preserved in the Turkish of Siberia, Kouska. 

t,1 6t, The Ox. Osmanli, jS } \ Okiuz. 

\ The same in the Osmanli. 
, jh.I) Bars, The Leopard. < 

*■'-'• ^Kasan, ^p Bars. 

^jlSUjUa Taushkan, The Hare. Osmanli, ^lijlL Taushan. 

^yy Lout, The Dragon. 

^Ixi Yilan, The Serpent ^h Han. 

— a 
JoV Yunad, The Horse. cu I ^k Yeni at, a Young Horse. 

^J Km, The Lamb. *-Sj}* K u ?i- 

jks^i Fitchin, The Ape. **!.jyi Buzineh. 

, ;v>li> Dakouk, or? ■ -.•'•■ 

^" \ The Fowl Jjlls Taouk. 

;-.!j Daouk, 3 

(j^ol -ft, The Dog. The same in the Osmanli. 

jjtjds Tonghouz, The Hog. Osmanli, ^SjL Donuz. 

The Chinese, the Mongols, the Tibetians, the Japanese, the Persians, and the 
Mandshus, have all adopted this famous Cycle ; and, in translating the names into 
their own languages, have carefully preserved the order of the animals. To these 
animals not only are the years of the cycle regularly appropriated, but each day, 
and even the hours, have some of their characteristic attributes, real or fictitious, 
assigned to them. With the assistance of this cycle we are enabled to discover 
and correct errors in the chronology of the Eastern nations ; and thus M. Remusat 
has shewn that Petis de la Croix is always mistaken a year in his life of Tchingis 
Khan. The selection of animals is most curious ; but their utility, as a species of 
memoria technica, is indisputable. In this respect, the Cycle of Animals is far 
superior to the insignificant letters which the Cliinese have devoted to the same 
purpose ; which have no characteristic attributes, and wliich, consequently, are of 
very unequal value in multiplying the resources of the astronomer and historian. 

( xxiv ) 

Seijukians. After the dissolution of the empire of the Hoei-he, many of the Turkish tribes, 
following the example of their brethren who had previously quitted their native 
countries, advanced towards the west ; and their Chiefs soon became the possessors 

a.d. 1028. of the thrones of Persia, Arabia, Egypt, and Syria. In the year 1028, the cele- 
brated Mahmoud of Ghizni, son of Sebektegin, founded the dynasty of the 
Ghaznaviah, which ruled in India and Persia during a period of 155 years. It was 

a.d. 1090. in the reign of the first prince of this dynasty, that the family of Seljuk, together 
with many other Turkish tribes, entered Khorassan. Seljuk was the son of the 
chief Minister of the Turkish Sultan Bigou, sovereign of Kaptchak : according to 
the Persian authors, he was a descendant of Afrasiab, king of Touran. The father 
was renowned for wisdom and bravery ; but dying while his son was very young, 
the Sultan, in expectation of repairing the loss he had sustained in so faithful a 
Minister, had Seljuk educated, and conferred on him the title of " Bassatchi,' 1 
or Captain. The youth soon shewed himself of superior mind ; and being both 
brave and wise, he became a great favourite with the Sultan, by whom he was 
elevated to the highest rank. Seljuk, presuming perhaps too much on the favour 
of his master, on one occasion forgot the respect due to his station ; and the Sultan, 
beginning to dread the power of his Minister, formed a plan for his destruction. 
Seljuk gained intelligence of the Sultan's design ; but determined, though powerful, 
not to turn his arms against his late benefactor, he hastily collected together the 
whole of his tribe, who were much attached to their young Chief, passed the 
Gihon, and established himself in the countries of Samarkand and Bokhara, where 
they became converts to the faith of Islam. Under the standards of their 
valiant Chiefs, the tribes of the Seijukians became renowned among the nations of 
Asia. They extended their dominion from China, over Anatolia, Syria, Persia, and 
Egypt : and when, by the death of Malek Shah, the union of this mighty empire 
was dissolved, the Princes of the House of Seljuk founded the separate but powerful 

A.D. 1102. kingdoms of Iran, Kerman, Syria, and Roum. The kingdom of Roum, or Iconium, 
was the most famous of these Principalities ; and eventually extended from the 
banks of the Euphrates to the vicinity of Constantinople, and from the Black Sea 
to the confines of Syria, with Nice for its capital. After the conquests of the 
Crusaders had obliged Soliman to forsake this city, the royal residence was fixed 
at Iconium ; which continued for nearly a century and a half to be the chief seat of 
the Seljukian Princes of Roum, until the irruption of the descendants of Tchingis 
Khan overturned their empire. 
Tchingis Khan, The un j on f the Turks of Tatary with the tribe of Mongols, in the reign of 
1162-1227. Tchingis Khan, gave rise to that invincible power which, under that prince and 

( XXV ) 

his successors, shook the kingdoms of Asia and Europe to their foundations, and 
overturned so many of the Eastern thrones. Of this assemblage of the nations of 
Central Asia the Turks formed the most numerous and most powerful portion; 
for although the princes were Mongols, the great mass of the people were of 
Turkish origin. Jaghatai, one of the sons of Tchingis, was constituted monarch 
of Mawara'nahar, or Independent Turkistan : from him the Orientals have called 
the country Jaghatai. Khorassan, Persia, and India, became the possessions 
of Tuli Khan. Batu ruled the countries bordering on the Caspian ; while the 
Imperial horde, with the Mongols Proper, and their Chinese conquests, were 
governed by Oktai Khan. In the year 1 302, Gazan Khan, one of the successors of a. d. 1302. 
Tchingis, entirely destroyed the Seljukian kingdom of Roum, which had been pre- 
viously shaken by the power of the Mongols ; and thus was the last of the 
Seljukian kingdoms annihilated. 

The Seljucides gave birth to the Patzinaks, the Petchenegues of the Russian p*^ 1 "' or 
Annalists, whom M. Abel Remusat considers identical with the Kangar or Kangli. 
Towards the end of the ninth century, they occupied the countries between 
the Don and the Danube, and were the terror of the Greeks, Bulgarians, Khazars- 
Hungarians, and Russians. 

In the eleventh century, the Komans, uniting with the Ghuz or Ghaz, known to Komaiu, and 
the Greeks and Latins as the Uzes, and to the Russians and Poles under the name 
of Polowzer, acquired a formidable power. They occupied the country between the 
Wolga and the Danube. The Ghuz were a nation who invaded Khorassan in the 
year 1034 A.D., but were defeated by Mahmoud the Ghaznevide. About A.D. 1050, 103^1^050 
they entered Mesopotamia, and took the city of Mosul : they were however 
obliged, by the Khalif, Caiem Bemrillah, to retire to the mountains of Azarbijan 
or Media. In 1170, during the reign of the SeJjucide Sultan Sangiar, they a.d. mo. 
established themselves in the province of Badakhshan, which was occupied as 
far as Balkh by 40,000 families. They were formidable to the Greeks and 
Russians during the eleventh and twelfth centuries, but were destroyed by the 
Mongols in the thirteenth. The Komans took refuge in Hungary. Separated 
from the great mass of their race, they have forgotten their language ; and their 
descendants of the present day speak nothing but Hungarian. The Kangli, the 
Patzinaks, and the Komans, spoke the same dialect ; of which few remains have 
been preserved, but still sufficient to enable us to conclude that it was not very 
different from the dialect of the Osmanlis. In the modern language of Hungary, 
traces may yet be found of the Turkish language ; and an extensive Vocabulary 
might be formed of words which have been introduced into the Hungarian, from 
that language. 


( xxvi ) 
The Foundation The ruins of the Seljukian kingdom of Roum formed the foundation of that of 

of the Ottoman J ° 

Empire. the Ottomans or Osmanlis. The history of their origin is variously related ; hut 

it seems that we must consider them as descended from the nation of Ghuz or 
Oghuzians, known to the Greeks and Latins under the name of Uzes. A branch 
of this nation, about the time of the irruption of Tchingis Khan, joined the 
fortunes of the Turkish Sultan of Iconium. During the revolutions of Asia Minor, 
they established various little Principalities ; and, while the Mongols were in pos- 
session of the plains, were sheltered among the mountainous districts, The first 
independent Chieftain of this people was Osman or Othman, who has given his 
name to his descendants. He was the son of Togrul, a Turkish Chief, who, like 
himself, had been distinguished in the army of the Sultan of Iconium. The anni- 
hilation of the Seljukian dynasty, the decline of the power of the Mongols, and the 
weakness of the Grecian Empire, were favourable to his independence and suc- 
cess. The political errors of the Greeks unlocked the passes of Mount Olympus, 
and invited him to descend into the plains of Bithynia. On the 27th of July, in 
a.d. 1299. the year 1299 of the Christian aera, Othman first invaded the territory of Nico- 
media. The conquest of Prusa, or Bursa, was effected by the valour of his son 
Orkhan ; and from this conquest, says a learned and elegant Historian p , " we may 
date the true aera of the Ottoman empire." The city, by the labours of Orkhan, 
assumed the appearance of a Mohammedan capital : a mosque, a college, and a 
hospital of royal foundation, were among the benefits it received from the 
change of masters. The Seljukian coin was disused, and the name of the new 
dynasty substituted in its stead ; and the most skilful professors of human and 
divine knowledge attracted the Persian and Arabian students from the ancient 
schools of Oriental learning ". 
A. D. From this period the Turks began to acquire a firmer footing, both in Asia 

1 ^firt 1 IRQ 

' and Europe. The conquests of Murad, or Amurat I., rendered him master of the 
whole of Thrace, from the Hellespont to Mount Hsemus : the Sclavonian provinces 
between the Danube and the Adriatic submitted to his power : and though the 
fortunes of his successors were momentarily obscured by the ascendancy of 
Timour, the glory of the Ottomans revived again, with redoubled splendor, in his 
a.d. 1453. descendants ; until the conquests of the illustrious Mohammed II. securely 
placed the Ottomans in their European possessions. 

Having thus taken a slight survey of the rise and progress of the Turkish race 
until the establishment of their power in Europe, and having sketched such an 

C) Gibbon. (i) Ibid. Cantemir. p. 71. 

( xxvii ) 

outline of the nations of Tatary who have ceased to exist, as will tend to prevent 
our falling into error respecting them, we can now with greater accuracy proceed 
in the examination of the language and literature of their descendants. With 
this for my principal object, I have, throughout, endeavoured to compress the 
historical relations as much as the nature of the subject would allow ; and have 
merely given such details as were less generally known, and yet essential to our 
forming correct notions of the subject. 

The result of our examination of the historical fragments that have been pre- 
served relating to the nations of Tatary who have ceased to exist, leads us to 
consider the languages spoken by the Hioung-nou, the Tou-kiue, the Hoei-hou, 
the Seljucides, the Patzinaks, and the Romans, as sister dialects. Of these, 
however, we have few data to guide us to just conclusions concerning their 
degree of analogy ; and when we have proved that each of them formed part of 
the Turkish family, we have done almost as much as our materials allow. 

The language of the Turkish race, which is at present spread over so extensive 
a portion of the earth, is spoken by nations, for the most part, independent 
of each other, of very different grades in the scale of civilization, and whose 
relations with surrounding people have differed according to their relative 
positions. The Turkish language, acted upon by such varieties of situation at 
present, consists of ten divisions or dialects ; — the Ouigour, the Jaghataian, the 
Kaptchak, the Kirghis, the Turcoman, the Caucaso-Danubian, the Austro-Siberian, 
the Yakoute, the Tchouvache, and the Osmanli r . These divisions of the Turkish 
language comprise all the dialects which are at present known to exist ; and one 
or other of these is spoken by almost every nation between the Mediterranean 
and the frontier of China — between the utmost extremity of Siberia and the 
borders of India. In Egypt, in the states of Barbary, in the Levant, at the 
Court of Tehran, and in the northern and western provinces of Persia, the 
Turkish is the ruling language. In the widely-extended dominions of the Sultan, 
throughout the greater part of Tatary, and the extent of Siberia, the Turkish 
language, in one or other of its dialectical variations, is the mother tongue of 
the inhabitants ; and whether the relations of diplomacy, the transactions of 
Commerce, or the inquiring eye of Science, prompt our intercourse with these 

( r ) In this division, I have followed that of M. Balbi in his Atlas Ethnographique. It seems more just 
than M. Jaubert's classification of the Turkish Dialects into Turkish, Yakoute, and Tchouwache ; or 
M. Remusat's, of Ouigour, Tchakhatean, or Boukharian, Turkish of Kasan, and Astrakhan, and that of 
Constantinople. — Balb. Introduction, p. 147. Rech. 249. 

( xxviii ) 

Or the Lan- 
guage of the 
Ouigours since 
their Conver- 
sion to Mo- 

countries, a valuable and almost indispensable requisite is a knowledge of the 
Turkish language. 

The dialect of the Turkish called Ouigour may be considered as the most learned 
of the ancient Turkish idioms ; and being the language of a people who possessed 
the art of writing from an ancient period, and who early cultivated literature, 
it presents an interesting object, in examining the language and literature of the 
Turkish race. The Ouigour is still the language of the inhabitants of the coun- 
tries between Kashgar and Kamoul ; and the learned M. Klaproth has given 
a Vocabulary of eighty-seven words, which he obtained from the mouth of a 
native of Tourfan, whose mother tongue was the Ouigour. The differences 
existing between the Ouigour dialect and that of the Osmanli are, for the most 
part, such as the relative situation of the two people would lead us to expect. 
The language of the Ouigours, the primitive dialect, has been but little subject 
to foreign influence. The Osmanlis, in their rise and progress, as in their settle- 
ment in Europe, have had constant and continued connexions with other nations. 
In the Ouigour, the principal vestiges of the exercise of foreign influence may be 
traced to the vicinity of the Chinese ; but to so small an extent has this influence 
been exercised, that, except in some compositions, written expressly in imitation 
of the style of China, it is scarcely discoverable. The adoption of the religion of 
Mohammed might contribute somewhat to affect it, by the introduction of words to 
express the ideas of their new theology : but as the Koran reached the Ouigours 
by means of Missionary efforts, their conversion did not produce such changes as 
were effected in the language of those tribes who sought the religion of Islam 
in the country of its birth. The ancestors of the Osmanlis, on the contrary, 
advancing into the countries of Persia and Arabia, there received the faith of 
Mohammed immediately from its professors. With the religion of the Persians 
and Arabians, some portions of their languages were acquired ; and the adoption 
of the Alphabetical characters of their preceptors rendered the introduction of 
words more easy and frequent. The political relations of the Osmanlis with the 
west, and their long residence in Europe, have succeeded to this : and if there 
are variations and differences between the dialects of Tourfan and Constantinople, 
we may trace most of them to one or other of the preceding causes. But while 
the Osmanli has been thus enriched and improved, in point of vigour and simpli- 
city it is perhaps surpassed by the Ouigour : and although we must award the 
palm of refinement to the former, the latter must be considered as the purest of 
the Turkish dialects ; and, as a specimen of the ancient state of the language, it is 
not unworthy of attention. 

( xxix ) 

The Ouigour dialect, though superior in simplicity to the Osmanli, is however Of the nature 
much inferior in beauty and exactitude of expression. The Verb in the Ouigour is 
not subjected to that mechanism which renders the nicety of expression so great 
in the dialect of Constantinople. The Affirmative, the Active, the Passive, and the 
Negative, appear to be the only forms of the Verb known to the Ouigours. They 
are strangers to the composition of Impossible, Reciprocal, Causal, and Personal 
Verbs, formed by the insertion of a letter or a Particle between the radical and its 
termination, which constitutes so material a feature in the Osmanli. The Impe- 
rative is the root from which the Simple Tenses are formed : the Compoimd are 
unknown : and the only Tenses an Ouigour Verb appears to be susceptible of, are 
the Present and the Preterite. The Verb Substantive in the Ouigour is not an 
Auxiliary ; it is always employed alone ; and is never found performing those im- 
portant offices which have been assigned to it by the Osmanlis. The Infinitive is 
terminated by J^> male, the rejection of which gives the Imperative. The Prete- 
rite is formed by adding to the Imperative the Particle *j<3 dim, answering to the 
Preterite in *•$ dum of the Osmanli ; and the mode of forming the Persons of the 
Verb is the same as in that dialect. The Particles in j ur and (jl** mish, and the 
Gerunds in ^S ken, <-— ^, ib, and «-Jj ub, are also frequently employed. The Nume- 
rals offer a strong proof of the Ouigour being the primitive dialect, by giving the 
etymology of the Numeral Adjectives at present employed by the Osmanlis, the 
origin of which is undiscoverable in their own language. Thus, in the Turkish of 
Constantinople, as in Ouigour, •/*» sekiz is " eight," and ^1 6n "ten;" but "eighty" 
is, in the former, i j>»^ seksen, while in the latter it is ij^j^ sekizdn, literally 
" eight, ten." The same occurs in the subsequent numbers ; the Ouigour shewing 
the derivation, which elision has rendered undiscoverable in the Osmanli. 

In the dialect of the Osmanlis, the Conjugation is executed throughout by the 
aid of the Verb Substantive and the Defective Verb *j1 im, which correspond 
entirely to our idea of Auxiliaries. Each of the Tenses is formed by uniting to the 
Verb, either in its Imperative state or in the form of a Participle, the Tenses of these 
Auxiliaries. +JS kilurum,"\ do," * Jolts' kilur idum, J^)^» kilur imishem, " I did, 11 
*»xl» kildum, j, Aljl \jZJj> kilmish dldum," I have done," are all formed in this manner ; 
and are, when analysed, ^1* kilur, " doing" *! im " I am ;" J& kilur, " doing " *&>} 
idum " I was." This fact produces a singular anomaly, in comparing the Ouigour 
with the Osmanli. The Ouigour Inflexion, with regard to the Simple Tenses 
which it employs, is executed exactly in the same manner as that of the Osmanli ; 
which even appears more distinctly, on account of elision being less used. 
rtj^? kilurim is, in Ouigour, " I do," or literally " Doing I am ;" *> jJuw kildim 

( XXX ) 

Of the Litera- 
ture of the 
Ouigours since 
their Conver- 
sion to Mo- 

Destruction of 
the Library of 
the Ablai-yin- 

'* I have done" — " to do, I have been." The singularity of this formation of Tenses 
consists in the Verb, which is used as an Auxiliary to produce it, not existing in the 
language in which it is employed. The Verb Substantive *jI of the Osmanlis 
is an utter stranger to the language of the Ouigours, and yet it is thus found 
entering into the most intimate part of their idiom. 

This forms a curious problem for the consideration of the Philologist. How, at 
what period, and from whom, have the Osmanlis derived the important addition 
which the possession of an Auxiliary Verb, and its employment in the formation of 
Compound Tenses, makes to their Grammatical system ? Or, if the Verb existed 
in the primitive dialect, why was its employment rejected ? If it had existed in the 
Ouigour, should we not have found some traces of its use ? And if at a later 
period it was adopted by the Osmanlis, how could it have been so generally 
introduced, not only into the written dialect, but even into that which is spoken 
by all classes ? 

In a language not rich in Terminations, the want of Compound Tenses consi- 
derably diminishes the resources of the writer ; who is unable to vary the turn of 
expression in his sentences, and consequently cannot avoid a certain degree of 
monotony and sameness in his compositions. In this respect, the Ouigour is 
similarly situated, but not in so great a degree, with the Mandshu and the 
Mongol. Reduced to the frequent use of Particles, the sense is kept up by a 
series of little propositions, relating the events in the order of occurrence, and 
seldom making a period until the close of the subject. But, however inelegant 
this mode of composition may be, it certainly possesses some advantages : the 
ideas are put together without confusion or inversion ; and simplicity and clear- 
ness are certainly attained, if grace and elegance are sacrificed 8 . 

The literature of the Ouigours has suffered so much from the ravages of time 
and the destroying hand of man, that but very few Manuscripts in Ouigour Cha- 
racters are known to exist in the Libraries of Europe. Of these, none can be con- 
sidered as belonging to the ancient dialect of the Ouigours ; and we must therefore 
place them among the more modern productions of that language. 

The power of the Princes of the House of Tchingis enabled them, at various 
periods, to procure large Collections of valuable Manuscripts in the different 
Asiatic Dialects ; and the Kied or Monasteries of the Lamas, so numerous in 

( s ) The author is indebted for much information on the subject of the Ouigour Dialect, to the Researches 
of the learned M. Remusat ; whose valuable work, " sur les Langues Tartares," it is much to be regretted, 
still remains incomplete. 1 


( xxxi ) 

Tatary, frequently became the depositories of these literary treasures. A prince 
named Ablai, who had amassed a vast quantity of Oriental Manuscripts, bestowed 
them on one of these monasteries ; which was named, from its founder, Ablai-yin- 
Kied. This monastery was situated a short distance from the Russian frontier, 
and was known to exist until a late period. The peaceful inhabitants were 
at length obliged to abandon their treasures ; and the place was for some time 
deserted, until the barbarism of Russia effected its total destruction. M. Sokolof, 
a young Naturalist, found the place in the possession of a squadron of Russian 
cavalry; and among the ruins he was only able to discover a few torn and 
scattered leaves, which, strewed along the damp ground, were half obliterated. 
Some of these fragments, in Mongol, Tibetian, Sanscrit, and Ouigour — some 
printed, some written in letters of gold on a paper of a blue ground — are still 
preserved in the cabinets of the curious, and are the only relics of this valuable 
library, the latest that existed in Tatary, and perhaps the most magnificent '. 

Of the Ouigour MSS. at present existing, the Bodleian may boast of the pos- Ouigour 
session of one ; the Bibliotheque du Roi contains two ; and a third was sent from 
Vienna to Paris, about the year 1823, by that learned Orientalist, Von Hammer. Nameh 

The MS. of the Bodleian appears to be the most ancient of these. The date of 
the transcription is A.H. 838, answering to 1434 A.D. It was from this MS. a.d. H34. 
that Hyde u gave an engraved specimen, consisting of the first page ; which he 
misnamed Khitaian, conceiving that it was the Code of Laws of Tchingis Khan. 
Sir William Jones x was equally mistaken in regard to this MS.; the writing of 
which he stated to be evidently a bad Cufic ; and the work a Mendean one, on 
some religious subject. M. Langles came nearer the truth, when he stated the 
characters to be similar to the Mongol ; but erred, in imagining he recognised, in 
the formula which is prefixed to the work, words belonging to the Mongol and 
Mandshu languages. The MS. which has given rise to these various conjectures 
is, in fact, Ouigour, both in characters and language ; and the specimen given by 
Hyde consists of the Formula with which Mohammedan works usually commence, 
the Title of the book, the Division of the work into ten parts, and an account of 
the Contents of each as far as the sixth. The words written on the margin are 
" Bakhtiar Nameh," the title. 

The writing of this MS. is perhaps the most beautiful we possess. It consists 

(') Rech. sur les Lang. Tart. 229. Commentatio de Scriptis Tanguticis in Siberia repertis. Acta 
Erudit. Lips. 1722. Mem. de l'Acad. des B. L. torn. XXX. p. 777. 
( a ) Hyde Relig. Veter. Persar. p. 552. Jenish de Fatis. Ling. Or. ■ 
( x ) Asiatic Researches, vol. II. p. 27. Rem. Rech. p. 264, note. 

( xxxii ) 

of 294 pages in folio ; and the characters and proper names are written in red. 
The style is simple and unaffected, but perfectly destitute of ornament ; and the 
frequent tautological repetitions and pleonasms, with which it abounds, shew that 
exactitude of expression was more the aim of the author than elegance of compo- 
sition. The subject of the Bakhtiar Nameh is well known, from the Persian version : 
the events are probable, and well contrived ; and, as a work of fiction, after the 
model of the East, it is not often surpassed. But though this may give it no 
claim to a great attention at the hands of the Learned, yet to the Philologist, as a 
specimen of a little-known language, it is far from being destitute of interest. 
Miradg, and The MS. of the Bibliotheque du Roi is a folio, consisting of 231 leaves, beauti- 

Tezkere'i Evlia. * ° 

fully written in Ouigour characters ; and contains two works on the subject of 
Mohammedan Theology — the Miradg, or History of the Ascension of Mohammed ; 
and the Tezkere'i Evlia, the Legends of the Mussulmen Saints. The date of the 
a.d. 1436. transcription of these MSS. is A.H. 840 (1436 A.D.) ; and they are probably some 
of the earliest literary efforts of the new converts in their adopted faith. Neither 
of these works can be considered as of great interest, except in a philological 
point of view. They offer no specimen of the literature of the Ouigours them- 
selves ; as the transcriber tells us, in his Preface, that the Miradg is a translation 
from the Arabic, and the Tezkere'i Evlia from the Persian. The Grammatical 
principles of the Ouigour, in these works, are however unchanged ; and present 
the same simple dialect to which we have before alluded. 
Kaondat-k<m- The MS. of the Kaoudat-kou-bilik, "or Science of Government," sent by Von 

bilik. t t * 

Hammer to Paris, is of very superior interest to any of the preceding. As a 
specimen of the original literature of its age, this work is most curious. From a 
passage which is found in the manuscript, it appears that this work was com- 
a.d. 1069. posed about A.D. 1069; corresponding to the beginning of that bright period 
when the Seljukians were masters of Iran, and Alp Arslan was seated on the 
throne. Its transcription is dated A.H. 843., corresponding to the year 1459 of 
the Christian aera. The manuscript consists of ninety-three folio leaves of cotton 
paper, but the writing is not so beautiful as that of the other manuscripts. In 
various parts, some early possessor has given interlinear translations of words in 
Persian and Arabic ; usually marking his approbation or dissent by placing in the 
margin the words «1j " He is eloquent, 1 * or f& " He blasphemes." Even in the 
body of the manuscript, various titles and formularies are found in Arabic cha- 
racters ; which seem to prove that the work was transcribed at a time when the 
Turks had adopted the Alphabet of the Arabians, but when their own had not yet 
been rejected. 

( xxxiii ) 

The manuscript commences with two Prefaces ; one in verse, the other in prose ; 
containing the titles of the work, and the names by which it is known in Turkestan 
and the neighbouring countries. With the exception of the one Preface, and the 
Table of Contents, it is entirely written in verse ; always rhyming, and containing 
an equal number of syllables. This work seems to make some approach towards 
Dramatic composition; and in the Preface, the author gives his list of the 
dramatis personae. He tells us : " The work is divided into four principal parts : 
the first, relative to the Administration of Justice ; the second, concerning the 
Executive Power, or Force of the Empire ; the third, the Intelligence ; the fourth, 
Moderation. These four qualities are represented under the names of four 
persons. Justice, or the Rising Sun, is represented under the name of Ilek y , or 
the King. The Executive Power, or the Full Moon, is represented by Orkhtour- 
mish, or the Vizir. Oktoulmish, the son of the Vizir, personates Intelligence ; and 
Moderation is figured by Otkhourmish, the Vizir's brother. These persons hold 
counsel, and discourse with one another by question and answer. 1 '' — After the 
prose Preface, and its translation in verse, follows the Table of the Seventy-two 
Chapters. These are frequently very difficult to be understood ; and the meaning 
of some it is impossible to discover. For the translation of the Table of 
Chapters, and the analysis of their contents, which is subjoined, I am indebted to 
M. Amedee Jaubert*, whose known attainments in the Turkish language and 
its dialects need no commendation from me. Those titles to which an asterisk 
is attached are considered as of doubtful sense ; and some few are so incompre- 
hensible as to render their being left as lacunae unavoidable. 

Chap. I. — The praises of God the Most High and Most Glorious. 

In this the author celebrates the omnipotence, the goodness, and the wisdom of the 
Creator, and implores his mercy. 

Chap. II — The panegyric of Mohammed Mustafa, the Prophet of God. 

Mohammed is here considered as the most perfect of created beings, the lamp of the 
universe illuming the whole world, without whom nothing could exist or prosper. 

Chap. III. — The panegyric of the Four Companions of the Prophet. 

Chap. IV. — The panegyric of the Khan reigning in the Khanat of Bokhara. 

The panegyric of the Khan commences by a poetical description of the Spring, of 

( y ) Ilek is the name of a Khan of Kashgar, who lived in the fourth century of the Hejira. 
(*) Notice d'un Manuscrit Turc en Characteres Ouigours. Paris, 1825. 


( xxxiv ) 

which the following translation of a portion will give some idea ; but the beauty 
of its imagery and style are lost in the difference of our idiom. 

" The breeze of Spring has blown from the quarter of the rising sun, and the road of 
Paradise is opened beneath its feet. The earth is covered with verdure, adorning the 
whole world : the sun has shone forth in all his splendor, in passing the tail of the Fish, 
in front of the Ram : the shrivelled trees are again clothed with foliage : all Nature is 
adorned : all things have again taken their most vivid colours. With the zephyr and 
the verdure, the Caravan of Khathai is arrived in Tabakhtchan. The flowers spring up 
by myriads : the rose expands itself: the camphire-tree and the Aiat have recovered 
their foliage. The morning breeze is perfumed with the scent of the violet : the buds 
spring forth from the branch. The wild fowl, the doves, the khalkhak, and the 
paroquet, essay their powers : the one flying towards the summits of the mountains ; 
the others construct their nests : these dart towards their prey, while those quench their 
thirst by the rivulet. The crane utters her piercing cries ; the joyful partridge flies 
towards the Kizil Ghazi Khan, to the eyebrows always black." — " May the life of this 
prince," adds the author, " be lengthened, as that of Lokman the Wise !" 
Chap. V. — The description of the Seven Planets, the Four Elements, and the 
Twelve Signs of the Zodiac. 

The author, in this chapter, attributes various properties to the stars, which, he adds, 
rule the destiny and guide the way of man. The first of the Planets is named 
Sekentis, or Zohal, Saturn, whose revolution occupies two years, eight months, and a 
week. Following him is Okhi, Jupiter : his revolution is performed in two years and 
two months wanting a week. Jourout is Mars, whose influence is said to prolong the 
life of man. Ishik is the Sun ; Sebit, Venus ; Tilek, Mercury. The Moon is consi- 
dered as an inferior planet, and becomes full when in opposition (&»Aju) with 
the Sun. 

The Names of the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac are : 

1. Kouzi, the Ram. 

2. Ot, the Bull. 

3. Shentez, the Twins. 

4. Ourikh, the Crab. 

5. Arslan, the Lion. 

6. Koush, the Virgin (the bird). 

9. Oulki, the Balance. 

10. Oklik, Capricorn. 

11. Jounk, Aquarius. 

12. Balik, the Fish. 

* Chap. VI. — Definition of the sciences, and of wisdom. 

This chapter, which is very short, contains advice in the study of the sciences, and 
the practice of wisdom. 

* Chap. VII Relative to the advantages of moderation and silence. , 

The design of the author, in this chapter, is to prove the disadvantages of too 
much loquacity, and the advantages of sileDce. 

( XXXV ) 

Chap. VIII. — The author's apology for the imperfections of his work. 

Chap. IX. — To prove that a good education leads to the practice of good works. 

The scope of this chapter is, the praise of good education, the distinction between 
right and wrong, and the means of acquiring just fame. Among these means the 
author places the pursuit of literature. He tells us, that but for literature the names 
of the greatest warriors would be unknown ; and instances the creation of a celebrity 
even for an imaginary hero — Afrasiab, so famous among the Persian authors, in the 
wars between Iran and Touran. 

J 1 ^jAjkjjl *x£ &mj\ iyi JSJ^oju (_5^° {J^i*X %l ^^ J^i?^ 

" The name of this hero is mentioned in the writings of Persia ; 
" But if it were not for them, who would know any thing of him." 

Chap. X. — The utility of discernment, of wisdom, and of knowledge. 
The author in this proves that true greatness consists in learning. 

Chap XI. — Relative to the title of the work. 

The motives which produced the title of the book, Kaoudat-kou-bUik, or 
" Science of Government," are here given, and an account of the allegorical persons 

Chap. XI. — Commencement of the work, and the definition of Justice repre- 
sented by the King. 

The portrait of one of the author's allegorical representatives is introduced in this 
chapter ; and the work then proceeds with discourses and imaginary conversations, in 
which the science of Government, the duties of the Prince, and the acquisition of 
wisdom and power, are treated of. The sixty other chapters are occupied with these 
subjects : but as the bare recital of their titles will be but of little interest, I shall 
conclude my notice of this Manuscript with giving a few verses, which will afford some 
idea of the style and thoughts of its author. 

^jSk u_>i)l jLJyf <s-~^J \j$)k. 
" Politeness is the ornament of civilized man. 
" Without politeness, there is not the principle of a good education." 

" He who requires civility in another, should possess civility himself." 

( xxxvi ) 

" If thy qualities are great, humiliate thy heart, O my son '. 
" For modesty, above all things, leads to greatness." 

" Whoever possesses wisdom, possesses the foundation of all things. 
" If joined with practical knowledge, it will procure power." 

This notice, which the limits of a Preliminary Discourse have ohliged me to 
curtail, will give an idea of the nature of the Kaoudat-kou-hilik ; which is 
somewhat similar in design to the elegant work of Feriddin Attar, so ex- 
cellently translated and commented on by the learned M. de Sacy. It is much 
to be regretted that similar manuscripts, of which no doubt many are in existence 
in the public libraries of Europe, are not sought out, and recovered from the 
obscurity in which they linger ; and it is to be hoped that the learned Orientalists 
of France and Germany, to whom Ouigour Literature owes so much, will not 
relax their efforts in its cause *. 
oftheJagh*- The Jagataian dialect is the language of the greater part of Independent 

Turkestan, including Kharism and Great Bokharia, the Mawarannahar of the 
Orientals. This country, comprising some of the most delightful regions of the 
East, was the favourite residence of the Princes of the House of Tchingis and 
Timour ; who sought the repose of the beautiful valleys of Sogdiana, whenever the 
toils of war permitted. A son of Tchingis gave his name to this delightful 
territory ; and Jaghatai became the appellation of the country and the language. 
Under the patronage of Princes who were able to appreciate and knew how to 
reward the efforts of genius, the literature of Jaghatai became celebrated ; and 
though it has not equalled the Osmanli, it may justly be considered as having 
surpassed the Ouigour. 

In the most ancient state of the Jaghataian dialect, its affinity with the Ouigour 
seems to have been extremely strong ; and for some time after their conversion 
to Mohammedanism, the Ouigour Alphabet was still employed by the Jaghataians. 
The more modern writings of Jaghatai, however, approach nearer to the Osmanli ; 

( a ) See Specimen! of each of the Ouigour MSS. among the Lithographic Plates at the end of the 

( xxxvii ) 

and, with the exception of the use of harsher consonants, and the frequent employ- 
ment of the vowel letters, where the Osmanlis retain only the vowel points, there is 
but little difference in this structure of these two dialects. In the Vocabulary there 
are some material differences : the idiom of Jaghatai has retained many ancient 
Turkish words, which we may search for in vain in the language of Constan- 
tinople ; while the additions which the Osmanlis have made to their Vocabulary, 
since their settlement in Europe, are unknown in the language of Jaghatai. In 
words derived from the Persian and Arabic, they are almost equal in numbers ; 
though both, in engrafting these words into their idioms, have carefully preserved 
the principles of their Grammar, by subjecting the adopted words to the forms of 
which their own Parts of Speech were susceptible ; so that this introduction of 
words has not effected any real alteration in the language of either. The dialect 
of Jaghatai is remarkable for clearness, simplicity, and force. Its style is pure 
and unaffected. It is perfectly free from those faults which are so common in the 
writings of Persia : the Rengeni Ibarut, in which metaphor and hyperbole hold so 
conspicuous a place, is almost undis cover able in the authors of Jaghatai; and its 
manliness and unadorned simplicity remind us more of the taste of Europe, 
than of the flowery and verbose style in which the nations of Asia so frequently 

In the same manner that the name Tatar has been applied to the Turkish nations, Jaghataian 
the term Mongol has frequently been employed to express their language ; and 
many works which properly belong to the Jaghataian dialect have been so desig- 
nated. One of the most curious monuments of Jaghataian literature which has 
been thus misnamed is the Tezukat Timour, or " Commentaries of Timour." Of this Tczukat and 

Mulfuzat of 

work, as well as the Mulfuzat or " Memoirs of the same prince, we have translations Timour. 
from the Persian ; but the Jaghataian originals have not been discovered ". There 
is little doubt that Timour, who as well as his subjects were Turks, knew no other 
language than Jaghatai : and that these works were originally written "in that 
dialect, is evident, not only from the testimony of the Persian translator, but also 
from the Jaghataian verses and plirases wliich he has preserved in his version ; all 
of which, with the exception of a few names of dignities, are certainly Turkish. Sir 
William Jones tells us, that, in India, a learned native corrected his mistake, when he 
used the term Mongol to express the language in which the Tezukat was written ; 
informing him, that its proper designation was Turki. M. Remusat has even gone 

( b ) " Institutes of Timour, Persian and English, by Major Davy and Professor White. Oxford, 1 783." 
" Mulfuzat Timuri, by Major Charles Stewart. Printed for the Oriental Translation Committee. 
London, 1830." 

( xxxviii ) 

so far as to say, that he ran no hazard in affirming that not one Mongol could 
have been found in the army which, under the command of Baber, made the con- 
quest of Hindostan in the sixteenth century, and gave birth to the dynasty which 
has been so improperly named the dynasty of the Great Moguls c . 

uiugh Beg, From the reign of Timour to that of Baber, was the brightest period of Jagha- 

taian literature. The grandson of Timur, Ulugh Beg, himself a poet, was one of 
its greatest patrons. During his reign, the arts and sciences flourished, and the 
literature of Jaghatai was zealously cultivated. He built a college and observa- 
tory at Samarkand, which became one of the most celebrated in the East ; and to 
the protection and labours of this prince we are indebted for the valuable Astro- 
nomical Tables which bear his name. 

Mir au swr, But the greatest of the contributors to the literature of this country, and one of 

A.D. 1470. " . . 

its most munificent patrons, was Mir Ali Shir, whose poetical name was Nuvai d . 

He was Vizir to the Sultan Hussain Mirza, who reigned in Khorassan, and of whose 

brilliant court he formed the brightest ornament. To him the palm of excellence 

in Jaghataian verse has been unanimously awarded ; and his numerous works in 

poetry and prose have gained him that reputation as an author, which his 

merit and talents deserved. 

Baber, The Vakaet Baberi ijJj CL>USI, e , or "Commentaries of the Sultan Baber,* 1 sin- 

1494—1531. gularly analogous in style and manner to those of Caesar, is perhaps the gem of 

Jaghataian literature. The original of this interesting work has fortunately been 

preserved ; and the Library of the Honourable East-India Company possesses a 

fine manuscript of it, which formerly belonged to the late Dr. Leyden. Of this 

work we possess an English translation 1 ; but that has been made principally, I 

believe, from the Persian, as it differs in many respects from the original Jaghataian 

manuscript. This work contains the history of the author's adventurous and 

eventful career, from liis ascending the throne of his ancestors to his conquest of the 

empire of Hindostan ; and for naivett of style, and expressive simplicity, it is not 

excelled by any work of a similar nature. It may be divided into three parts ; the 

first extending from Baber's accession to the throne of Ferghana, to the time of 

his expulsion from his paternal dominions by Sheibani Khan, a period of about 

( c ) Rem. Rech. 233. 

( d ) Every Oriental Poet lias his Takhellus, or Poetical name ; which he usually introduces in the last 
verse of his compositions. 

( e ) It is also called the <!u>lj ol> Baber Nameh. 

( f ) " Memoirs of Zehir eddin Muhammed Baber, Emperor of Hindustan, written by himself; translated 
partly by the late John Leyden, M.D., and partly by W. Erskinc, Esq., 4to. London, 1826." 

( xxxix ) 

twelve years ; the second from his being compelled to quit his country, to his last 
invasion of Hindostan, a period of about twenty-two years ; and the third con- 
taining his transactions in Hindostan for about five years. Both in style and 
incident, the two first parts are much superior to the last, which partakes too 
much of the nature of a journal, in which whatever occurred, whether interesting 
or not, finds a place. But the two former portions of the work, the reminiscences 
of his youthful and adventurous days, are vivid and picturesque ; and his passionate 
fondness for the poetry of his native country frequently calls to his mind the 
verses of its Poets, suited to the varied situations in which he was placed. We 
also find him catching their inspiration; and some of his own compositions are not 
inferior to the best of his quotations. His account of the Literature of Jaghatai 
is highly interesting ; and the prince displays an acumen and critical taste in 
examining the merits of the different authors, which is frequently surprising. The 
account of the Court of Sultan Hussain " is very amusing ; and the sketch of Mir 
Ali Shir is no doubt faithful and correct. It is as follows :— " Ali Shir Beg 
Nuvai was not so much the Sultan's Amir, as his friend. In their youth 
they had been schoolfellows, and were extremely intimate. I know not for what 
offence, he was driven from Heri by Sultan Abu Said Mirza ; but he went to Sa- 
markand, where he remained for several years, and was protected and patronized 
by Ahmed Hadgi Beg. Ali Shir Beg was celebrated for the elegance of his 
manners, and this elegance and polish were ascribed to the conscious pride of 
high fortune : but this was not the case ; they were natural to him, and he had 
precisely the same manners when he was at Samarkand. Indeed, Ali Shir Beg 
was an incomparable person. From the time that poetry was first written in the 
Turki Language, no one has written so much and so well. He composed six 
Mesnavis in verse ; five similar to the Khamsah, and one like the Mantik ut Teir. 
This last he called Lissan ut Teir, ' the Language of the Birds.' He also composed 
four divans of ghazels or odes, entitled, Gheraib u Sigher, ' the Singularities 

(s) Among the musical talent of the Court, Baber gives an account of the prototype of a celebrated 
Modern Orpheus : — " Another (musician) was Hussain Audi, the lutanist, who played with great taste 
on the lute, and composed elegantly. He could play, using only one string of his lute at a time. He 
had the fault of giving himself many airs, when desired to play. On one occasion, Sheibani Khan desired 
him to play. After much trouble, he played very ill ; and besides, did not bring his own instrument, but 
one that was good for nothing. Sheibani Khan, on learning how matters stood, directed ^hat at that very 
party he should receive a certain number of blows on the neck.' — This," adds Baber, " was one good 
deed that Sheibani Khan did in his day : indeed, the affectation of such people deserves even more severe 
animadversion."— Baber's Memoirs, p. 198. 

( xl ) 

of Infancy,' Nevader Ushehab, ' the Wonders of Youth,' Bedaia ul Vaset, ' the 
Marvels of Manhood,' and Faveid ul Keber, or ' Benefits of A ge.' He likewise 
composed several other works, which are of a lower class, and inferior merit to 
these. Of that numher is an imitation of the Epistles of Moulana Abdalrahman 
Jami, which he partly wrote and partly collected. The object of it is, to enable 
every person to find a letter suited to any business on which he may desire to 
write. He also composed the Mizan al Auzan, ' the Measure of Metres,' on 
Prosody, in which he is very incorrect ; for in describing the metres of twenty- 
four rubais, or quatrains, he has erred in the measure of four : he has also made 
some mistakes regarding other poetical measures, as will be evident to any one 
who has attended to the structure of the Persian verse. He besides completed a 
divan in Persian; and in his compositions in that language, he assumed the 
name of Fani. Some of his Persian verses are not bad ; but the greater part of 
them are heavy and poor. He also left excellent pieces of music : they are 
excellent, both as to the airs themselves and as to the preludes. There is not upon 
record in history any man who was a greater patron and protector of men 
of talent than Ali Shir Beg. Usta Kuli Beg, the celebrated Sheikhi, and Hussain 
Audi, who were so distinguished for their skill in instrumental music, attained 
their eminence and celebrity by the instructions and encouragement of Ali Shir 
Beg. Ustad Behzad and Shah Muzafer owed their reputation and fame in 
painting to his exertions and patronage : and so many were the excellent works 
which owed their origin to him, that few persons ever effected any tiling like it. 
He had no son, nor daughter, nor wife, nor family : he passed through the world 
unencumbered. At first, he was Keeper of the Signet ; in the middle period of his 
life he was invested with the dignity of Beg, and held the government of 
Asterabad for some time. He afterwards renounced the profession of arms, and 
would accept of nothing from the Mirza ; on the contrary, he annually presented 
him with a large sum of money, as a present. When Sultan Hussain Mirza 
returned from the Asterabad campaign, the Beg came out of the city to meet 
him : between the Mirza's saluting liim, and his rising, he was affected with a 
sudden stroke, which prevented him getting up, and he was obliged to be carried 
off. The physicians were unable to render him any assistance; and the next 
morning he departed to the mercy of God. One of his own couplets was liighly 
applicable to his situation : 

" I perish of a mortal disease, though I know not what it is: 
" In this disease, what remedy can physicians administer ? " h 

( b ) Memoirs of Baber, pp. 184, 185. 

( xU ) 

This sketch, though shorn of its native graces in the translation, will suffice to 
shew the style of the Vakaet Baberi ; a work which may be recommended to the 
attention of the Learned, as a curious and interesting specimen of the literature 
of Jaghatai '. 

" The Genealogical History of the Turks" ^y js* <—j\j£ is another important 
work in the Jaghataian dialect. The author was Abulghazi Bahadour Khan, fjoftm 
Sultan of Kharism, who wrote about A.D. 1663. Of this work we possess no 
accurate version; and the mangled translations existing in the various languages 
of Europe afford but a very imperfect notion of the original 11 . The text of 
Abulghazi was lately edited at Kasan, by M. Fraehn. This work, as well as the 
productions of Mir Ali Shir, deserve an entire translation ; and it is to be hoped 
that the learned Academician ', who has undertaken the one, will not relinquish 
his labours until he has accomplished the other. 

The dialect to which the name of Kaptchak has been given is that of Kasan Of the Dialect 

. ° of Kaptchak. 

and Astrakhan and the neighbouring country, the inhabitants of which are the 
descendants of the numerous army of Turks who, under Batou, settled in that 
country, and formed part of the powerful empire of Kaptchak ; which, after its 
division into separate khanats, submitted to Russia, about the middle of the 
sixteenth century. Of this dialect there are several varieties, spoken by the 
different Turkish tribes, subjects of Russia, in the Governments of Tobolsk, 
Tomsk, Perm, and Orenburgh. In many of these, the mixture of the Finnish with 
the idiom of the Turks is very perceptible. The dialect of Kasan is the most 
cultivated and polished of the idioms of Kaptchak. Some works in this dialect 
have been published; and we have some interesting specimens, in the Poems 
printed at Kasan in 1820, and in the Life of Tchingis Khan and Iksak Timour, 
published by Ibrahim Ben Ishak Khalifi, with other historical documents™. 

There are two people of Turkish origin who bear the name of Kirghiz; the OftheKirghii. 
Kara Kirghiz or Burut, and the Kirghiz Kaissak. The Burut are the nomade 

( ' ) There is one passage which must be excepted, in a recommendation of this work, to which I need 
not allude. The custom of his country, or the example of greater and more learned nations, is no 
palliative, and is equally censurable in a Jaghataian or a Soman. 

( ) Sir William Jones says : " Abulghazi, King of Khwarezm, composed in the Mogul language his 
Genealogical History :" Vol. I. p. 56. — Another example of the confusion of names : the work being in 
pure Jaghatai Turkish. 

(') M. Quatremere has, I believe, undertaken a translation of Mir Ali Shir. 

( ) jlfela* *~jIs { ja>o fj0yemf*j*ktjy j jy£ tL-jJil _j ^U- j&>- Jl^sJ 8vo. Kasan, 1822. 


( xHi ) 

inhabitants of Chinese Turkestan, and possess the country between Andzidgan 
and Kashgar. The Kirghiz Kaissak, a numerous and powerful nation, divided into 
three hordes, are nominally subject to Russia, and occupy the vast tracts which 
extend from the Caspian Sea and the Lake of Aral to the frontier of China. The 
Kirghiz were anciently both a civilized and powerful nation, who cultivated 
science and literature. At present they possess nothing that can entitle 
them to any literary distinction ; and we can only view them as exhibiting that 
singular feature in the history of literature — a people retrograding. They 
are said to have possessed a peculiar character, which is supposed to be the 
same as that of the unknown Inscriptions found in Siberia, between the Obi 
and Yenesei : the invention of the Cycle of Animals is also ascribed to them by 
the Chinese n . In the seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries, the Kirghiz were called, 

by the Chinese, Qlf 4=J> ipa Ha-kia-szu, pronounced " Hakas." They suc- 
7?¥\ 22Zm Swir* 

ceeded to the power of the Hoei-he, and finally to that of the Dgoungar. Since the 

thirteenth century they are called 3S; v^ /I*/] S* Ki-li-ki-szu, which is 
pronounced " Kirkis." 

The language of the Kirghiz differs little, in its grammatical construction, from 
the dialect of the OsmanUs ; and the mass of its words is derived from the same 
source. The modern Kirghiz are represented, by M. le Baron MeyendorfF , as 
fond of poetry, and listening with delight to the romantic poems of those whose 
profession it is to recite them. A fragment of one of the Songs of the Desert, 
sung by a young maiden, is thus rendered : — " Do you behold this snow I Indeed 
my body is more fair ! Dost thou see the blood of that slaughtered lamb, sinking 
in the snow ? Indeed my cheeks are more ruddy ! Beyond tins mountain you will 
find the trunk of a scorched tree. Indeed my hair is more black. The Mollahs 
of the Sultan write much, but indeed my eyebrows are blacker than their ink." 
Another fragment is given as follows : — " Behold that aoul (an encampment), the 
possession of a man of wealth : he has but one daughter. The day she remains 
alone in her home : the night she wanders, and has no companion but the 
moon.'" How far these are faithful, I have not the means of ascertaining : and 
as they are the only specimens of the literature of the Kirghiz 1 am able to collect, 
a very high literary rank cannot be assigned them. 

( n ) Wen-hian-thoung-khao, K, 348, p. 7. ap. Rem. Recli. 301. 

(°) Voyage d'Orenburgh aBoukara en 1820, par le Baron Georges de Meyendorff. 8vo. Paris, 1 826, p.45. 

( xliii ) 

The divisions and branches of the nomade people named Turcomans are very Of the 
numerous. The five principal are the Turcomans of Independent Turkestan, those 
of Caboul, of Persia, of the Ottoman Empire, and of Russia. The first of these, 
who wander to the east of the Caspian, are independent tribes, allied to the Khans 
of Khiva, Bokhara, and Ferganah ; the most powerful of which are the tribes of 
Ersaroe, Jomoud, Koelen, and Tekeh, who are the allies of the Khan of Khiva. 
The Turcoman tribes of Caboul are governed by their own Khans, but acknowledge 
the supremacy of the King of Cab,oul. The principal are the Aimaks and the 
Hazaris, who occupy part of Afghanistan; each being subdivided into many 
subordinate hordes or tribes. 

The Turkomans of Persia are divided into forty-two numerous tribes: they 
are spread over all the northern portion of the kingdom. It was the Afshars, 
one of these, that gave birth to Nadir Shah; and another, the Kadjars, has given 
Persia its reigning monarch. The Turcomans of the Ottoman Empire consist of 
seventy-two tribes, who occupy many of the provinces of Kerman, Halep, 
Damascus, Erzeroum, Van, and other parts of the empire. The Turcomans of the 
Russian Empire are principally found in the Caucasian Government and the 
Eastern Provinces. The language of the Turcomans does not differ very consi- 
derably from the Osmanli ; and there is little doubt that, in their ancient state, 
the resemblance between the two dialects was much greater. 

The title of Caucaso-Danubian, employed by M. Balbi, is intended to include oftheCaucaso- 
the dialects of three people who speak Turkish idioms having a great affinity Dialect*" 
with each other — the Basians, the Koumuks, and the Nogais. The combination 
which produces this term was caused by the two former of these people in- 
habiting the Caucasian region ; while the third extended towards the Mouths of 
the Danube. The Basian and the Koumuk dialects are spoken in Circassia and 
Daghestan. The Basians are divided into two tribes, one of which is very 
numerous. The Koumuks are considered as the descendants of the Khazars, and 
are governed by several petty Khans. The Nogais appear to be descended from 
the Mongol race ; but their language, as well as the others, classed as Caucaso- 
Danubian, is decidedly Turkish, and bears great affinity to the dialect of Jaghatai. 

Austro-Siberian is another of the Ethnographical terms of M. Balbi, and is of the Austro- 
employed to designate those numerous subdialects of the Turkish, more or less 
corrupt, and mixed with Mongol and Samoyede words, which, with the exception 
of the Tchoulym, are spoken in the southern part of Siberia p . The principal 

(P) Balbi Introduction a l'Atlas Ethnographique du Globe. Paris, 1826. 

( xliv ) 

tribes who speak the dialects included under this term are the Tchoulym, the 
Barabinzes, the Kuznesk, the Kashkalar, the Kanzagnes, the Yarinar, the Yastalar, 
the Tubinzes, the Beltyrs, the Sayanes, the Biriousses, and the Teleutes. Many 
of these people cannot be considered as belonging to the Turkish race. The 
Tubinzes have all the traits of hyperborean descent; and the mixture of 
Samoyede words in their idiom sufficiently attests their origin. The Teleutes are 
of Mongol extraction; and are named, by the Russians, White Kalmouks. All the 
sub-dialects of the Austro-Siberian display great traces of a mixture of the 
Mongols and Hyperboreans with the Turkish race ; and we must consider many 
of the tribes by which they are spoken as people who have changed their 
language, and who, with the exception of speaking a Turkish dialect, have nothing 
in common with the Turks. 
Yakoutc. The most uncultivated, perhaps, of all the Turkish dialects is the Yakoute ; 

which is spoken by the Sokhalar, or Yakoutes, who inhabit the banks of the Lena, 
near the Northern Ocean. Separated from the body of their race, they have still 
preserved their language; and though much corrupted, the dialect of the 
Yakoute is but little different from the Osmanli. The Yakoutes are plunged in the 
depths of ignorance : they live by the chace ; and are, for the most part, idolaters. 
Tchouvache. The Tchouvaches are a numerous people in the Governments of Kasan, Wietka, 

Simborsk, and Orenburgh. Many of them are idolaters ; and offer sacrifices on a 
kind of altar, called Keremet. The language of the Tchouvaches, though it has 
been considered as belonging to the hyperborean family, is more properly classed 
among the Turkish dialects. Its Grammar approaches very nearly to the pure 
Turkish; and about three parts of its words are of Turkish origin; the rest 
belonging to the Ouralian and Samoyede languages ; and some few are entirely 
unknown. The principal essential differences between the Grammar of the 
Tchouvache and the pure Turkish dialects consists in its Plural, which is regu- 
larly formed by the addition of zam or zem, as in Osmanli by } ler, and in its Pro- 
nouns. 7, in Tchouvache, is ap or abe; in Osmanli, ^> men: but this is only in 
the Nominative, several of the Cases being formed by the use of men. The 
Conjugation of Verbs is more simple than in the dialect of Constantinople ; but 
the forms, which are three, Past, Present, and Future, are in general similar. 
The Verb Substantive is bolab, which is the same as in the Jaghataian and other 
Turkish dialects. They have no Passive ; and to express " I am desired," they 
would say man vylzam kaziavasse ; literally, " They desire me." When negation 
is required, the termination of the Verb is changed into mastap; as, kaziaradip, 
" I pray;" kaziarmastap, " I do not pray." 

( xlv ) 

The greater part of the Turks of Siberia are entirely without literature : many oftheOsmaniii. 
of them are even ignorant of the use of Alphabetical characters ; and very few 
possess any interest to arrest the attention of the curious : it is therefore with no 
feeling of regret that I turn from these barren and uninteresting regions, and 
approach towards the contemplation of the literature of the Osmanlis ; — a people 
of the same race, indeed, as those of the Northern wastes, but one whose love of 
learning, and whose efforts towards its attainment, have raised it high above the 
level of its kindred. The prejudices which have so long led us to consider the 
Turks as ignorant and unlettered barbarians are now, for the most part, happily 
removed. The age is past in which the praise a Christian people would have 
elicited would be denied to Mohammedans ; but we have still to contend with our 
imperfect knowledge of the Osmanlis, added to a certain degree of prejudice, 
arising from our education. The difference between the genius of the East and 
West is almost a barrier to our arriving at an impartial judgment on the subject 
of Oriental literature. Formed on the model of Greece and Rome — tempered by 
the nature of our climature — the literature of Europe possesses little in common 
with the offspring of Asia. The climate of the North differs not more from that 
of the Oriental regions than the literary taste of their inhabitants : the beauties of 
the one are the blemishes of the other ; and what the one admires, the other 
despises. Of all the Eastern nations, the Osmanlis have made the nearest 
approaches towards uniting the genius of both hemispheres. Situated both in 
Europe and in A sia, drawing their origin from the one, but having constant and 
continued relations with the other, they have in some measure learned to unite the 
beauties of each, and will gradually succeed in effecting a more complete union. 
But, although the difference of genius and style is thus rendered less perceptible in 
the Osmanli than in any other of the languages of Asia, it is not the less an Oriental 
idiom ; and, if we judge it by the test of the European model, we still find it, in 
many respects, not consonant to our ideas. In thus trying the literature of the 
East, however, we are subjecting it to a somewhat prejudiced judgment; for what- 
ever differs from the standard we employ, must be condemned; and but little, con- 
sequently, will escape the censure of the critic. In the physical world we judge of 
things relatively : the various species of animals we judge by themselves : we do 
not compare the ant with the elephant, or the eagle with the fly ; each may be 
excellent, nevertheless in its degree : let us not, then, follow the opposite course 
in examining the literature of nations essentially differing from each other in 
taste and opinions : let us endeavour, if possible, to eradicate this prejudice of 

( xlvi ) 

education from our minds ; and let us not hastily condemn all differing from 
that to which it has rendered us accustomed. 

There is no nation more passionately attached to literature than the Osmanlis. 
Instead of the religion they profess restraining their pursuit of knowledge, as the 
ignorant have asserted, we find their Prophet himself commanding it : — " Seek 
knowledge, 11 says he, " were it even to China. It is permitted to the Moslems 
to possess all the sciences." The mandate of the Prophet was re-echoed hy the 
Sultan. The library founded by the conqueror of Constantinople bears its para- 
phrase, as an inscription : — " The study of the sciences is a divine precept for 
true Believers." Neither the Prophet nor the Sultan has been disobeyed. The 
Osmanlis have eagerly sought science, have zealously cultivated literature ; and 
it will be the object of this part of my Essay to endeavour to shew that their 
efforts have not been entirely unsuccessful, 
of the Osmanii The dialect of the Osmanlis is the most polished of all the Turkish idioms — 
rich, dignified, and melodious : in delicacy and nicety of expression, it is not 
perhaps surpassed by any language ; and in grandeur, beauty, and elegance, it is 
almost unequalled. The perfection and regularity of its derivation, and the 
facility with which it may be performed, render it extremely adapted for colloquial 
purposes. The addition of a letter or syllable makes the Verb Passive, nega- 
tive, impossible, causal, reciprocal, or personal; and combinations of these are 
produced in the same manner, and by the same kind of mechanism. Thus, for 
example, til^*,^^ sevishdurmemek, from viLcy* sevmek, " to love," a word of 
eight letters, would require in our language ten words to express it — " to cause 
that we do not love one another mutually. 11 So, by the addition of a single 
letter, an impossibility of action will be understood : viX^^iX^^u sevishdureh- 
memek, " to cause that it be impossible for us to love another mutually." The 
derivation of the other parts of speech is not less regular : Agents, Nouns of 
action, locality, possession, Gentile or Patrial names, Adjectives, and Adverbs, 
are equally formed by the addition of a Particle to the Primitive Noun or Verb. 
In its Declension of Nouns it is similar to the Latin, possessing Five Cases, exclu- 
sive of the Vocative ; but the Osmanii Declension is more regular, the Radical 
being preserved entire throughout, and the Cases formed by Terminations 
attached. In following the natural division of Gender, the Osmanii has obviated 
that difficulty which the French and many other languages present to a foreigner, 
by the employment of arbitrary Genders : and the agreement of the Adjectives 
with either Masculine, Feminine, or Neuter Nouns, without undergoing any 

( xlvii ) 

change, greatly simplifies and facilitates the construction of sentences. The 
conjugation is rich and regular, and is principally executed by the aid of the 
Verb Substantive. But the most singular feature in the Osmanli, as in all the 
other Turkish dialects, is the inversion of phraseology which pervades the lan- 
guage : the sense of a passage, suspended throughout by the employment of the 
numerous Participles, is determined by the Verb which concludes the sentence : the 
Prepositions are subjoined, instead of prefixed : and, in construction, the governed 
precedes the governing. These peculiarities give a gravity and picturesque effect 
to the periods of a Turkish composition, which adds greatly to the dignity and 
expression of the language q . 

The Osmanlis have enriched their language by the adoption of numbers of Per- 
sian, Arabian, Greek, Italian, and other European words ; and even traces of their 

original neighbourhood to the Chinese are visible. The dignity of m j£ ^ e ^ as not 
undergone much alteration in the ti^j Bey or Beg of the Osmanlis. The standards 
formed of horsetails, named fy, are identical with the Chinese jfolj Thu. The 
mode of forming the names of Agents by the addition of ^»- tchi answers to the 
Chinese y£+ tche, subjoined to a Verb. <*ZXJii dekmek, " to attain," the radical 
of which is <l)o dele, is very similar to the Chinese ylQ te. according to the 
vulgar pronunciation dek ; but the analogy is still strong in the Agent {m /F^ ti 
dekedgi, in the Chinese ytSfjfMi te-tche or dekdge. CJlls dan, " break of day," 

"dawn," is in the Chinese r^ l tan or dan: yo »M,"water," is not very different to 

■jhfshoui: nor does Jj yaz, "summer," differ much from Jp Ma, nor £b yagh, 

" oil," from *\ {-J yeou, in the same sense r . But this introduction of words has not 

affected the least alteration in the structure of the language; and while it 
enriches- the Vocabulary, the mechanism and grammatical construction remain 

( *) Sir William Jones thus sums up the relative qualities of the Persian, Arabian, and Turkish 
languages : — " Suavitem Persica, ubertatem ac vim Arabica, mirificam habet Turcica dignitatem : prima 
allicit atque oblectat ; altera sublimits vehitur, et fertur quodammodo incitatius ; tertia elata est san£, 
sed non sine aliqua elegantia et pulchritudine. Ad lusus igitur et amores sermo Persicus, ad poemaSl 
et eloquentiam Arabicus, ad moralia scripta Turcicus videtur idoneus." Vol. II. p. 360. 

( r ) Rem. Rech. torn. I. p. 303. 

( xlviii ) 
of the Liter*- From the earliest periods of their history, the Osmanlis have devoted themselves 

tare of the Os- ... 

mwiiis. to the cultivation of literature. The last words of Othman to his son Orkhan — 

" Be the support of the faith, and the protector of the sciences " — were religiously 
observed : and no sooner had his triumphant arms planted the crescent on the 
A.D. 1336. walls of Prusa, than it was adorned with a college of royal foundation, which the 
learning of its Professors soon rendered celebrated throughout the East ; and 
students even from Persia and Arabia did not disdain to become the disciples 
of the Osmanlis ". The example of Orkhan was imitated, and surpassed, by his 
successors. Bajazet, each year of his reign, endowed an academy of science. 
Amurat, his successor, did not omit to decorate his conquests by the munificence of 
his foundations ' ; and long before Constantinople became the seat of their empire, 
the schools of the Osmanlis were both numerous and celebrated. The conqueror 
of Constantinople, Mohammed II, was one of the greatest patrons of literature that 
perhaps any age or country has produced. Learned in the languages of Asia and 
Europe, he did not confine his patronage to the productions of his own nation or 
country. The poets of Persia and Arabia, the scholars and artists of Italy, were 
alike the objects of his distinction ; and Noureddin Jami, the author of the beau- 
tiful poem of Yussuf and Zuleikha, and Philelphus, who addressed him in a Latin 
A.D. H53. ode, were equally indebted to his munificence". Two universities owe their 
a.d. 1471. existence to Mohammed II, — Aya Sofiya, and the Mohammedieh. The first con- 
sisting of six colleges, amply endowed, was furnished with the most skilful pro- 
fessors of science ; but the second, raised by Mohammed himself, was on a more 
magnificent scale. Sixteen colleges, adapted for the reception of six hundred 
students, were comprised within its compass : the most celebrated of the Osmanlis 
were numbered among its teachers, and Constantinople still considers the 
Mohammedieh one of its greatest ornaments. It has been the constant practice 
of the Ottoman Princes to attach Muderisehs (a^J^e) or colleges to the buildings 
they dedicated to the purposes of religion. More than five hundred such insti- 
tutions, each bearing the name of its founder, are still existing in Constantinople. 
In addition to these, there are a multitude of inferior schools, termed Mektebs 
(i^^LCc), in which the lower branches of education are taught ; and above thirty 
public libraries, exclusive of the mysterious collection of the Seraglio, complete 

(') Cantemir Hist Ottom. torn. I. lib. 1. p. 71. 
(') Ibid. torn. I. lib. 2. p. 266. 

( u ) Gentil BeUin, a painter, of Venice, was sent for to Constantinople, to display his art; and was 
handsomely rewarded. He drew the portrait of the Saltan. 

( xlix ) 

the literary resources of the capital, and attest the zeal and regard which the 
Osmanlis have displayed for the cultivation of literature. 

Before proceeding to survey the literature of the Osmanlis themselves, it may Foreign 
not be improper to examine to what degree they have cultivated foreign learning, 
and how far they are indebted to other nations. Notwithstanding the pride of 
ignorance, and contempt for foreign learning, usually attributed to the Ottomans, 
we find them at all periods anxiously seeking the enrichment of their literature 
from the stores of other countries. In the reigns of the early Sultans, when the Greek and 


whole range of classic literature was in their hands, many of the authors of 
Greece and Rome assumed a Turkish dress. A Turkish version of Plutarch's 
Lives, made by command of Mohammed II., is known to have existed : the Com- 
mentaries of Caesar became accessible to the Osmanlis in the reign of Soliman I. ; 
and Aristotle and Euclid are also found in their language. These works 
are known to have been translated into Turkish; but it cannot be supposed 
that they were the only monuments of classical antiquity that attracted the 
attention of these enlightened princes ; and it is not even now impossible that 
some of the long-lost fragments of classic literature may yet be recovered from 
the versions of the Osmanlis. Even in modern times they have not failed to Modem 
procure translations from the works of various European nations. The Sultan 
Mustafa III. introduced the " Prince" of Machiavel to the Osmanlis ; not however 
omitting, at the same time, to annex its refutation — the " Anti-Machiavel ? of the 
King of Prussia. Krusinski's Journal, the Works of Boerhaave, our English 
Sydenham, Bonnycastle, Vauban, Lafitte, Truquet, Lalande, and a translation of 
some unpublished manuscripts of Cassini the Astronomer presented by his son to 
the Turkish Ambassador, are found on the shelves of the public libraries of Con- 
stantinople, and many of them have been thought worthy of being submitted to 
the Imperial Press. To the Persians and Arabians the Osmanlis are certainly Oriental, 
under many obligations ; and they possess numerous translations and imitations 
from the authors of those countries *, In their versions of the best historians of 
Persia and Arabia, they are not however servile. Instead of confining themselves 
to a mere translation, the value of the works is considerably enhanced by 
additions and improvements. The Turkish translation of the valuable work of 

( T ) " Turcse, nt supra dictum, Persas sequuntur, imb, ssepe, ita fid&, ut verbnm de verbo reddant. 
Sed Alcceum, Archilochum, Bacchylidem, Anacreontem, alios, permultis in locis imitatus est Horatius : 
Latina tamen non minori voluptate quam Grceca legimus. Multi sunt prtstereh versus Turcici, qui, i 
Persicis non redditi, videntur esse valde belli." — Sir William Jones, Po'es. Asiat. Comment. Load. 1799. 


( 1 ) 


and Travels. 

AD. 1554. 

A.D. 1526. 

A.D. 1700. 

Ibn Khaldoun, by the celebrated Perizadeh Mohammed, is far superior to its 
original in correctness and magnitude ; and many other works have been simi- 
larly improved by their Osmanli translators. It must not however be forgotten, 
that many of the best writings in Persian and Arabic are really the labours of the 
Turks ; in the same manner that many learned treatises were written by European 
authors of different nations in the language of Rome. But we do not concede 
the glory of a Newton to the literature of Italy, because his Principia was written 
in Latin ; nor can we allow Persia or Arabia to claim the honour of those works 
to which nothing but its language was contributed. 

At least a century before the conquest of Constantinople, the Osmanlis pos- 
sessed writers on every branch of literature ; and the works of various historians, 
astronomers, and poets, who nourished previous to that event, have been handed 
down to us. Ahmed ben Yahia wrote a History of the Turks, in the reign of 
Orkhan ; and he is said to have drawn his materials from preceding historians. In 
this branch of literature the Osmanlis particularly excel. Their historical works 
are numerous and valuable ; and besides an immense number of private histo- 
rians, they possess a continued series of Public National Annals, which form 
a connected chain, from the earliest periods of their history, down to the pre- 
sent time. 

Saadeddin, the preceptor and historiographer of Murad III., is considered the 
Prince of Ottoman historians. His Tadg al Tavarikh g;lyit J»# the " Diadem of 
Histories," is a faithful and elegant account of the Turks, from their earliest 
epochs down to the year A.D. 1526, the end of the reign of Selim II. The style 
of Saadeddin is considered among the most beautiful specimens of Turkish prose ; 
and the narrations of events, and the reflections of the author, are given wjth a 
fidelity and justice that are astonishing, in a country where the freedom of the 
pen would be supposed to be but little tolerated. This, however, is a feature 
common to many of the Ottoman annalists, some of whose comments on the acts 
of Government hardly seem the birth of subjects of despotism. The Tadg al 
Tavarikh forms the commencement of the national annals of the Osmanlis ; and 
it is rather surprising that it should not have been chosen as the first of that 
series of public historians which has issued from the Imperial Press of Constanti- 
nople : and it is to be hoped that it will not long be suffered to remain in 
manuscript. Saadeddin has been, by some, confounded with Saadi Efendi, who, 
about the year A.D. 1700, compiled an Abridgment of Ottoman History; but 
their productions are of an infinitely different description. I cannot forbear 
giving an extract from the Tadg al Tavarikh; in which, however, I am doing its 

( U ) 

author great injustice : his native beauties are hid beneath a foreign garb : his 
flowers bloom not in a foreign soil.— The following is his account of that 
interesting event, the siege of Constantinople 7 . After relating the unsuccessful 
negotiation between Palajologus and the Sultan, he thus proceeds : — 

" The besiegers and the besieged pursued their labours : they were under arms 
from break of day, until the sun, the golden-winged bird of heaven, ceased to be 
visible in the terrace of the horizon. At length the Moslems placed their cannon, 
of which we before spoke, in an effectual position, and threw up their entrench- 
ments. It was to the Arabs and Janissaries that the Sultan confided this work. 
The gates and ramparts of Constantinople soon became like the heart of an 
unfortunate lover : they were pierced in a thousand places. The flames which 
issued from the mouths of these instruments of warfare, of brazen bodies 
and fiery jaws, cast grief and dismay among the miscreants. The smoke, 
which spread itself in the air, and ascended towards the heavens, rendered the 
brightness of day sombre as night, and the face of the world soon became as 
dark as the black fortune of the unhappy infidels. In liberating the arrows like 
ambassadors from the bows, the enemies, without guardian angels, were made to 
hear the information conveyed by the sentence of the Koran : ' Wheresoever ye 
be, death will overtake you.' The balistas incessantly projected stones towards 
the rash defenders of the towers and walls, who experienced the effects of the 
menaces in the holy book : ' You shall beat them with stones which contain the 
sentence of those they reach.' They were sent to the profundity of Hell, to 
confirm the decree of the Judge of the tribunal of Fate. Nevertheless, the bullets 
of stone from the artillery of the infidels overturned the bulwarks of the existence 
of numerous Moslems, and the field of battle was filled with martyrs. Two great 
vessels, whose elevated masts towered toward the heavens, came on the part of 
the Franks, full of artifice, and worthy of Hell-fire, to bring succour to the 
Greeks. The miscreants who were on board these vessels threw themselves 
into the place ; and strove to fill up the gaps and breaches with which the fortifi- 
cations were covered, and to repulse the warriors of the faith. The besieged, 
confident in this passing success, like a tortoise who quits his shell, shewed their 
heads beyond the ramparts, applying themselves to vociferating reproaches on 
the Moslems. It was then that those among the Chiefs of the empire who agreed 
with Khalil Pasha sought to persuade the victorious monarch of the impossibility 

( y ) This has heen excellently translated by M. Garcin de Tassy, whose version I have followed. 
J out. As. tom.VIII. p. 340. The First Part of Saadeddin has been translated into Italian, by Bratuto. 

( Hi ) 

of gaining Constantinople, and the necessity of making peace and departing ; but 
this hero, who had a natural aversion to timid and indiscreet counsels, disdained 
the perfidious advice of these men who taught evil. With firm foot in the place 
of combat, the Moslems, according to the advice of the faithful Ulemas and 
Sheiks, continued to precipitate into the pit of death great numbers of the 
rebels against Heaven who defended the place. The Doctor Ahmed Kurani, the 
Sheik Ak Shemseddin, and the Vizir Zagtus Pasha, who partook of the sentiments 
of the Sultan, opposed peace and conciliatory measures ; saying, that to withdraw 
their hand from the lappet of the robe of Victory would not be fulfilling the 
resolutions they had made: and relating to the troops the promiseof the 
Prophet — ' Greece shall be conquered,' pointed out to them how necessary 
it was to use all their efforts to verify his sentence — ' The greatest combat 
is that which will take place at the conquest of Constantinople:' and the 
Moslems, prepared to abandon life in the sight of Religion, night and day 
illumined the field of battle with the lightning of their swords ; yet the Beauty, 
enchantress of victory, did not display her radiant countenance. The prudent 
monarch assembled the chief of his warriors, and thus addressed them : — * This 
side of the place is rendered impregnable by the depth of the fosse, strengthened 
by every possible means of defence : we cannot without excessive loss cross this 
fosse, and the courier of thoughts cannot even surmount the solid ramparts 
beyond. The walls encircle the city on three sides : if we only attack it at a 
single point, we shall have great difficulty in conquering ; besides, victory would 
cause the destruction of a great part of our people : we must therefore find some 
means of attacking the place by sea.' 

" An immense chain was extended across the strait which separated Con- 
stantinople from Galata, which rendered the passage of vessels through it impos- 
sible. To find an expedient against this, the Chiefs in vain made the coursers of 
thought traverse the desert of reflection ; till at length the conquering King of the 
World conceived the design of drawing the vessels of the Moslems from the fortress 
which had been built, and to bring them as far as the port behind Galata. Although 
the execution of this project must be put among the number of things almost too 
difficult to be accomplished, yet, by Divine assistance, it was performed with ease. 
By the surprising skill of their best mechanics, the Moslems were enabled to draw 
their vessels, large as mountains, out of the sea, upon the land; and having 
rubbed their keels with grease, they made them glide along the earth, through hill 
and vale, and launched them on the waves which bathed the ramparts of the city : 
they afterwards set up a bridge upon these vessels, and formed entrenchments on 

( Hii ) 

them. The priests had been incessant in their endeavours to sustain the courage 
of the besieged, at the same time that they consoled them : — ' The taking of 
Constantinople is impossible, 1 said they ; ' for the astrological predictions of our 
books shew that our city can never be conquered, except when a king shall 
make his vessels traverse the land, with sails displayed.' But when this 
wonder was presented to their eyes, they knew that their ruin was accom- 
plished : the words expired in their mouths, and the fire of despair gnawed their 
hearts. The unclean Emperor having learned that the fortifications which were 
on the side of the sea were also attacked, was nigh losing his reason : nevertheless, 
he reinforced the guard who held that place ; and applied himself to repair the 
walls, sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other : but the Grecian soldiers 
not being sufficient for this purpose, he ordered the Frankish army to repair the 
ramparts situated to the south of the Adrianople Gate. The principal Greeks 
were indignant that the guarding of this place had not been confided to them, who 
had the greatest interest in defending it ; and that it should be left to strangers. 
Thus discord insinuated itself among the besieged, which occasioned wrong orders 
to be given for the direction of these troops of error. The Osmanlis were not 
long in perceiving this ; and, regarding their lives as merchandize of a vile price, 
mounted to the assault with intrepidity, by the breaches which were to the 
south of the Adrianople Gate. They got beyond the ramparts, when the advance- 
guard of Darkness appeared from the western horizon; and soon the stars of 
Night were the witnesses of the superiority of the brave Moslems. On this, the 
just and valiant monarch commanded his victorious army to put lanterns, or 
lighted tapers, on the heads of pikes and lances ; and, until the planet of the 
fourth heaven should cast his rays upon the earth, to continue the combat, in 
order to give no repose to the despicable infidels, nor to allow them time to repair 
their breaches. According to the imperial command, the light of the flambeaux 
and lamps illumined the front of the city and its environs, which became like a 
plain covered with roses and tulips. The Moslems, in this night, united the 
double merit of combat and prayer. With the blood of the martyr they purified 
the stains of their sins. Soon the sun shone forth from the western darkness ; 
and having put to flight the legions of stars by the arrows and darts of his rays, 
the crafty General of the Franks mounted the ramparts, in order to repulse the 
cohorts of the faith. At this moment, a young Moslem, taking the cord of firm 
resolution, threw himself like a spider upon the walls, and, having vigorously 
employed his sword like the crescent moon, at one blow sent forth the soul of the 
infidel from his body, like an owl from its impure nest. 

( Hv ) 

" On beholding this, the Franks hurried themselves into the road of flight ; and, 
like an impetuous torrent, they hastened towards the sea, to regain their ships. 
It was then that the Moslems, binding round them the girdle of ardour, and, like 
the lion in pursuit of his prey, disregarding the rain of arrows, stones, bullets 
and shots continually pouring on them, crowded towards the breaches, assured 
that they were the gates of Victory. ' The dust of the combat was raised even 
to the skies, and covered the vault of heaven as a veil.' The swords reposed not 
an instant : the darts and arrows incessantly pierced the breasts of the rebel 
troop. The Ottomans soon raised the standard of Victory on the walls of Con- 
stantinople ; and proclaimed, with the free tongues of their swords, the Surats of 
' Triumph, 1 and of ' the Ramparts.' z The defence of the place slackened ; and the 
good news expressed in the words of the Koran, ' Verily our army shall obtain 
victory!' gave confidence to the Mussulman troops, and filled them with holy 
enthusiasm. The Greek Emperor, however, surrounded by his bravest soldiers, 
was in his palace, situate to the north of the Adrianople Gate : he sought to 
defend the avenues against the Moslem warriors ; when suddenly he learned that 
those who raised the excellent standard of the Holy Word had gained the interior 
of his palace. He knew, then, that his good fortune was reversed : grief overcame 
him, and he hastened to fly from his habitation. While regretting his unhappy 
fate, this man, whose abode was soon to be the Shades, exclaimed, ' Where is a place 
of refuge a ?' He discovered a few of the Faithful, who, full of confidence, were 
occupied in pillage. At this, the fire of Hate filled his dark soul, and, rushing upon 
these unsuspecting Moslems, his scythe-like sword gathered the harvest of their 
lives. One poor soldier of this band, who was only wounded, bathed in the blood 
which poured from his wounds, and full of anguish, awaited the approach of death. 
The Greek monarch, beholding this miserable man, raised his sword to take his 
last breath. In this moment of despair, the wretched man, aided by the Divine 
assistance, dragged this enemy of the faith from his saddle adorned with gold, 
and cast him on the dark earth, making his warlike scimeter descend upon his 
head. This exploit, which solaced the sufferings of the good Moslem, caused 
those who followed the Emperor to fly. With death alone before their eyes, they 
fled far from the place of combat : not one remained in the field ; none dared put 
hand to sword. In the mean time, the Moslems opened the gates of the city ; and 

(*) Koran, Surats xlviii. and lxxxv. These Chapters, in Sale's Translation, are entitled "The 
Victory," and " The Celestial Signs." 
(") Surat lxxv. 

( Iv ) 

the troops, the asylum of victory, who were without, began to enter with the 
puissant monarch. With his permission, the fortunate troops pillaged the city 
three nights and three days, feeding the eye of their hopes with the sight of the 
Grecian beauties. That metal which is a source of misfortune to fools, which 
gives reputation and pre-eminence to men unknown in the world, was the portion 
of those who exchanged the wares of this life for the capital of eternal existence. 
The third day, the heralds of the Sublime Court made known the will of Moham- 
med, absolute as destiny : this was, • That the soldiers should cease from pillage, 
remaining peaceful, and doing no more injury to any one.' This august com- 
mand having been executed, the swords were consigned to their sheaths, and the 
bows to the corner of rest. By the care of the fortunate monarch, the dust of 
combat was allayed, the sword of war suspended ; the arrows were thrown aside, 
and the bows were broken. By his noble efforts, the profession of the Mussulman 
faith, and the five-times-repeated cry of the Religion of the Prophet, were heard, 
instead of the detestable sound of the bells. The churches of Constantinople were 
despoiled of the vile idols which defiled them: they were cleansed from the 
abominable impurities of the Christian ceremonies. The ancient customs were 
entirely changed ; many temples and chapels of the Nazarenes, by the placing of 
the Mihrab and the pulpit of the Faithful, rivalled the sublime Paradise. The 
luminous rays of Islam dispelled the dark shadows of wickedness." 

I must apologise for the length of this Extract ; which, however, I hope will not 
be altogether uninteresting, as a specimen of the fidelity of the Ottoman his- 
torians, on a subject on which we might consider neither Christian nor Moham- 
medan writers could be trusted. b 

The " History of the Tadg al Tavarikh"" was taken up by Dgelal Zadeh, who Dgeiai Zadeh. 
wrote the Annals of the Reign of Soliman I. from A.H. 926 (1520), to 974 
(1566). His work is known by the title of Tarikhi Dgelalzadeh %S\j%>. g li'. 
Selaniki succeeded him. His history commences with the year of the Hejira 971, Seianiki. 
answering to A.D. 1563; and concludes A. H. 1008 (1599). Both these works, 
as well as the Tadg al Tavarikh, forming the earlier Annals of the Ottoman 
Empire, are still in manuscript ; but the succeeding historians have been sub- 
mitted to the press. The first of these is Naima, the Imperial Historiographer. Naima. 
His Annals extend from A.H. 1000 (1591), to A.H. 1070 (1659). This work 
issued from the Press of Constantinople A.H. 1147, corresponding to A.D. 1734. 
It is in two folio volumes, and is entitled Kitab Tarikh Naima L,jjo j£ U v-jlif. 

( b ) Compare it with Gibbon, Decline and Fall, vol. XII. chap. 68. 

( Ivi ) 

To the first volume, the Editor, Ibrahim, has prefixed an excellent Preface. It 
commences with philosophic reflections upon the causes of the rise, the power, 
and the decay of empires. It shews the utility of the general study of History ; 
and discusses with elegance various points relating to the work. The Annals of 
Naima are written with elegance and perspicuity ; the events of each year and 
reign succeeding each other in chronological succession. His accounts of the acts 
and policy of other nations is also curious and interesting ; and Naima and his 
Raahid TcheieM continuators are capable of tlirowing much light on the history of Europe. Rashid 


continues the thread of Naima's relations ; and carries the history of the Otto- 
mans from A.H. 1071 (1060), down to 1134 (1721). The Tarikhi Rashid Efendi 
(jJoil ii£)j zifi issued from the Imperial Press in 1734; and, with its 'con- 
tinuation by Tchelebi Zadeh, to A.H. 1141 (1728), formed two folio volumes. 
The accounts of the affairs of Europe, the embassies of the various nations, 
and the characters of the eminent men and princes who flourished during the 
period of these Annals, are well worthy of perusal. The Journal of the Turkish 
Ambassador at the Court of Paris is given entire, and is not among the least 
entertaining of its contents. 
Sami, shagir, Sami, Shagir, and Subhi, appear next in succession, as Imperial Annalists. 

The history of the first of these begins with the year that Tchelebi Zadeh 
concludes, and the last continues the narrative of events down to A.H. 1156 
(1743). They commence with a short statement of the situation of Persia; and 
relate the events of the insurrection against Ahmed III., the election of Mahmud 
his successor, the wars and victories of the Osmanlis, and the taking of Belgrade ; 
concluding with the arrival of Ahmed Pasha, the High Admiral, at Constantinople. 
These three authors were printed A.H. 1198 (1787). 
izzi. The continuator of the preceding historians was Izzi : he brings the Annals of 

the Osmanlis down to the year A.H. 1166(1751). The Tarikhi Izzi ^'jc gfi 
was printed at Constantinople A.H. 1199 (1784), uniformly with the annals which 
precede it. 
vasif. The most recent of the Public Annalists of the Porte is Ahmed Vasif Efendi. 

He is the continuator of the History of Izzi. The First Part of his work contains 
the Annals of the Osmanlis from the year A.H. 1166 (1752), to 1182 (1768). 
The second continues the history of the events to A.H. 1189 (1775). The 
account of Poland is very interesting ; as well as the revolt of Ah Bey, and 
the war which was terminated in 1774 by the Peace of Kainardgik. The Tarikhi 
Vasif i_Jlij KJS issued from the Imperial Press of Constantinople A.H. 1219 
(1804), in one volume folio, printed uniformly with the series of preceding 

( Ivii ) 

historians. The style of Vasif is pure and unaffected, and less encumbered with 
orientalism than most of his predecessors. The correctness and fidelity of his 
relations render his history a valuable work, and an important addition to the 
Annalists of the Ottoman Empire. 

Besides the historians of the empire, there are numerous other histories in the 
language of the Osmanlis. Ali Mohammed Efendi wrote an excellent account 
of the Turks, from their earliest times to A. H. 1004 (1595). Betchevi is the 
author of a valuable history, from the reign of Soliman the Great, 1520, to the 
death of Murad IV., 1689. Molana Idris, an elegant and accurate historian, wrote 
the Hesht behisht c^v£aj ei~*£-k, the Annals of Eight Ottoman Reigns, in Persian. 
The celebrated Hadgi Khalifeh, or Katib Tchelebi, was the author of several H«dgl KtaBfeli, 
excellent historical works. He was one of the most learned and accomplished 1589-1657. 
writers that the Ottoman empire has produced. Besides being perfect master 
of the languages of Persia and Arabia, he was well skilled in French, Italian, and 
Latin ; and he translated several works from those languages. His geographical 
treatises are highly esteemed ; and his Kieshef Uzzunun c , the foundation of 
D'Herbelot's " Bibliotheque Orientale," is a valuable Bibliographical Dictionary 
and Encyclopaedia of Eastern Learning. As an historian, Hadgi Khalifeh is 
known by five valuable works. The Tarikhi Keblri and Tarikhi Saghiri, both 
called Fezfikeh iX^JtXi, are two of his best productions : the former, written 
in Arabic, is a Universal History, from the Creation to the year of the Hejira 
1065(1654): the latter is in Turkish, and extends from the year 1000 of the 
Hejira (A.D. 1589) down to the same period. " The History of the Maritime 
Wars of the Ottomans'" d is not inferior to any of his productions. This work 
contains an account of the naval affairs of the Ottomans, from their earliest 
times. It relates the naval glories of the reign of Soliman, in glowing 
colours ; and the accounts of the famous Khair-eddin or Barbarossa, and the 
Genoese Admiral, Andrea Doria, are highly curious. The geographical and topo- 
graphical descriptions of the theatre of war are well detailed : among the rest, 
is a vivid sketch of " the Citv of the Waters :" it is as follows : — 

( c ) ^yiJI j <— JyW -«U i*. uj^ia-l i— ft^.> " The Test of Knowledge in Bibliography and 

( d ) ,Ls~l .lo*J J jlk£i\ kftsH. The First Part of this interesting work has .been translated by Mr. 
Mitchell, and was published by the Oriental Translation Committee : Land. 1831. The Second is in 
progress for publication. 


( lviii ) 

" Venice is a large city, built upon sixty small islands in a corner of the 
sea, like a lake. Its waters ebb and flow every six hours ; and some of the isles 
are raised, like ramparts, to prevent the water from overflowing. This city has 
three or four passages to the sea; and although it is not guarded by walls 
and towers, its being so completely surrounded by water renders it quite safe, 
and free from all danger. Between the houses there are roads and passages, by 
which passengers and boats may pass from house to house. Over the waters 
there are about four hundred and fifty bridges, both of stone and wood. The 
largest of these roads they call a Canal : it divides the city into two parts, and 
over it there is a wonderful bridge. Eight thousand vessels are constantly in 
motion, some of which are ornamented with covers, and these they call gondolas. 
The circumference of the city is nearly eight miles, and its principal streets are 
sixty-four in number. The public and private buildings are excessively grand 
and ornamental, especially the Church dedicated to one of the Four Evangelists, 
called St. Marco, and is an astonishing building. It is adorned with the most 
valuable and expensive stones, and its interior is gilt with pure gold. In the 
Treasury, which they say is a sacred deposit, there are kept the most costly and 
precious articles ; and affirming that the city, with all its castles and ships, belongs 
to it, the priests have shackled these fools, and by this artifice have brought 
under their power all the Christians, small and great. The city has three fine 
market-places, all adjoining each other : in the square of the principal one is the 
above-mentioned church : and close to the quay there are two massy columns, 
upon one of which is set up the standard of St. Marco, and upon the other the 
image of St. Theodorus. On the flag is represented a Lion with wings; by which, 
and on their coins also, they celebrate the valour of St. Marco, who is said to have 
been a brave and valiant person. The space between the two columns is the 
Hall of Justice. The centre of the city they call the Arsenal, which has a spacious 
building ; and being two miles in circumference, it forms a strong castle. Here 
naval armaments and cannons are daily manufactured and repaired; and the 
wrecks of fleets, the arms taken from pirates, old vessels, and colours, being 
deposited in this place, are exhibited to visitors. The population of Venice is 
estimated to be three hundred thousand ; and it is divided into three classes. 
Those of the first are called Patricii, and correspond to our Meshaiekh. To these 
belong the management of the State and the affairs of Government. Their prin- 
cipal is called Doge, which signifies " Duke." He enters into all questions of law, 
but has not a power to act until he has the voice of the people. Amongst the 
Christians, a Duke corresponds to the Begler-Beg of the Mussulmans; except the 

( lix ) 

former has his own coin. Those constituting the second class are called Istadiriu 
(Citadini) ; and to them are committed civil affairs, customs, and education. The 
third class is composed of merchants and artisans. In former times, the power of 
this people was vested in a Consul ; but in the year 555 from the Birth of Christ 
(upon whom be peace !) it was committed to a Tribune, or Chief of a tribe ; and this 
government continued two hundred and fifty-two years, till, in A.D. 707, it became 
a Dukedom ; so that from the commencement of the Dukedom to the tune of the 
writing of this book, which is A.H. 1067 (1656), is a period of nine hundred and 
fifty years." 

Among the historical works of Hadgi Khalifeh, his Tarikhi Kostantinieh and 
Takvimi Tavarikh must not be omitted. The former of these is a History of Con- 
stantinople, from the conquest of Mohammed II. The latter are excellent and 
valuable chronological tables. The Dgihan Numa U { J^>-, or " View of the 
World," is another of this talented author's productions. It is one of the best 
geographical works of the Osmanlis ; and is justly celebrated for its accuracy, and 
the scientific and historical research it displays 6 . 

The Osmanlis have several curious and valuable accounts of voyages and 
travels. One of their best productions on this subject is the Mirat al Memalik ' 
CAilrJl i£j|^o or " Mirror of Kingdoms ;" a personal narrative of the voyages and Katibi Roumi, 
travels of Sidi AH ben Hussain, commonly called Katibi Roumi. The author was 1553—1556. 
Capudan, or Admiral, during the reign of Soliman the Great, a period when the 
naval power of the Ottomans was acknowledged by all Europe. Having received 
orders to take the command of the Egyptian fleet, consisting of fifteen ships, he 
hastened to Basra, where he joined his squadron, and set sail for Suez : but, 
either being unacquainted with the track, or ignorant of the monsoons, he lost 
the greater part of his fleet, and was driven upon the western coast of India. In 
returning to Constantinople, he was obliged to make his way, overland, through 
Hind, Sind, Zabulestan, Badakhshan, Transoxania, Kharism, Kaptchak, and Asia 
Minor. After innumerable difficulties, he succeeded in reaching Constantinople, 
having spent about three years in the journey ; and his travels and adventures 

( e ) There is an Italian Translation of the Takvimi, by Jean Rinaldo Carli : Venice, 1697. M. Norberg 
translated the Dgihan Numa into Latin : it is entitled " Geographia Orientalis, ex Tureico in Latinum 
versa: Land. Goth. 1818. 

( f ) Von Hammer has given a notice of this work, with some extracts, in Vol. II. of the Bombay 
Society's Transactions: and M. Diez has translated it entire; Berlin, 1815. See Jour. As. (Ancien), 
torn. IX. p. 27 et seq. 

( 1* ) 

during this period form the subject of the Mirat al Memalik. It is a very 
entertaining work ; and for its historical, statistical, and geographical relations, is 
highly esteemed. This author also wrote a description of the Indian Seas, 
entitled Mohit 1sa=-* or " The Ocean ;" and an astronomical work, entitled Mirati 
Kainat ciAbtf C^l^c " The Mirror of the Universe." 
Evlia Efendi, The Travels of Evlia Efendi, in the Ottoman Empire, Tarikhi Seiah Evlia Efendi, 

A. D. 1634. . .. | . . I .„ . 

,_y iXwl LOjl _ Xkm g^(j is another work of great interest. The author is an amusing 
and instructive writer ; and his work contains an account of the antiquities and 
topography of the Ottoman Empire, and of his travels tlirough Turkey and 
Tatary. He wrote about A.D. 1634. The learned Von Hammer, to whom 
Oriental Literature is under so many obligations, has undertaken the translation 
of this work into English ; a task which his well-known abilities render him every 
way capable of performing. 
Tha Sciences. Though it must be admitted that the Osmanlis are inferior to the European 
nations in the Sciences, they have been far from neglecting the study, and they 
possess numerous treatises on Astronomy, Mathematics, Algebra, and Physics. 
In Philosophy they have all the speculative knowledge that the Greeks and 
Arabians were masters of; but in Experimental Science they have made but 
little progress. In Moral Pliilosophy, however, and in treatises on the Art of 
Government and Political Economy, the Osmanlis particularly excel ; which is 
the more surprising, as our ideas of the Turks and their polity would lead 
us to imagine quite the contrary. 

From their earliest periods, the Osmanlis possessed the best masters of 
astronomical science. Salaheddin, or Kadi Zadeh Roumi, was an excellent 
astronomer and mathematician. He was born at Prusa, in the reign of Murad I. ; 
and became the preceptor of the celebrated Ulugh Beg, under whose patronage 
he commenced the Zidg, or Astronomical Tables which bear the name of that 
Prince. He died before their completion; and the work was finished by Ids 
son, Ali Kushdgi. Mustafa ben Ali, who lived in the reign of Soliman, was 
the author of several much-esteemed astronomical productions. Mohammed 
Darandeli composed the excellent Ephemerides, entitled Ruz Nameh <UU j;j , which 
contains perpetual tables of the day, the hour, and the minute of each lunation, 
and a variety of information essential to astronomical accuracy. There are a 
multitude of astronomical works in Turkish, many of which display great science. 
In most of the mosques of Constantinople, solar quadrants are found, fitted for 
taking observations ; and astrolabes, telescopes, and other astronomical instru- 
ments of their own manufacture, are in frequent use, some of which are 

( l*i ) 

extremely well constructed. They have even the honour of invention; and 
Hadgi Khalifeh records, in his chronological tables, that in the year A.H. 987, 
a Turk, named Tashieddin, invented a beautiful instrument for observing the 
stars. Mathematics, Geometry, Algebra, and Arithmetic, are considered by 
the Osmanlis among the necessary acquirements of a man of education; and 
a course of Hindeseh v'al Hisab i—>L*=J I j <£»udJLa>, which comprises these sciences, 
forms a portion of the studies to which their schools are devoted. Bajazet II. 
was much attached to geometrical and astronomical studies, which he cultivated 
under the instruction of the celebrated Salaheddin. In the science of Numbers 
their proficiency is very great ; and the facility with which their calculations 
are performed has been frequently noticed*. On these subjects they possess 
many excellent works. The Philosophical productions of the Osmanlis are very 
numerous. Their Speculative and Metaphysical writings, Hikmet ve Kelam 
l»itfj ei^X*. are similar to those which issued from our Schools during the reign 
of the Aristotelian Philosophy ; and, like them, have usually a Theological cast. 
The light of Newton, and the Philosophy of modern times, has not yet shed its 
full lustre over the empire of the Ottoman : though, to their honour, it should be 
mentioned, that Raghib Pasha — the talented Vizir of Osman III. and his successor, 
Mustafa — the cotemporary of that illustrious philosopher, sought to procure a 
translation of his Philosophical system 11 . Their Moral Philosophy, which is 
termed Adeb i_\>1 , is however a science on which the Osmanlis seem to have 
bestowed some of their best energies : it is the subject of many excellent and 
valuable treatises. Their mode of conveying the principles of Morals by means 
of imaginative discourses and apologues, adds great force and beauty to the senti- 
ments ; and strewing the path of Knowledge with flowers, it renders its acquisi- 
tion at once agreeable and impressive. An elegant work of this nature is the 
Humaiun Nameh <Ccli ^jyl^D. It is written in mingled prose and verse, and is 
one of the most beautiful specimens of the Turkish language that its literature 
can produce. It was composed by Ali Tchelebi, for Sultan Soliman I., to whom it 

(s) " lis calculent tres rapidement par tine m<5thode simple et fort courte. En quelques minutes de 
temps, ils font, sur un quarre de papier, un compte que nous ne ferions pas sur quatres feuilles en deux 

heures Notre Arithm^tique gagneroit a la traduction de quelques livres Arabes et Turcs, qui 

traitent savamment et sommairement de cette matiere." — Toderini de la Lit. des Turcs. Cournand. Vol. I. 
p. 90. .Par. 1789. 

( h ) Reflexions sur l'^tat critique actuel de la puissance Ottomane," without place or date. — 
Toderini, ib. p. 1 18, ascribes it to " le savant et eruditEugenius, archeveque de la Nouvelle Kussie et de 

( Ixii ) 

is dedicated : there is also a poetical version by Gelali, by command of Bajazet II. : 
the former is, however, the most esteemed. The Humaiun Nameh is formed upon 
the model of a work whose excellence is evidenced by its existence in almost 
every language, ancient and modern — the Fables of Pilpay. Upon this, Ali 
Tchelebi has raised a system of Ethics, couched in a series of amusing tales and 
fables, inculcating various principles of Moral Philosophy, and teeming with 
beauties of thought and language. 

Nabi Efendi is the author of an excellent treatise on Moral Philosophy, 
written as a book of advice to his son. It is a beautiful work, and justly merits 
the high estimation in which it is held. I select the following passages, as an 
example of his sentiments : — " Consecrate, my son, the aurora of thy reason to the 
study of the sciences. In the vicissitudes of life, they are an infinite resource. 
They form the mind ; they polish the understanding ; they instruct man in his 
duties. By their means we obtain honour and dignity : they delight and amuse 
us in prosperity : they become our consolation in adversity. Were I to endeavour 
to detail all the advantages they include, my task would be endless. But without 
continued application, in vain is it that you seek to acquire Science : she is the 
daughter of labour ; and by its means alone can you obtain possession of her. 
Endeavour, O my son ! to adorn your mind with every kind of knowledge : it 
becomes necessary, on innumerable occasions, in the career of life. How im- 
mense is the difference between the learned and the ignorant ! — the most brilliant 
luminary compared with the thickest darkness ; life with deatli ; existence with 
nonentity. These but feebly express the interval which separates the man of 
education and he who possesses it not. Ignorance is the empoisoned source, 
from which flow all the evils which afflict the world : blind Superstition, Irreligion, 
and Barbarism, destroyer of the Arts, march at its side : shame, contempt, and 
vulgarity, pursue its footsteps Apply thy mind diligently also to Philo- 
sophy ; nor neglect reading the best authors : for the eagle soars not aloft 
without the assistance of wings : the shell which contains the pearl is found not 
on the surface of the waves, but lies hid among the thousand perils of the deep." 

The style of Nabi Efendi is pure and elegant ; and his prose, as well as his 
poetical compositions, are not surpassed by any Turkish author. He was much 
esteemed by the Sultan Mustapha III., who admitted him to his counsels. After 
the death of this prince he retired to Aleppo, where he died. Mohammed 
Efendi is the author of an esteemed treatise on Morals, entitled Adeb <— >jl . 
Ah ben Emrallah, commonly called Ebn al Khannabi, composed a work on 
this subject, entitled Akhlak Elaii, "the excellent Morals:" it was composed 

C lxiii ) 

for Ali Basha, Vizir of Sultan Soliman. The Akhlaki Dgemal is a similar 
work, which was composed for Ilderim Bazajet, by Gemaleddin Mohammed al 
Aksarai. It is divided into tliree parts ; which treat of the Duties of Man, as an 
individual, in his social state, in his private relations, and in his character of 
citizen. The Dguahar al Ashraf l_»I^)I| />\y*- i is a much-esteemed book on Moral 
Philosophy. It was dedicated by Sultan Mohammed to his son Murad; and 
was either the work of that Sultan, or written under his direction. The writings 
of the Osmanlis on Government and Political Economy may also be classed 
among their works on Moral Philosophy, the mode of treating these subjects 
being very similar. The principles advocated are illustrated by the maxims 
and actions of ancient sages and monarchs, in many cases imaginative, but 
not the less valuable ; and these serve to give a relish and piquancy ; and pre- 
vent that dryness of detail, so little agreeable to an Oriental taste, which would 
otherwise occur. A Treatise on Government by Navali holds a high rank among 
the works of this nature: it is entitled Ferahnameh <)U>L> _,*, and is dedicated 
to one of the sons of Murad III., whose preceptor the author had been. The 
virtues which a prince should possess, the knowledge he should acquire, and the 
conduct he should pursue, are elegantly and ably displayed and illustrated ; and 
it concludes with enumerating the qualities and duties of a Minister ; the whole 
forming a code of morals and politics which the prince and his servants might 
peruse with advantage. Mueddin Zadeh and Lufti Basha are the authors of 
works of similar character ; but the productions of these two authors are prin- 
cipally addressed to the duties of Ministers, and the subordinate government of 
the people. 

A curious little treatise on the Art of Government has been translated by 
M. Garcin de Tassy". It is entitled Usoul al Hukem fi Nizam al Alem aXkM Jj^cl 
JUil illai J " The Principles of Wisdom concerning the Art of Government," by 
Ak Hissari, who wrote about 1595. This treatise is written with a spirit of 
freedom we could hardly expect, and forms an interesting specimen of the 
opinions of the Osmanlis on this subject. I have extracted a few passages : — 

" A country," says our author, " is in a prosperous state, when justice is 
exercised impartially, and when the police is good. The Prophet tells us, that ' it 
is the duty of a sovereign to govern according to equity:' his interest also 
requires it, for justice is the support of the empire. It is said that Ardeshir 

(') Jj>\ HI hj^, ^J uJlytflyt,!^. 

( k ) Jour. As. (Ancien), torn. IV. p. 2 1 3 et seq. 

( lxiv ) 

Babegan remarked, that a monarch cannot reign without troops. Now, soldiers 
cannot be procured without money, nor can money be obtained if the country be 
not prosperous and flourishing : but a country can only flourish under a good 
and just government ; consequently, he cannot reign, except by justice. A mon- 
arch ought, therefore, to treat his subjects kindly, and govern them according 

to the rules of equity Three things are frequently the causes producing 

the downfal of a State : 1. When the sovereign, carried away by the love 
of pleasure, does not concern himself with the affairs of his kingdom. 2. When 
the ministers, jealous of each other, are divided in counsels. 3. And, above all, 
when the army refuses to obey ; and, conscious of impunity, commits unbridled 
excesses. The duty of ministers is, to raise their voices, to discover abuses to the 

sovereign : it is the duty of the monarch promptly to arrest the evil The 

Sages assure us, that, in war, a man of genius is of greater value than a thousand 
soldiers ; for a soldier, at most, can kill but ten or twenty persons, but a man 
of genius may, by his skilful measures, overcome a large army. ' War is only 
art and stratagem, 1 says the Prophet. Less confidence, therefore, should be 
placed in the bravery of the soldiers, than in the conduct and ability of the 

A work on the subject of Government was among the number of the earliest 
productions of the Constantinopolitan Press. It is entitled, Usoulal Nizam 
ul Umem *«c)ll <UaJ J i*^' <Jy^ ' " The Principles of Wisdom on the Government 
of Nations," and was from the pen of Ibrahim Efendi. It is divided into three 
parts. In the first, the author treats of the necessity of good government. He 
speaks of the administration of justice, its officers, and of the different systems of 
Legislation. The second relates to territory, and its extension and decrease ; the 
necessity of an accurate knowledge of geography, in relation to military science ; 
and lastly, of the advantage of discipline in the troops. The third part displays the 
military art, as practised by the Christian Powers ; the difference between ancient 
and modern warfare; the tactics which military commanders should employ, 
and the rules which they should observe. The author makes excellent i\ flections 
on all the subjects of which he treats ; and bestows an unprejudiced applause on 
the discipline and conduct of the Franks; highly censuring many of the customs of 
the Osmanlis, particularly the deposing a Vizir who has had the misfortune to lose 
a battle. It was this work that first gave the Osmanlis a true notion of European 
government and tactics, and led to those great and important changes which 

(') Constantinople, A.H. 1144 (1731), sm. 4to. The Baron Reviczki translated it into French. 

( Ixv ) 

the unfortunate but illustrious Selim and the present talented Sultan have 
introduced into the Ottoman Empire. Ibrahim derived much information 
respecting European tactics from Count Bonneval; who became a convert to 
the faith of Mohammed, under the name of Ahmed Basha ; and died a Captain of 
Bombardiers, in the service of the Porte m . 

If the Osmanlis are our inferiors in the depth of scientific research in the Belles J he B «»es 


Lettres, they do not yield to us the palm of superiority. In poetry they display 
great genius and taste ; and all classes are its ardent admirers. To so great a 
degree has the love of poetic composition been carried, that there is no grade of 
society in the Ottoman Empire but has contributed towards it : the Ladies, the 
Sultan, his Ministers, Doctors, Soldiers — all have devoted themselves to the culti- 
vation of poetry ; and the Divans, or Poetical Collections of above six hundred 
Authors, are existing evidences of the taste of the Osmanlis for the productions 
of the Muse. It cannot be imagined, that, among so great a number of poets, all 
should have arrived at excellence : every nation has its bad writers, and the Turks 
are not an exception : but there are some of their poetic compositions which, in 
imagination, beauty, and delicacy, can compete with the productions of any 
Oriental nation, and which will amply compensate the admirer of Eastern poetry, 
should he find the remainder dull and insipid n . In a country where the state of 
female education is so much below even our level, it is no less surprising than 
creditable to the sex, to find women shaking from their minds the fetters of the 
Seraglio, and displaying their powers in the arena of Literature. The Sappho of 
the Osmanlis is Fitnet, daughter of the Mufti Esaad Efendi. Her Divan is a col- 
lection of beautiful poems of great taste and feeling, the offspring of a vivid and 

( m ) The Tomb of this singular man is still to be seen in the neighbourhood of Constantinople : it bears 
a Turkish Inscription, to the following effect : — 


( n ) " lis (les Ottomans) ne cedent ni aux Arabes, ni aux Persans, dans les Sciences et dans les 
Belles Lettres communes a ces trois nations et qu'ils les cultivent presque des le commencement de leur 
Empire ... lis ont aussi des historiens tres celebres et tres exacts des actions de leur Sultans, et Ton 
peut compter une marque de la delicatesse de leur esprit, le nombre considerable de leur poetes qui 
montoit a cinq cens quatre vingts dix, vers la fin du sie-cle passe comme on le voit par l'histoire qu'un de 
leurs ecrivains publia en ce tems-la. Car en quelque nation que ce soit, la poesie a cela par dessus la 
prose, qu'elle s'exprime plus noblement, et qu'elle depeint les choses avec des conleurs plus vives, ce qui 
ne peut partir que de la politesse et de la delicatesse de l'esprit." — Gotland. Pref. a D'Herbelot. 


( Ixvi ) 

poetic imagination. There is little doubt that Corinnas are not wanting : and 
though the Harem now conceal the female talent of the Osmanlis, the Divan of 
Fitnet is an able representative of the genius of her sex. It is to the Turkish 
Ladies that a poetic and mysterious language owes its birth — " the Language of 
Flowers," rivalling the Hieroglyphics of Egypt, in effectually resisting the profa- 
nation of the uninitiated, and poetic, not only in its rhymes, but in its Oriental 
imagery and allusions. This language was first rendered celebrated in Europe 
by Lady Mary Wortley Montague. Her Ladyship makes the following remarks 
on a Love-letter in this language : — " You see this Letter is all in verse : and I can 
assure you there is much fancy shewn in the choice of them, as in the most 
studied expressions of our Letters; there being, I believe, a million of verses 
designed for this use. There is no colour, no flower, no weed, no fruit, herb, 
pebble, or feather, that has not a verse belonging to it ; and you may quarrel, 
reproach, or send letters of passion, friendship, or civility, or even of news, 
without ever inking your fingers. 1 '' The " Language of Flowers," as it is termed, 
to which Lady Montague thus alludes, is a system of poetic hieroglyphics ; in 
which the objects are not appropriated to the ideas they represent on account of 
any thing in their nature, but are merely keys to certain verses with which the 
name of the object rhymes. Thus, a thread, in Turkish tiWjl iplik, is the key 
and representative of CAx*j£ li«« ^Jd &£jy» surguneh dek sana kustik, " Faithful 
to thee even in exile. 1 ' The pear, Jj*,l armoud, expresses ^y* 1 /. ^.f..) v ^ r baha 
bir oumoud, " Give me some hope." Silk, *ji^1 ibrishim — *£j1 ^liJii' <t$Jl allahah 
kaldi ishim, " I leave my destiny to God." The clove, J«iuy> karemfil, has the 
following verses appropriate to it : 

Karemfil sen kararun yok ; Guntcheh gul sen timarun yok ; 

Ben seni tchokden severim ; Senun benden, khaberin yok. 

" You are as slender as this clove ! You are like an unblown rose I 
" I have' long loved you ; And you have not known it" 

It thus forms a secret, impenetrable to those who possess not its key, which the 
greatest ingenuity could not discover. Von Hammer, in his Mines de VOrient, 
gives a Vocabulary of this " Language of Flowers ;" and the talented authoress 
I have just quoted has translated a Love-letter, which are the only specimens we 
possess . 

(°) Mines de TOrienl, torn. I.— Lady M. W. Montague's Letters, Vol. I. Letter xl. 

( lxvii ) 

Among the Royal poets, Selim I. holds a distinguished place ; and the unfortu- 
nate Prince Dgem, the brother of Bajazet II., was the author of a much-esteemed 
Divan, and a Romance entitled Dgemshid ve Khorshid dJ^jjo- j >>^>v»- , which he 
dedicated to his father, Mohammed II. Soliman II. wrote several poems in 
Turkish, Persian, and Arabic. Ahmed III. was much attached to poetry. He 
composed a beautiful inscription in Turkish verse, which was engraved, in letters 
of gold, on a marble fountain he constructed at Constantinople. Mustafa HI. fre- 
quently held poetical soiries ; which laid the foundation of an Academy of Poetry, 
to which the best poets were admitted, after exhibiting proofs of their talents j 
each receiving a title on his admission, which he assumed in his compositions. 

The oldest poetic writer of the Osmanlis is Aashik Pasha, the author of a 
collection of mystic poetry. Sheikhi lived as early as the reign of Orkhan. 
Baki, Nefi, Mesihi, Nedgati, Kasim, Fozouli, Misri, Kemal Pasha Zadeh, and 
Letifi, are considered among the most celebrated of the ancient poets. Nabi 
Efendi, Raghib Pasha, and Seid Reefet, hold a distinguished rank among the 
modern. The reign of Bajazet II. was one of the brightest epochs of Turkish 
poetry : some of the finest poets of the Osmanlis flourished under his protection ; 
and Mesihi, Nedgati, Afitabi, Bassiri, Gelali, Hamdi, and Kemal Pasha Zadeh, 
were distinguished among his Court. An Ode of the first of these authors, 
Mesihi, quoted by Sir William Jones, is not a bad specimen of his style. I 
subjoin a translation. 


" Listen to the tale of the nightingale — that the vernal season approaches. The spring has 
formed a bower of joy in every grove where the almond-tree sheds its silver blossoms. Be 
joyful ! be full of mirth ! for the spring season passes soon away : it will not last 


" The groves and hills are again adorned with all kinds of flowers : a pavilion of roses, as 
the seat of pleasure, is raised in the garden. Who knows which of us may be alive when 
the fair season ends ? Be joyful, therefore ! be full of mirth ! for the spring season passes 
soon away : it will not last. 


" The edge of the bower is filled with the light of Ahmed among the plants : the 
fortunate tulips represent his Companions. Come, O people of Mohammed! this is the 
season of enjoyment. Be joyful ! be full of mirth ! for the spring season passes soon away : 
it will not last. 


" Again the dew glitters on the leaves of the lily, like the sparkling of a bright scimeter : 
the dew-drops fall through the air, on the garden of roses. Listen to me ! listen to me ! if 

( lxviii ) 

thou desirest to be delighted. Be joyful ! be full of mirth ! for the spring season passes 

soon away : it will not last. 


" The roses and tulips are like the blooming cheeks of beautiful maids, in whose ears 
hang varied gems, like drops of dew : deceive not thyself by thinking that these charms will 
have a long duration. Be joyful ! be full of mirth ! for the spring season passes soon away : 
it will not last. 


" Tulips, roses, and anemonies, appear in the garden : the showers and sun-beams, like 
sharp lancets, tinge the banks with the colour of blood. Be joyful ! be full of mirth ! for 
the spring season passes soon away : it will not last. 


" The time is passed in which the plants were sick, and the rose-bud hung its thoughtful . 
head on its bosom : the season comes, in which mountains and rocks are coloured with tulips. 
Be joyful ! be full of mirth ! for the spring season passes soon away : it will not last. 


" Every morning the clouds shed gems over the rose beds : the breath of the gale is full of 
Tatarian musk. Be not neglectful of thy duty, through too great love of the world. Be 
joyful ! be full of mirth ! for the spring season passes soon away : it will not last. 


" The sweetness of the rose-bed has made the air so fragrant, that the dew, before it falls, 
is changed into rose-water : the sky has spread a pavilion of bright clouds over the garden. 
Be joyful ! be full of mirth ! for the spring season passes soon away : it will not last. 


" Whoever thou art, know that the black gusts of autumn had seized the garden ; but the 
King of the World again appeared, dispensing justice to all : in his reign, the happy cup- 
bearer desired, and obtained, the flowing wine. Be joyful ! be full of mirth ! for the spring 
season passes soon away : it will not last. 


" By these strains I hoped to celebrate this delightful valley. May they be a memorial to 
its inhabitants ; and remind them of this assembly, and these fair maids ! Thou art a sweet- 
voiced nightingale, O Mesihi! when thou walkest with the damsels, whose cheeks are 
like roses. Be joyful ! be full of mirth ! for the spring season soon passes away : it will 
not last." 

Kemal Pasha Zadeh is the author of many beautiful poetical works. His 
Yussuf va Zuleikha Us^j j <— *^ji and his Nigaristan ^Hw/i! are much admired. 
The latter is an elegant production, after the manner of the Gulistan and 

( Ixix ) 

Works of fiction and romantic tales are very numerous. Some of them possess 
great spirit and interest; and the wildness and originality of Oriental fancy 
give them an indescribable grace. We have an excellent example of Eastern 
fiction in the Arabian Nights ; which, even in our translations, cannot but be 
admired. The loves of Joseph and Zuleikha, the wife of Potiphar ; of Khosru and 
Ferhad, for Shirin or Irene, the daughter of the Emperor Maurice ; of Leili and 
Mejnun ; and the adventures of the ancient Princes of the East ; are the subjects 
of many beautiful narrations. The Tales of the Forty Vizirs — Kirk Vizir Hikaieti 
JulX©- jj. jjji , Khor ve Khaver jjis- j ,y±- , the Iskender Nameh <U>k^,jJiCJ , and 
the Shah ve Guda \m ^ isli, are a few of their best productions of this kind. The 
Osmanlis possess an immense number of works of the same nature ; many of 
which are from the pens of their most esteemed writers, and are not inferior 
to the most admired compositions of their Oriental neighbours. 

In the adoption of the use of the Press, the Turks have advanced beyond any Of the Tjpo. 

■ . o i • *■ . Rrapby of the 

of the Asiatic nations. The introduction of this powerful supporter of Literature ottomans, 

AD 1726 

is placed, by Hadgi Khalifeh, in the year 1 139 A.H. answering to 1726 A.D the 

reign of Sultan Ahmed III. The honour of effecting so great a revolution in the 
literary history of the Ottomans is due to Ibrahim Efendi, a learned and inge- 
nious man, and Said Efendi, who was Secretary to the Turkish Embassy sent by 
Ahmed to France. But the chief credit is due to the perseverance and industry 
of Ibrahim. He performed the difficult task of overcoming the religious scruples 
of the Moslems : he awakened their attention, by a Treatise on the advantages of 
the Art : his exertions gained the permission of the Mufti and the Sultan ; and 
the cutting the matrices and founding the type, the effects of his own labour and 
ingenuity, accomplished the task. Not contented with overcoming the prejudices 
of the Osmanlis, and establishing the Imperial Press of Constantinople, Ibrahim 
diligently applied himself to augmenting their literature. He wrote the Life of 
the celebrated Hadgi Khalifeh ; the Nizamil Umem, a " Treatise on Government ; " 
and the Fiuzati Magnatisieh, on " the Use of the Mariner's Compass : " he edited the 
Guzevati Bosnia ; and translated Krusinski's History of the Afghans into Turkish. 
The labours of this useful and industrious man were nobly seconded by the Grand 
Vizir, Ibrahim Basha ; whose talents, and the patronage he bestowed on the new 
establishment, entitle him to an honourable place in the Annals of Ottoman Lite- 
rature. Anxious to render the Imperial Press a permanent monument for the 
improvement of his nation, he appointed the principal men of the State its 
honorary officers ; and sufficient funds were assigned for its support, from the 
Public Treasury. Within two years from the granting of the Imperial permis- a.d. 1728. 

( Ixx ) 


Tohfet al 

Tarikhi Seiali. 

Tarikhi' Hindi' 

sion, the first work issued from the Press of Constantinople. This was the 
Arabic and Turkish Dictionary of Vankuli, ^Jf^i C^Al <-J^, which was in- 
troduced to the Osmanlis as a specimen of the newly-adopted typography. 
This edition of Vankuli's Dictionary consisted of two volumes, in folio ; the first 
containing 666 pages, the second 756. It commences with an Abridgment 
of Arabic Grammar; after which follows the Dictionary, with all the Arabic 
words explained in Turkish, accompanied by the passages in which they occur. 
The original of this work was the Sehah of Gevheri, a native of Farab in Tur- 
kestan. His knowledge of Arabic was so great, that he received the appellation 
of Imamul Loghat, or " The Prince of words." Mohammed ben Mustafa, surnamed 
Vankuli, of Van in Armenia, translated the Dictionary of Gevheri into Turkish ; 
and his work is held in great estimation. The published price of this edition was, 
by order of the Court, thirty-five piastres : it is now become very rare. 

The corrections of so voluminous a work as Vankuli's Dictionary occupying 
a considerable time, Ibrahim, to prevent the presses standing idle, commenced two 
Jess extensive manuscripts ; — Hadgi Khalifehs " Maritime Wars of the Ottomans," 
j[s^\ JJuJt J v UXil tes? i— >H£; and his own work, the Tarikhi Seiah, —Lw* f-p* 
The first of these appeared almost simultaneously with Vankuli's Dictionary: the 
latter was not completed until some time afterwards. The " Maritime Wars of 
the Ottomans " was printed in one volume quarto, adorned with five geographical 
plates, the work of the Director Ibrahim. The Tarikhi Seiah, or " Journal of the 
Traveller," was translated from the Latin of the Missionary Krusinski. It con- 
tains the History of the Invasion of Persia by the Afghans, and the Destruction 
of the Persian Dynasty of Sefi, of which the author was an eye-witness. Ibrahim 
much improved upon the original work in this translation, and corrected many 
errors in the chronology and events which had crept into the original. It was 
printed in the year A.H. 1142 (1729), in one small quarto volume. 

The Tarikhi' Hindi' Garbi, ^_g>^ ^' £fi' was t ^ le next wor ' £ tnat issued from 
the Imperial Press. This is a "History of the West Indies," in Turkish, the 
author of which is unknown : by some it has been ascribed to Hadgi Khalifeh ; 
others have considered Ibrahim its author. It is a curious book, embellished 
with seventeen plates, thirteen of which are descriptive of the natives, the animals, 
and the plants of the New World ; the other four are geographical and astro- 
nomical. The author commences by reviewing the opinions of the Ancients 

C) The full title of this work is *[h J&y) <«-^JWjj ^/jul**! j^> J^j jii -Jj»* g.p i 1 ***-/ 

( lxxi ) 

respecting the globe : he then details the expeditions of the Spaniards and other 
nations ; and gives a particular description of America and its productions. 
Many of the narrations approach somewhat to the marvellous ; but, on the 
whole, it is an interesting work. It was printed by Ibrahim A.H. 1142 (1729), 
and forms a small quarto volume of 182 pages. A complete and perfect copy is 
very rare. 

Immediately after the publication of the preceding work, the Tarilchi Timur Tarikhi Timur. 
Gurkani 1 , ,J&j£ jy*£ f-P> was presented to the Osmanlis. The author was 
Nazmi Zadeh, an elegant and accomplished writer, who took the History of Ebn 
Arabshah for his model. In this work, Timur is represented as a cruel and 
remorseless tyrant, staining his hands with the blood of the most innocent vic- 
tims — a monster, who rejoiced in the carnage of his species, and the destruction of 
their works. It consists of two parts ; the principal of which contains the History 
of Timur ; the other that of Sultan Kali, his grandson, an amiable young prince 
of excessive prodigality, whose love for a lady of great beauty led him into the 
greatest misfortunes. The style is elegant and refined ; but we must not place 
implicit faith in all the narratives, which are frequently too much tinged with 
national prejudice. Nazmi Zadeh wrote his work in 1698, but revised and cor- 
rected the style the following year. The latter is the text which Ibrahim has 
chosen, to which he has prefixed a Preface and a Table of Contents. It forms a 
quarto volume of 258 pages. 

The same year, with the three preceding works, the Tarikhi Misril Kadim Tarikhi Misr. 
ve'l Dgedid, JoA^I } ^jjiil^a* gjj, a " History of Ancient and Modern Egypt," 
issued from the Press. The poet Soheili, who held an official situation at Cairo 
about the year 1629, was the author. The work is divided into two small quarto 
volumes ; the first consisting of 130 pages, and the other of 102. The first 
volume, which is dedicated to Mustafa, the Governor of Cairo, contains the 
History of Egypt from the earliest times to the year of the Hejira 922, when 
Sultan Kansu was defeated by Selim I. near Aleppo. The second volume, dedi- 
cated to Osman Beg, Governor of Memphis, is the History of Modern Egypt. It 
relates the events of Egypt from A.H. 922 (1516), to A.H. 1038 (1629). This 
work is much valued ; the situation in which the author was placed allowing him 

(l) Numerous authors have mistaken this appellation, conceiving it to signify Georgian. Von Hammer 
translates it "grand Imp." Hist. Ott. p. 263. J6j£ or J±-j£, for it is written both ways, is a title 
of Central Asia, and was given to those who were allied by marriage to the Emperors of China. 
Jour. As. (Nouveau), No. 10. 

( lxxii ) 



Nizamul Umem. 


Dgihan Nuuia. 
Takvimi ' Ta- 

Tarikhi Naiina. 
Tarikhi Rashid 
Tchelebi Zadeh 


access to the rarest documents on the subject of the history and antiquities 
of Egypt. 

Another of the labours of Nazmi Zadeh, the Gulsheni Khulifah, lali- >ii£ t__>U£» 
" The History of the Khalifs and the Ottoman Princes, to Ahmed II." was the 
next production of the Imperial Press. It was, in part, a translation from the 
Arabic. It was printed A.H. 1143 (1730), in folio; and contains 260 pages, exclu- 
sive of the Printers address and the Index. 

The " Grammaire Turque r ," a Turkish Grammar, in French, was next printed by 
Ibrahim, at the request of the Franks. It bears no authors name ; but is usually 
attributed to Holderman, a German Jesuit, who resided a long time at Galata. 
To execute this work, a complete fount of European characters was cast, in 
matrices executed in Constantinople : and considering that those who performed 
this labour, as well as the printers of the work, were ignorant of the French cha- 
racters and language, it is much less faulty than might be expected. — A hist of 
thirty-eight errata is prefixed, and as many more might be added. It is, however, 
a curious specimen of typography, and has of late become very scarce. It is a 
small quarto volume of 194 pages, exclusive of the Dedicatory Epistle to Cardinal 
Fleury, the Errata, the Preface, the Introduction, and the Table of Contents. 

In the year A.H. 1144 (1731), two works were printed at the Imperial Press, 
both from the pen of Ibrahim. The Nizamul Umem +>ti\ *!&, which has been pre- 
viously spoken of; and the Fiuzati Magnatisieh, &Xu*As[x^c t^jLiyiJ i_>lo . The 
former is a small quarto volume, of ninety-six pages : the latter consists of 
forty-six pages, with two plates. The Fiuzati Magnatisieh is a Treatise on the 
Power and Use of the Mariners Compass. The author treats of the virtues of the 
Loadstone, the invention of the Mariner's Compass, and its use : his materials 
were drawn from the Arabian and Latin authors who had written on the 
subject. The five succeeding works which issued from Ibrahim's establishment 
have been already alluded to : they were, the Dgihan Numa, l*J ^l^- *-r-^> and 
Takvimi" Tavarikh fji^ f..f^< of Hadgi Khalifeh; the Tarikhi Naima, l^ g^U; 
the Tarikhi Rashid, &$j£jS', and the Tarikhi Tchelebi Zadeh,; u ^i»- £,1". 
These were followed by the History of the Campaigns in Bosnia against the 
Austrians, from 1736 to 1739: it is entitled Ahvali Ghuzevat der Diyari Bosna, 

( r ) " Grammaire Tvrqve, ou Methode Covrte et Facile pour apprendre la Langve Tvrqve. a Const." — A Vocabulary and Dialogues are attached, which, though in many instances very inac- 
curate, have been of much service to me in composing the Vocabulary and Dialogues appended to 
this work. 

( lxxiii ) 

ij^yijj^jd uy^jc J!^»-! i-J'jS''; and bears date A.H. 1154 (1741), consisting of 
sixty-two pages. The author was Omar Efendi, a native of Bosnia ; but the work 
was edited by the indefatigable Ibrahim. It contains an account of the disastrous 
campaign of the Imperialists, which terminated by the Treaty of Belgrade in 1739. 
It differs from our historians in the date of the commencement of this war; which 
is placed A.H. 1149, corresponding to A.D. 1736, while our authors place it in 
1737. After relating the preparations of the Austrians for the invasion of Bosnia, 
it describes the assembling of the army of Ibrahim the Governor, the actions and 
battles which took place in the three campaigns, the victories of the Osmanlis 
which finally drove the Imperialists beyond Belgrade, and the surrender of that 
important fortress to their arms. It concludes with an account of the country and 
its inhabitants, their manners and habits, and the editors reasons for the publi- 
cation of the work. The Firhengi Shiuri i^Sjy^ ii-&* / ', a Persian and Turkish Firhengi Shiuri. 
Dictionary, and a second edition of the Loghati Vankuli .Jy^lj &*J , were the last I^ghati Vankuii. 
of the labours of Ibrahim Efendi. The Firhengi Shiuri is an excellent Dictionary 
of the Persian Language, explained in Turkish ; to which is prefixed a Treatise 
on Persian Grammar. It was printed A.H. 1155 (1742), in two folio volumes; 
the first containing 444 pages, the second 450. The second edition of Vankuli's 
Dictionary issued from the press A.H. 1169 (1756); and differs but very little 
from the former edition, except that the paper is not so good. About this time 
Ibrahim died. With him the soul that animated the Press of Constantinople 
departed, and for twenty-eight years it continued in gloomy silence to mourn his 
loss. During this period no work was printed, and the establishment fell into 
oblivion. This cessation of the labours of the Press has been ascribed to a 
rebellion raised by the numerous Copyists, whose occupation was injured 
by the multiplying powers of the Typographic art: but the true cause was 
the loss of the talented and energetic Director, whose efforts had raised the 
establishment, and whose genius had been its support. The office of Ibrahim was 
conferred on his assistant, Kazi Ibrahim ; but he died without any new work being 
produced; and the war which broke out in 1769 diverting the attention of the 
monarch and the people from the pursuit of Literature, the establishment was 
closed. It is to Sultan Abdul Hamid that the Osmanlis owe the regeneration of 

(*) This work has been translated by Mr. C. Fraser, and was published by the Oriental Translation 

0) ,_5^*£ <!&3>JU ^^.-ijl fS^\ ^U t_>ltf 


( lxxiv ) 

their Typography. On the 18th of the month of Rebiul-evel, in the year of the 
Hejira 1158, which answers to A.D. 1745, this Sultan signed an Imperial decree 
for the re-establishment of the Press. By this, the privilege of printing all 
works in Turkish, Arabic, and Persian, except the books held sacred by the 
Mohammedans, was accorded to the Press. The Chiefs of the Divan became 
its Directors : the most talented among the Osmanlis were alone admissible 
as its superintendants ; and the Institution was again renewed with redoubled 
vigour. Since that period, numerous important Works have been produced: 
and I shall conclude this Essay with as correct a List of these as I have been 
able to obtain. 

1. Tarikhi Sami ve Shagir ve Subhi, L js^° ^ J\£ j -«L* •£. J5 — The Annals of the 
Ottoman Empire before spoken of, from A. Hi 1141 (1728) to'"ll56 (1743). Folio. Printed 

2. Tarikhi Izzi, l _5') c fcfi — A continuation of the former, to the year 1166 (l75l). 
Folio. 1199(1784). 

3. Usoul el Maeref fi Tertib el ordu^ii.J] **-^>j> ,J < >J^J^ Jy*1 — A Treatise on 

Castramentation ; translated from the French of Lafitte. Same date. 

4. Irabil Kiafieh, 4jS&] *— >xl — Commentary on the Grammatical Treatise of Ibnil 
Hadgib. By Zeni Zadeh. 4to. 1200 (1785). 

5. Vaban fenn Laghimdeh Bisalehsi, .untiL, iX^o "J ^l^ — A Translation of 
Vauban on Mining ; with Plates. Folio. 1202(1787). 

6. Laghim Jtisalehsi, .^uddLu . **! — A Treatise on the same subject. 

7. Fenn Harbeh Bisalehsi, ^gutbt., toj*- i — A Translation of Lafitte's Essay on the 
Science of War. Folio. 1202 (1787). 

8. Bisalehfi Koanin Almulahet Utnla, l»c 8»JUl ^V ^ ^*"j — A Translation of 
Truquet's Treatise on Practical Manoeuvre. 8vo. Same date. 

9. Usoul el Maeref fi Vedgeh Tesnif Sifayen Donanma vefenn Tedbir Herekatha, 

L^j». yoJo ~ji . L»Jb«i> li r?.^ u " <—*&*> *?~) ij •— »/*Jl Jy^t — A Treatise on the Con- 
struction and Manoeuvring of Ships of War. 

10. A Translation from a French Military Work. 

11. Kitab Lehdget el Loghat, cyUUI 'its4 u. >& — An Arabic, Persian, and Turkish 
Dictionary. By Mohammed Essad Efendi. Folio. 1210(1795). 

( lxxv ) 

12. Su Bisalesi, -~<siL, yO — A Treatise on Hydraulics. By the Dervish Hafiz. 
12mo. 1212 (1797). " 

13. Subhai Subian, JoJ^> i Ss^' — An Arabic and Turkish Vocabulary. Svo. Same date. 

14. TohfehiVehbi, J&t't&sJ — A Persian and Turkish Vocabulary. 8vo. 1213(1798). 

15. Tableau des Nouveaux Reglemens de l'Empire Ottoman ; compose par Mahmoud 
Rayf-Effendi, ci-devant Secretaire de l'Ambassade Imperiale pres de la Cour d'Angleterre. 
Imprime dans la Nouvelle Imprimerie de Genie sous la Direction d'Abdurrhemin EfFendi, 
Professeur de Geometrie et d'Algebre ; a Constantinople, 1798. Folio. 

16. Tebian Nafi' terdgemehi Borhan Kati', jLls Jity X*»-J> >iL) J+6 — A Turkish 
Translation of the Borhan Kati. By Ahmed Aazim. Folio. 1214 (1799). 

17. Sherhi Tohfehi Vebbi, JJ^ * l&s? —jm — Commentary on the Work of Vehbi. By 
Ahmed Haiti Effendi. 1215 (1800). 

18. Telkhis uleshkial, J&SJl v**=^ — A Treatise on Mining. By Hussein Rifki 
Tamani. 8vo. Same date. 

19. The Third Edition of Vankuli's Dictionary. 2 vols. fol. 1217 (1802). 

20. Elrisalehi ftl Hindeseh, iUJOfl J <siL^ — A Treatise on Practical Geometry. 
4to. plates. Same date. 

21. Tables of Logarithms. 8vo. Without date. 

22. Calculations concerning the Projection of Bombs, reduced to Tables. Svo. Without date. 

23. 24. Usoul Hindeseh, &M&J& Jytfl — A Translation of Bonnycastle's Principles of 
Geometry ; also of his Elements of Practical Geometry, Medgmueh elmuhendesin, ts-y^* 

i„.,vi^Jl 4to. Both without date. 

25. Imtihan Elmuhendesin, jwjJo^JI ^/k^-*! — Examination of Geometrists. By 
Hussein Rifki. 4to. 1217 (1802). 

26. Custom-House Tariff. By Anthony Fontone, in the Russian Service. Same date. 

27. Izhat ul Ezrar, \ju ill^tl — The Manifestations of Secrets; a Grammatical Work, 
by Bergevi. 

28. Mir at Izhar, L&1 i£jyLo — Commentaries on Bergevi's Grammar. By Zeni Zadeh. 
4to. 1218 (1803). 

29. Diatribe de l'Ingenieur Mustafa sur l'etat actuel de l'Art Militaire, du Genie et des 
Sciences a Constantinople. Same date. 

( lxxvi ) 

30. Risalehi Bergevi, f_sjij> *<tL. — An Abridgment of the Precepts of the Moham- 
medan Religion. Small 4to. 1218 (1803). 

31. A Geographical Atlas of Twenty-four Maps, as a Supplement to the Dgihan Numa; 
with Explanations. Translated from the English. Large folio. 1219 (1804). 

32. Shurut Essalat, l^L\ \s ;j Z — An Elementary Book on Religion. Svo. 1219 (1804). 

33. Dgevherehi Ahmedieh, i^S^s-\ s %Ji^a- — A Commentary on the Vasiyeh of Bergevi. 
Same date. 

34. Tarikhi Vassaf, i_aJ?lj f.p — Vassaf's Annals of the Empire, from 1166 (1752) to 
1187(1773). Same date. 

35. Feraid ul Fevaid, Jojyiil &>)j» — A work on Religion, by Ahmed Mohammed Emin. 
4to. 1220 (1805). 

36. Sherhi AvamU dgedid el Bergevi, ^Jfj&\ ^^?- (S*\j£ rJ & — A Commentary on 
the Grammar and Logic of Bergevi. By Mustafa ben Ibrahim. Same date. 

37. A work with the same title, and on the same subject. By Hussein ben Ahmed Zadeh. 
Same date. 

3S. El Borhan, J&jx\ — An Arabic Logic, by Ismael Efendi, 1221 (1806). 

39. Eldourer Elmuntekhabet elmunsureh fi Islah ul ghalatat elmushureh, ..Jji 
ZjjqbJ) isjllaUjl —ho\ J *j£*J\ itekr^Jl — A Philological Work, by the Dervish Hafiz. 
4to. 1221 (1806). 

40. Sherhi Izhar al Israr, .Um)V JJ»] _,£ — A Second Edition of Zeni Zadeh's Com- 
mentaries on Bergevi's Grammar. 1224 (1809). 

41. Sherh ul Fevaid Ziayeh, <oUws Sj)Jo) -.£ — Commentary on the Kiafieh of Ibni 
Malek, by the Poet Jami. Without date. 

42. Kitab el harem, +js?\ <*-Jj& — A Commentary on the preceding work. 1226 (l81l). 

43. Kitabi Menasik Elhadg, i)| uULUu i^JjS — A Book of Ceremonies for the Pil- 
grims who resort to Mecca. By EUiadji Mohammed Edib ben Mohammed. 1232 (1818). 

44. Sarf dgumlehsi, ^ u <d v »- i_jye — A Complete Course of Grammar. 1233 (1818). 

45. Sherh ul Akaid ul Azad'tyeh, <0 J*a*i1 iXjIaju) _«£ — On Metaphysics, by the 
celebrated Sheikh Dgelaleddin Eddevani. 1233 (18 IS). 

( lxxvii ) 

46. Elokianos Elbasil ft' lerdgemeh el Kamus el Mohit, S^s-y ^ laj"*^) (j-yl*»j*' 
laAsJl fj* yd\M I — A Translation of the Arabic Dictionary, entitled, " Kamus, or The Ocean." 
By Abul Kemal Esseid Ahmed Aazim. Folio. 1233 (1818). 

47. Glossary ofDivani's Commentary on the Dogmas. By Molla Kalembevi. 4to. Same date. 

48. Three Treatises on Arabic Grammar. 1234 (1819). 

49. Appendix or Supplement to the Glossary entitled Teshib. By Mir Abul Feth Essaidi. 

50. Appendix to the Glossary of Mir Teshib of the Commentary of Divani ; containing the 
work of Abdul Adhadi. By Abdul Kalembevi. 4to. Same date. 

51. Silkuti's Appendix, or Supplement to the Glossary of Khiali on the Commentary of 
Teftasani, relative to the Dogmas of Nessefi. 4to. Same date. 

52. A work on Medicine and Anatomy. By Khani Zadeh Mohammed Ata Allah. Fifty- 
six Plates. Folio. 1235 (1820). 

I have now brought this Essay to a conclusion. In length, it has far ex- 
ceeded my original intention ; yet it contains nothing but a faint outline of the 
Language and Literature of the Turks. 1 have merely sketched the general 
features of the subject ; fearful of dwelling on any portion, lest I should overstep 
the bounds of a Preliminary Discourse. An immense sea of literature remains 
unnavigated : pearls and gems abound in its depths : and in offering my frail bark 
to guide the adventurous Student, whose thirst after knowledge may prompt him 
to explore the hidden treasures of Turkish Literature — the Diplomatist, whose 
duty to his country, the Traveller, whose curiosity, or the Merchant whom the 

demands of commerce, may lead to require the assistance of the language 

I natter myself, though imperfections may be visible to the critic's eye, that it 
will nevertheless enable them to attain the knowledge they require, and the 
objects which they seek. 

This Grammar of the Turkish Language was composed about five years 
ago, during the author's leisure hours, and with no intention of submitting 
it to the Press. It was subsequently considered, however, that, as we possessed 
no similar work, it might not be unacceptable, if presented to the public : 
and the Sultan having graciously accorded his permission for the dedication 
of the work to him, it was, about twelve months ago, determined that the 
Manuscript should be prepared for the Press. The Professional studies of the 

( lxxviii ) 

author, and his desire to relinquish the pursuit of Oriental Literature, rendered 
him unwilling to perform this task. It was undertaken hy Mr. Mitchell, whose 
knowledge of the language is of no limited extent : but, unfortunately, the call 
of that Gentleman to Constantinople, and his subsequent appointment in the 
Asiatic Society, prevented his fulfilling this undertaking according to his original 
intention : and the author has been obliged to devote such portions of his time as 
could be spared from his Professional studies, to the correction of the work. He 
is however much indebted to the valuable assistance of Mr. Mitchell. To these 
circumstances must be chiefly attributed the delay which has taken place in 
the appearance of this work ; — in presenting which to the public, the author bids 
adieu to the Literature of the East ; consoling himself with the hope that his 
labours may not prove altogether useless, and that they may be sufficient to 
supply the long-required link of that chain of languages, by means of which a 
learned and elegant Writer has declared a man may travel with satisfaction from 
the source of the Nile to the wall of China". 

( u ) Sir William Jones's Preface to his Persian Grammar, p. xviii. — " In short, there is scarce a country 
in Asia or Africa, from the source of the Nile to the wall of China, in which a man who understands 
Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, may not travel with satisfaction, or transact the most important affairs 
with advantage and security." 



J^ (Z 

ft. I. 

Finals ■. 

Me dials. 

Initials . 

Corresjooruli no 
Turkis/i Letters . 









f tf 

c9- r 


A3. *r 

14-. . !/w H 

id". *■> c_ 

>6. o >- 










♦j • 

1? o 

- A 

J* 4 





J-Ne&terrti/t LrMvp: S4- t Leicester Square. 





The Ancient Turkish or Ouigour Alphabet consisted of Sixteen Letters, which gave birth 
to the various Alphabets of Tatary. Since the adoption of the Religion of Mohammed, this 
Alphabet has been disused ; and the Turks now employ the Arabian and Persian Characters. 
(See Plate I.) 

The Modern Turkish Alphabet consists of Thirty-three Letters; which vary in form 
according to their position, being divided into Initials, Medials, and Finals. 

Twenty-eight of these Letters are borrowed from the Arabians, four from the Persians, 
and the remaining Letter is peculiar to the Turks ; and as the knowledge of their origin 
frequently serves to point out the derivation of words, they are distinguished in the 
Alphabetical Table by the letters A, P, and T. The Characters used in the Alphabetical 
Table, and throughout this work, are those of the Arabians, called Niskhi ; which are 
employed by most of the Oriental Nations, and are the only forms which can be well 
imitated by our types. 

The Turkish, like most of the Eastern Dialects, is written from right to left ; so that 
their books begin where ours end. 

( 2 ) 


A. P. T. 


A. P. T. 



A. P. 

A. P. T. 

A. P. T. 
A. P. T. 



A. P. T. 

A. P. 

A. P. 

A. P. 


S a 

h = 















































£ = 







a e i u 
b jo 

a th 




d t 

z dh 







t d 


b p 


s th 

<% j 


d t 
z dh 









z s 





Pa, or Ba-i-adgemi. 




Tchim, or Dgim-i-adgemi. 




Zal, or Dhal. 



Zha, or Za-i-adgemi. 









( 3 ) 

A. P. T. 


A. P. T. 
A. P. T. 
A. P. T. 

A. P. 









6 S 

i i 

'■* S 






« v 





» ng 





i y 


n ng 



v wo u 

ee i y 





Oaf, or Raf-i-adgemi. 





Vaw, or Waw. 



To this list is often added 51 Lam-alif, which is only a combination of the letters (J Lam 
and 1 Alif. 

Each of the above letters is capable of being joined to that which follows it ; except I Alif, 
i$ Dal, t) Zal, j Ba, j Za, _} Zha, ^ Waw, and 51 Lam-alif; as in the following words : 
ilob yatak, " a bed" ,0J\ azhdar, " a dragon ;" ^0l adem, " a man ;" ^^S kupri, "a bridge ;" 
^Siijsi lakerdi, "conversation." 

The letters _ Dgim, _ Tchim, — Ha, and j. Kha, cause all the connected letters 
preceding them to be raised to the height of their upper limbs ; as, -S^.U tarikhdgi, " an 
historian;" ast^ tashih, "a correction." The letter , Mim likewise generally raises the 
letters preceding it; as, <^Xc\ etmek, "bread;" A^s- hammam, "a bath." 

In order to fill up a line or space, the connecting strokes of the letters are frequently extended j 
as in the following example: +J~ » .J\ ._^&-^_J1 <ni!l *wJ Bismillah-ir-rehman-ir-rehhn, 
In the name of the most merciful God." 

( 4 ) 


The letter \ Alif has naturally the sound of our a in all; but by the action of the vowel 
points, &c, of which we shall speak hereafter, it may have the sound of au, i (ee), e, or ii ; as, 
C2j I aut, " a horse ;" i_>l ip, " a rope ;" (^Ivil elmas, " a diamond ;" ,ye\ umur, " business." 
Before the letters j Waw and ,_y Ya, Alif frequently loses its sound ; as, <Jx«l oghttl, 

a son ;" ClAjjJ inek, " a cow." This is one of the vowel letters. 

<_> Ba, or Be, has the sound of our b ; but at the end of words, and before and after the 
letters cy Ta, <£j Sa, _ Dgim, ±. Kha, ^ Sin, ^ Shin, ^o Sad, \d Tai, Q Kof and 
vi/ Kaf-i-adgemi, it takes the sound of t__> Ba-i-adgemi, answering to our p ; as, C_^a hep, 
"all;" Jayi zept, "government;" (j^xs kapuk, "the bark of a tree." In writing also, as well 
as sound, i_> Ba is frequently changed into i__> Ba-i-adgemi; thus, <—>£> top, "a cannon," 
originally v_ jAs tob. 

l_j Ba-i-adgemi is the same in sound as the English p. It is a Persian letter ; and is seldom 
found, except in words taken from that language ; which is also the case with the other three- 
pointed letters, _ Dgim-i-adgemi, i Za-i-adgemi, and lL/ or <L) Kaf-i-adgemi. 

o Ta and Li-> Sa answer to our t and s; as, .—Li^J timsah, "a crocodile;" i_>l»j| 
eswab, " clothes." The cl> Ta, however, sometimes takes the sound of d; and i*j Sa is 
frequently pronounced like th; as, IS kusar, kuthar: and in reading the Koran, or quotations 
from the Arabic, the sound of th is with propriety retained. 

_ Dgim has the sound of our g in the word age, which sounds as if written adge ; as, 
_l adg, " hunger." At the end of a word, and before and after the letters mentioned in 
the remarks on the letter <_j Ba, it sometimes takes the sound of _ Dgim-i-adgemi, 
answering to our tch} as, 1> pilitch, "a chicken." 

_ Dgim-i-adgemi, or Tchim, answers to our ch ; as in the word church, or the Italian c in 
the word cecita, which sound as if the letter t were prefixed; as, CAs?" tchitchek, " a flower." 

_ Ha is a strong aspirate, something like the French h in harpe, or the German f) in fyaben ; 
as, »*£»- hakim (hhakim), " wise." 

^ Kha is a strong aspirated guttural, which cannot be well expressed by any combination of 
English letters, there being no corresponding sound in our language. It has a similar sound 
to the German and Scotch ch, as in bttclj, loch; and to the Spanish j, and Hebrew !"!, as in 
hijo, 1DP1. 

( 5 ) 

t> Dal answers to our d; but at the end of a word, and before and after the letters 
mentioned in the remarks on the letter t_J Ba, it frequently takes the sound of t; as, yjj 
betgu, "a slanderer." 

j Zal, or Dhal, is the same sound as our z; as, £d zerreh, "an atom;" though, in many 
words taken from the Arabic, it has the sound of dh, or of our hard th, as in then. 

. Ba, and •. Za, answer to the letters r and z ; as, ^Ajm serdar, " a commander ;" ^jfjj 
Zengi, "an Ethiopian." 

j Zha, or Za-i-adgemi, has the same sound as the French _;' in joujou, which is similar to 
the English z, or s, in azure, pleasure ; which a Turk would write «tjj joujou ; ; yj\ azure ; 
..^L pleasure. It may be represented by the letters zh, as it bears the same affinity to z 
that sh does to s ; as, J - t>J zhekazh, ' a small mirror." 

.wv <SV», and jl Shin, have the same sounds as our s, and sh, in «oo«, ff/ia/l ; as, fjJl^cjm 
sermeshk, " a copy." 

fjo Sad, and ,*j Zarf, answer to our 8 and 2; as, ^s.Lo sari, "yellow;" } yb zerer, 
"an injury" The letter i>e Zad is, in some parts, pronounced like d; as, ^j[» kadi for 
kazi, "a judge." 

5s Tai is usually pronounced like our t; as, <^l^ls ££66, medicine :" sometimes, however, 
it takes the sound of d; as, jjb damar, ' a vein." 

)a Zai has the same sound as : Za, J Zal, and ,jo Zad; as, 1 su^li ^en/j "smooth:" 

it sometimes takes the sound of * ; as, Ua=d lahsa (Lahsa), " a country." 

c Aim, and c Ghain, are two harsh Arabic letters: the Turks, however, have softened 
down much of their original asperity. The c Ain, when initial and medial, has no fixed 
sound, being entirely controlled by the power of the vowel points ; so that it may have the 
sound of a, i, 6, or u ; as, Joe amber, " ambergris ;" liL,,*] limaz, " a vain boaster ;" ^l^ie 
Osman, "Osman;" 1,1c Vlema, "the learned." Sometimes c Ain is a mere cipher, 
coalescing with the sound of the letter preceding it; as, Civile 1 idnet, "assistance." At the 
end of a word, this letter sometimes has the power of da, with a kind of nasal sound ; as, «^>. 
dgemaa, " an assembly." The letter £ Ghain answers to our g hard, or gh ; as, J: gham, 
" care ;" ij^> morgh, " a bird." 

i__s Fa answers to our/; as, ^^cj firman, "a command." 
i' Kofhas a harsh sound, somewhat resembling the English k ; as, y>] J Krako, " Cracow." 
Before a vowel, either expressed or understood, and either in the same word or in the word 

( 6 ) 

immediately following, the letter ;• Kef is changed into £ Ghain; as, Xi^M*) oyunmagheh, 
"to play," from JhrHjl oyunemak, fc^Ujdi" kalpaghun, genitive case of 2jJj' kalpak, 

a cap." Sometimes the letters remain, and the sound alone is changed ; as, ijl> I Jjji kirghat, 
"forty horses." 

t^J Kaf answers to our c hard; it has a softer sound than Kof and seems as if the letter i 
were interposed between it and the following letter; as, -i S kiorfuz, " a gulf or bay ;" ^jfc 
kiafuri, "camphire." CJ Kaf is frequently changed into \£j Kaf-i-adgemi, in the same 
manner as i' Kof into £ Ghain; as, »^Jjo»£ kiepeghuh, genitive case of CLX>«£ kiopek, 

a dog." 

lL/ O-^-O Kaf-i-adgemi, or Gra/ 1 , has the sound of our £ hard; as, ^ gah, "a place." 
The Turks frequently suppress the sound of this letter, in the same manner as we do that of 
our g in the words foreign, sign, &c.; as, lijJj bey, or bei, for beg, "a prince;" ^J^y- 
■suilun for sugilun, " a pheasant." * 

\D Saghir-noon is a letter peculiar to the Turkish language : it usually has the sound of 
the French nasal n in son, or the gn in Charlemagne, and sometimes that of our English n ; 
as, CJX« sihek "a fly;" jij deniz, "the sea;" i_S" rv~ «_S^. 9 e ™ tcheri, "a janissary;" 
>-LXj| ataw, "of a horse." The Tatar nations give it the full sound of our ng in thing, 
song, &c. ; as, i^Jju* senung, " thine." 

J Za/M and t Mim answer to our I and m ; as, (J*! toa?, " a ruby ;" &< uLo makramah, 
" a handkerchief." 

^ iVoow has the sound of our n; as, liftl enginar, "an artichoke." When this letter 
precedes t__> ba, or i_> Ba-i-adgemi, it takes the sound of »?,- as, JjuJ: zembil, " a basket," 
.UJ! ambar, "a barn," as if written (J^*j» j^*'' 

^ Ware, or Fau, has usually the sound of w or 0, when initial, and that of ou, u, or 6, when 
medial and final; as, k»J. wasit, "a mediator;" ^yl^ uai', "alas!; Jj*ii doutam, 
" a handful ;" »j1 ayw, " a bear " Leo boglia, " a bull." This is one of the vowel letters, though, 
like the English re, it is frequently a consonant ; as, ^1 ev, " a house ;" .1 am, " prey." 

» i?«, or .He, is a slight aspiration, like h in herb ; as, 'i£l& helaket, " destruction." It is 
the mere act of breathing ; and is so easy of performance, that the Orientals say that God 
created the world by merely pronouncing it ; intimating the ease with which the Almighty made 

* The three dots, or straight line, are never used in common writing ; and seldom even in books. 

( 7 ) 

all things. This letter, when final, is not aspirated, but serves as a vowel ; as in <H< y^s*. tchizme, 
" a boot." It frequently has two points placed over it thus, ii, but it then becomes t ; as, £cL, 
s aet, " an hour :" this, however, is only found in Arabic words, which, when used in Turkish, 
usually change ii into cd ; as, k>\j» or i«^o! J kerabet, 'affinity." 

^ Ya answers to the sound of the English ee or y, as in the words feel, happy ; and to 
the Italian and French i; as, juu yak'in, or yakeen, ' truth" CUyib yakiit, "a precious 
stone." This letter is both vowel and consonant. 

51 Lam-alif is a combination of the letters (J Lam and 1 Alif, having the sound of la ; as, 
M lala, an instructor." 

There are several letters in the Turkish Alphabet which are permutable, being used one 
for another: the most usual changes are between o, ii, and \d ; as, .jVy, ,}v^> or 
^j.1s totmak, "to hold;" ,,* and ^jc; as, (Jy* or Jvo. suul, "the left;" ;• and c, and 
ufj and lL/ ; for which see the remarks on those letters, pp. 5, 6. 


The Turks have four letters which are called vowels ; viz. ! j i and ,_$ : these, however, 
hardly deserve that denomination, as their sounds are entirely governed by certain marks or 
points called vowel points, which are always either expressed or understood, and which either 
confirm or destroy the sounds of the vowel letters. These points are three in number : _ Ustun, 
i*ijl; ~ Esreh, ZjJ\; and — Oteru, jj%l. — Ustun answers to the Fatha of the 
Arabians : it is placed over the letter it governs, to which it gives the sound of a, or e • as, 

IJI, alma, "an apple;" ijj>f\ etmek, "bread." ~ Esreh answers to the Arabian Kesra, 
and is placed under the letter it governs, to which it gives the sound of ee, or t (Italian) ; 
as, iLuL*. silsileh, " a chain." _1 Oteru answers to the Damma of the Arabians, and is, like 
Ustun, placed over the letter it governs, to which it gives the sound of ii, or 6 ; as, ^ »ii, 
water ;" yy kokil, " a scent." 

When Ustun is placed over Alif, Esreh under Ya, and Oteru over Waw, they are called 
homogeneous, having their natural vowels ; and confirm the sounds of those letters, rendering 
them rather longer; as, Li) ana, "a mother;" ^jiiidiri, "living" .!>] eilrii, "before." 

( 8 ) 

When, however, these vowels are otherwise placed, they are called heterogeneous ; and either 
form diphthongs, comprising the sounds both of vowel point and vowel letter ; or the sound of the 
vowel point prevails, that of the letter being destroyed ; as, u^oj biit, " a house ;" ij*'** 
yauash, " gentle ;" Joul um'id, " hope." When these vowel points are doubled, thus, _ ~ 

— , they are called Iki ustun i JL»*\ ^J^A , Iki esreh x-*i! Jj} , and Iki oterii jJj! JL>) ; 
and are used at the ends of words, to which, in addition to their respective sounds of a, i, 

and U, they give the sound of n; as, l^J dctiman, "always;" -*ols kazin, "like a judge;" 
Jy kirdon, ' an ape." This form is borrowed from the Arabians ; and is not much in use 
among the Turks, who seldom sound the nunnation, except in reading the Koran, or Books of 
the Law, or for the sake of rhythm, where a verse ends in it. The sounds of these vowel points 
may be better seen as follows : 

__> or U, ba or be; as in balm, bake. 
Esreh, i_j or j, bi or bee; as in bin, been. 
Oteru, LL> or J, bii or bo; as in bull, bane. 
Iki ustun, u_> or b, ban, bin. 
Iki esreh, u_> or j, bin, been. 
Iki oteru, t_l> or j>, bun, bon. 

The vowel points are but seldom expressed in printed books or manuscripts ; which creates 
great confusion, as the sense in a great measure depends on them ; words of the same letters, 
frequently, having different significations, according to the points with which they are read. In 
some of the best modern Turkish manuscripts a vowel point is expressed wherever the sense 
of the word might be otherwise doubtful, which is a system it would be well to follow. 

Besides the above-mentioned vowel points, there are five Marks or Points, which also, in 
some measure, serve to regulate the pronunciation of the language : these are, — Meddah, 
— Hamzah, JL Teshdid, — Ouzoun, and — Dgesm. 

"H Meddah (xj^J signifies extension, and broadens or extends the sound of the Alif over 
which it is placed, giving it the sound of our au in aught ; as, c> I aut, a horse," as if 
spelt with two Alifs. This character is also used as a sign of abbreviation ; as, * for * ysr° 

( 9 ) 

Moharrem, the name of a month ; l__> for t--*^; redgeb; <0 for &]*»*) BismUlah, "in the 
Name of God" S\ for Jb <*U! J&J1 ^#aA ^WaA Am, "God a?o«e exists (eternally)." 

— Hamzah ($;»*) has a contrary effect to the Meddah, as it softens the letter over which 

* f 

it is placed; as, IJU mewa, a refuge;" j£»£> tekhir, delay." This mark points out 

the place of Alif where omitted, and is the usual attendant of whatever point it is governed by. 
It also serves to shew the Accusative Cases of those Nouns and Pronouns which end in t or ,_j ; 
as, 'i^Us^. tcheshmehi, ' the fountain ;" *Jifl-« muftii, the priest." 

-L TesM'id (joJs^j) causes the letter over which it is placed to sound as if it were doubled ; 
as, jjjli> dellal, "a broker;" i".-'"^- dgennet, a garden." If used over a letter following 
the Arabic Article J! al, it has the effect of rendering the J mute ; as, i^&J] eshshems, 

the sun." This character may be placed over any letter, except Alif; and is used to prevent 
the collision of similar letters, or harshness of sound. 

_1 Ouzoun Cjjj J) is placed over Alif for the same purpose as Meddah : it also points out 
its place, if omitted; as, ifilji for ifi^..X> karish, a span." 

1. Dgesm (,»}»-) is placed over such letters as have no vowel points, and whose sounds 
consequently continue unaltered; as, ^_< Mari/am, Mary." It also serves to shew the end 
of a syllable. 


The Turks, properly speaking, have no Article : its place, however, is supplied by the 
Demonstrative Pronoun o bu and the Numeral Adjective j bir, which answer to our Definite 
and Indefinite Articles; as, f&\%> bu adem, the man;" cjucj bu qrcret, "the woman;" 
(jJj^ bir reis, "a head" Tone single head); {JZ-j^/, Mr orish, "a blow." The Indefinite 
Article is also sometimes formed after the Persian manner, by the addition of the letter ,c ; 
as, ^bJj bulbuli, " a nightingale." 

I have examined the rose-garden of the world from end to end, 
But never have I found a rose which had not a thorn to wound its breast." 


( io ) 

The Turkish Substantives have no difference of termination to express their Genders : all 
inanimate things are Neuter : and living creatures have either different names to express their 
sexes; as,^l er, "a man" CL^c qmret, "a woman;" Icjj bogha, "a bull;" tiUjj inek, 
a cow:" or they are formed by prefixing . \ er, or <iJJ\1 erkek, for the Masculine, and y kiz, 
jij kiz, or < J^A dishi, for the Feminine ; as, yjlcjl Ji er oghlan, " a boy" (a male child) ; 
yjlcjl y kiz oghlan, "a girl" (a female child); ^iljJj,! er karindash, "a brother " 
^jZ)i*Jj»jiS kiz karindash, "a sister" ^1*.! <jJS\ erkek arslan, "a lion" ^^U.l l JZ*>A 
dishi arslan, a lioness." The Turks also frequently use the Persian and Arabian Genders. 


There are two Numbers, Singular and Plural. The Plural is formed from the Singular by 
the addition of J ler or lar ; as, l<d\ ddemler, men;" Jol atler, horses;" Jlcl aghalar, 

lords." The subjoining J ler, in order to form the Plural, must precede the addition of the 
letters which serve to form the Cases of the Noun ; as, i^«LLci> I ddemlerun, of men." 

The roses and tulips are like the blooming cheeks of beautiful maids, 

In whose ears hang varied gems, like drops of dew." 
The Turks sometimes use the Persian and Arabic Numbers ; but this is mostly in words taken 
from those languages whose Plurals may be formed either according to their own or the 
Turkish manner, at the pleasure of the writer or speaker : thus i_>.i> kitab, a book," may 

have for its Plural either L^i^ kutb, l^jlif kitabha, or JJjS kitabler; ^LfJ gurg, " a wolf," 
either \£j£ gurgan, or yii gurgler; cJu^i. sherif, "a noble," either s [»jZ, sherfa, or 
JJuj<£ sherifler. 


There are two Declensions of Substantives. The First Declension consists of such Nouns as 

end in a consonant; as, cul at, "a horse;" .1 er, ' a man;" ^"LuJ arslan, a lion;" {JmIIs 

tauk, a fowl." The Second, of such Nouns as end in one of the vowel letters 1 « 8 or (_y ; 

as, bb baba, "a father " »>ji kapu, "a gate ;" !Sji> deveh, "a camel " ^JJ-* mufti, "a priest." 

^iii.l erkek, and £jd dishi, are only used to form the sexes of the names of animals. 

( « ) 

There are a few exceptions to this rule ; consisting of those Nouns in which « and ,_$ 
are consonants; as, .1 dm, " prey, booty ;" j\ ev, a house;" jjAt-to pishrew, ' a leader;" 
^jU* tchai, "a river;" which are declined as Nouns of the First Declension. Also, Nouns 
ending in s, with two points over it, are considered as consonants. 


The Turks have six Cases, answering to those of the Latins ; which are formed in the fol- 
lowing manner : 

The Genitive (SiLe^) of the First Declension is formed by adding CJ uii to the Nominative. 
The Genitive Singular of the Second Declension is formed by adding CAJ nun ; the Genitive 
Plural being formed in the same manner as the First Declension. In the Tatar Dialects, the 
Genitive, in both Declensions, is formed by adding ^J!jj nng, or jjouo ning, to the Nomina- 
tive; thus, j,S\ adem, "a man;" Gen. ££Xx*ii\ ademnng, or ^XyJUiil ademning. 

The Dative (<ds>-J! <J*x&J}) is formed from the Nominative, by adding 5 eh for the First 
Declension, and <b yeh for the Singular of the Second. In the Tatar, it is formed by adding 
\$ ga, or Ac ghah; as, dfljl shagird, "a scholar" Dat. l?jAi sliagirdga: \—JG$ketab, 
a book ;" Dat. &kxi£ ketabghah. 

The Accusative (&> (Jjjia^ll) is formed by adding ^ i for the First Declension, and _j yi 
for the Singular of the Second. In Tatar, it is formed simply by the addition of J ni. 

The Vocative (,_$ iXxJl) is the same as the Nominative ; but, for the sake of distinction, the 
Particle b ya, ,_$] ai, _^j behi, b! ay a, or jsj bireh, is prefixed. The Vocative is also 
sometimes formed by the addition of the letter 1 Alif. 

The Ablative (&**, (L*ajl) is formed by the addition of ^0 den, or ten, in both Declensions. 
In the Tatar Dialects, the Ablative is formed by adding ^0 dan or ^ii to the Nominative. 

A A 

Her neck was fair as the moon ; Her lips were sweeter than honey. 

Her hyacinthine tresses were scattered over her rosy face ; Thousands of hearts and 

souls hung on each lock. 
Compared with her lips, the ruby was valueless ; Her mouth rendered sweetness ashamed." 

( 12 ) 






N. i£j\ at, a horse. 

G. CJo 1 aft/«, of a horse. 

D. del I afeA, to a horse. 

Ac. J! ati, the horse. 

V. cu 1 b ya at, o horse. 

Ab. ^Jo! a#e», from a horse. 

£j\ ^, 

a Horse. 




o#er, horses. 



ailerun, of horses. 



atlereh, to horses. 



dtleri, the horses. 



ya a#er, o horses. 




atlerden, from horses 






ji)l ddem, a man. 

* r _ 

lL^cO I ddemuh, of a man. 

<Uii I ddemeh, to a man. 

_»i> I ddemi, the man. 
ytjT^l oj ddem, o man. 

Ab. ^^(i! ddemdan, from a man. 

Adetn, a Man. 

N. X«ii1 ddemler, men. 

G. C*LLm> I ademlerun, of men. 
D. xLeiiT ddemlereh, to men. 

Ac. ,j Xct>l ademleri, the men. 
V. Jl*i> 1^1 oi ddemler, o men. 
Ab. ^O^LcjT ddemlerden, from men. 

( jaU» Kalpak, a Cap. 

N. JfJi kalpak, a cap. 

G. CJJoIj kalpaghun, of a cap. 
D. <K*a1» kalpagheh, to a cap. 

Ac. .j*^ kalpaghi, the cap. 

V. sji b ya kalpak, o cap. 

Ab. jjJJul* kalpakten, from a cap. 


N. ji£jJi' kalpakler, caps. 

G. i^JjLSjJi' kalpaklerun, of caps. 

D. Si^V^ kalpaklereh, to caps. 

Ac. tjrJtaUi kalpakleri, the caps. 

V. AftjJji b ya kalpakler, o caps. 

Ab. glials kalpaklerden, from caps. 

N. ^^4 kopek, a dog. 
G. ^JX>ȣ kopegun, of a dog. 
D. *&4 kopegeh, to a dog. 
Ac. ,«&}£ kopegi, the dog. 
V. CXkf b ya kopek, o dog. 
Ab. yjJsXj^ kopekfen, from a dog. 

( 13 ) 

(iljjS Kopek, a Dog. 


JX>ȣ kopekler, dogs. 
CJ AXjj^ kopeklerun, of dogs. 
is JXu£ kopeklereh, to dogs. 
,_$ JX>.£ kopekleri, the dogs. 
i£j}£ b ya kopekler, o dogs. 






Ab. ^j£j£ kopeklerden, from dogs. 

For the variations contained in the two preceding examples, see remarks on the letters 
J ir<2f and CJ JTa/, pages 5, 6. 




e», a house. 



euwra, of a house. 



eueA, to a house. 



evf, the house. 



ya ev, o house. 

Ab. fcjJ'j! evden, from a house 

_jl .Efl, a House. 


N. J«l ettfer, houses. 

G. viJJjl evlerun, of houses. 

D. 8 J} I evlereh, to houses. 

Ac. (_y Jjl evleri, the houses. 

V. Jj! b ya eitfer, o houses. 

Ab. ^4>Jjl evlerden, from houses. 

Ab. yjii^wijo pishrewden, from a leader. 


■ySou Pishrew, a Leader. 
N. }j'* t ii pishrew, a leader. 

G. \£jmJmM pishrewun, of a leader. 
D. *}j»*+i p'ishreweh, to a leader. 
Ac. ^jjZjj pishrewi, the leader. 
V. }j™~}% b ya p'ishrew, o leader. 

J.jdjo pishrewler, leaders. 
G. CJU. yijo pishrewlerun, of leaders. 
D. jsJ.j&jo pishrewlereh, to leaders. 
Ac. ,_$ AAii ptihrewleri, the leaders. 
V. Jj/ijo b ya pishrewler, o leaders. 

Ab. (^iJJj-ijo pishrewlerden, from leaders. 



( H ) 

i_sb>. Tchdi, a River. 


N. j^* 1 shatter, rivers. 

G. tiJjbU- tchdilerun, of rivers. 

D. !S y Ai^- tchailereh, to rivers. 

Ac. ^j^IjU- tchdileri, the rivers. 

V. ^U>- ^5! ai' tchailer, o rivers. 

Ab. (jiiJaU- tchdilerden, from rivers. 

l_«U- tchdi, a river. 
CLAjU- tchdiun, of a river. 
<dU- tchdieh, to a river. 
jU>- tehdii, the river. 
V. ^U- i^l ai tchdi, o river. 
Ab. {j^4^- tchdiden, from a river. 

The three preceding examples, though ending in « and im g, are of the First Declension, 
those letters being considered as consonants. 




bb Baba, a Father 
N. bb baba, a father. 
G. uSJJbb babanuh, of a father. 
D. <iobb babayeh, to a father. 
Ac. ^_jUL> babayi, the father. 
V. bb ,_yl ai" baba, o father. 
Ab. jjjjbb babadan, from a father. 


ybb babaler, fathers. 

liJjJbb babalerun, of fathers. 

x Jbb babalereh, to fathers. 

Ac. (_s >!bb babaleri, the fathers. 

V. Jbb ,_$! <M babaler, o fathers. 

Ab. yjtJ^ibb babalerdcn, from fathers. 

^i Ji, Kughu, a Swan. 

»r »S kughu, a swan. 
CJojiJ kughunun, of a swan. 
(OjiJi kughuyeh, to a swan. 
.jh&jj kughuyi, the swan. 
Ab. ufifi? kughuden, from a swan. 


N. j^y kughuler, swans. 

G. CJ J«i y kughulerun, of swans. 
D. *J£? kughulereh, to swans. 

Ac. jcJ.cJi kughuleri, the swans. 
Ab. jji) JjcJ' kughulerden, from swans. 

( 15 ) 

N. ,_y ,1 dri, a bee. 
G. «_LAjb,1 anwM», of a bee. 
D. lu.\ dr'ieh, or iJjj] any eh, to a bee 
Ac. *(_S;' ^ r "> ^ e ^ e - 



ariden, from a bee. 

.<4ri', a Bee. 


N. ^1j,I driler, bees. 

G. lL) Ju ; . I drilerwh, of bees. 

D. s^l dfilereh, to bees. 

Ac. cS^jt drileri, the bees. 

Ab. ^jt^Jo , T drilerden, from bees. 

a^Sja- Tcheshmeh, A Fountain. 
N. (iL^io- tcheshmeh, a fountain. 

G. CJo&^ijs. tchesmeh nun, of a fountain. 
D. & ;&,»£*»- tcheshmeh yeh, to a fountain. 
Ac. jA^Ls. tcheshmeh y'i, or "<S,>I>^. tcheshmehi, the fountain. 
Ab. jjt) <£,£*•- tcheshmeh den, from a fountain. 


N. ^ai^Alj.- tcheshmeh ler, fountains. 

G. LfJ JiJ^iius- tcheshmeh leruh, of fountains. 
D. *J ■*.-*£ tcheshmeh ler eh, to fountains. 
Ac. j_5^1 <X»<ij»- tcheshmeh lefi, the fountains. 
Ab ^ji^Ia^js- tcheshmeh ler den, from fountains. 

There are a few Nouns, which have a slight irregularity in their declension, caused by the 
insertion of a letter, to prevent the concurrence of similar sounds. The following is an example : 




vo su, water. 
<*ZJ^.y0 suiuh, of water. 
Oiyo suieh, to water. 
-j yo suit, the water, 
yjdyo sudan, from water 

yo Su, Water. 

N. J>ye sular, waters. 

G. C JJtyo sularun, of waters. 
D. sjyc sulareh, to waters. 

Ac. i^)yo sulari, the waters. 
Ab. ^)yo sularden, from waters. 

( 16 ) 

The Turkish Adjectives, like the English, are not varied on account of Gender, Number, or 
Case : the only variation which they admit of, is that of the Degrees of Comparison, which are 
formed in the following manner. The Comparative is usually formed, either by prefixing ^^-ii 
dakhi or ,jy*- tchiok, or by subjoining {jj. rek or J ' rak ; as, 


l±J»JO biuk, great. i^Juj ^»-t> dakhi biuk, greater. 

%i\ eiu, good. jjl ,jV>- tchiok eiu, better. 

JjjS guxel, beautiful ^JjJ* guzelrek, more beautiful. 

z^\ altchiak, humble. J)/^* 1 altchiakrak, more humble. 

The two first of these Forms of Comparison are those most frequently employed in con- 
versation, the others being used chiefly in books. The Comparative is sometimes formed by 
putting the Noun or Pronoun, which is compared, in the Ablative Case ; and which also carries 
with it the sense of our than. 

To snatch a morsel from the mouth of the lion, or to drink from the same cup 
with the furious tiger, is easier than to bear poverty and degradation." 
The word n£& nehkeh, or <£Jo nekeh, answers to our than, after a Comparative ; as, 
^) &£ <0 j&i\&: yjl^ic " Othman is richer than I." 

The Superlative Degree is formed by putting the Noun, which is the object of Comparison, 
in the Genitive Case ; and adding ,_$ i to the Adjective if it end in a Consonant, or j« 
si, if in a Vowel ; as, ^i%»- CJ .1j,»c qwrederuh khosh'i, " the sweetest of women ;" 
v _ s -^.l <DJlii} I ddemlerun eiusi, " the best of men." 

A Superlative sense is also given by prefixing the Adverbs of Augmentation : 
^^Itghaiet; Sjoulc ghaietdeh ; t&As. ghaietileh ; tiil> ziadeh; <&!*« jSi}b: ziadeh sileh ; 
ddJol^il ifratUeh ; J» kati; »ib pek, or CJ 1 eng ; as, Js t Joule ghaietdehkem, "the worst ;" 
ijj w/ *} x^L>: ziadeh yuksek, "the most high;" 5J j uJukJ t^JI eng lat'if yerdeh, "in the 
pleasantest place;" and in the Koran, J.! tJHo CJ1 « jJj*5 <J)i *•— '1 " The (very) first 
living, and the (very) last dying." 

• It may not be improper to observe, that, in some parts of Turkey, this is pronounced as if 
written daha. 

( 17 ) 

There is also a kind of Superlative formed by doubling the word ; as, from J^a- tchiok, 
"much ;" Jy>- Jf>- tchiok tchiok, " very much;" J*> £o sik sik, " most frequently;" as, 

" In order to speak Turkish well, it is necessary to speak it very frequently." 
The Diminutive is formed, either by adding _ to the Penultimate letter of the Adjective, 
or by subjoining the Particles i^U- dgik, j*. dgak, to- tcheh, or <te» dgeh; as, CJo-^aj 
biudgik, " somewhat great," from ClyU biuk, " great ;" liW^jJ yuksekdgik, or 
\£i^4j> syuksedgik, "less high;" *a»| aktcheh, " less white, whitish ;" &Jjj> guzeldgeh, 
" less beautiful." Adjectives in the two latter forms are also frequently used as Adverbs. 

There is also a Superlative Diminutive, formed by prefixi n g an additional ^ to the Pen- 
ultimate letter ; as, CJLsr?-^u biudgidgek, " much less great.'' 


The Cardinal Numbers are expressed by Words, Letters, and Figures, as follow : 








|£JU yek 






^i> du 






A*, seh 

' £ 





.1^. tchehar 


r 5 




£> pendg 





.££ shesh 






e^aJb heft 






m *»>!>> AesAf 

• c 





id wmA 

.. b 





tii deh 




ji&} ] 

on bir 

St>:lj yazdeh 

•• l» 

1 1 



on iki 

5i>j!.ii duaxdeh 





on iitch 

*&£>» sizdeh 

.. £ 




{JL> ji^^i ] on dort 
{jZ*^ onbesh 
JiH^y! on alti 
^jJo^j! onyedi 
jJwjyjjl on sekiz 
jji'iyyl on dokuz . . 
<_$*£. yegirmi .. 
j}lS*J^- y e gi rm ibir.. 
jjjl otuz 
Jjjt kirk 
JJ! elli 
^l^jul altmish 
(kS^jj. yetmish 
^mSm seksen 
^f*^yo doksan 

jrt y°* 

>#-t»j' utchyoz .. 

jfyUjjiS dart yoz 

jjt.tfy besh yoz . . 

jW,J*H alti yoz 

jo^Jo yediyoz 

j*ij£»i sekiz yoz .. 

jjljjjJo dokuz yoz .. 

i^Jju ^jl on 6wi 

( 18 ) 


lO.lys- tchehardeh 
iiJ^i'o panzedeh 
Xii^'Ji shanzedeh 
i±j& hefteh 
xJ-JUa lieshteh 
Xi>,y nuzdeh 

cLXj e^-v**ju bistyek 
^u si 
(Jy=- tchehel 
aUrS} pendgah 

liliaJb heftad 

liliiJb heshtad 

J>y nued 

&*o sad 

J^aXuj si sad 
XaLfr tcheharsad 
Xaiij pansad 
&*a£>£ sheshsad 
flwdSfla heftsad 
S^sjJLA heshtsad 
S^j nuhsad 
.\yt> hezar 

^IjfcxO deh hezar 
JjbXa sad hezar 










• 34 



•• J4 

1 v 


.. g 



.. k> 



.. CJ 



.. K 

r i 


.. J 









•• u~ 

1 . 


•• t 

v • 














r. . 



P.. ■ 








v • • 



A. • 





•• t 

1 .•• 


■• £ 



•• fc- 



•• € 



( 19 ) 

The Merchants in Turkey frequently use the Persian Numbers ; on which account a know- 
ledge of them is indispensably requisite, in transacting commercial affairs. In composing 
Numbers, the highest number in figures is always placed on the left hand, and in words on the 


right; as, |Ai~r 1S32, in words, Jo! jjjj jji j£>» ^Jou bin sekiz yoz otuz iki. The Turkish 
Numbers do not require the Copulative Conjunction ^ wa between each amount, but in the Per- 
sian it is used : thus, the above amount in Persian would be written tii j j*i j A*o ei*v£jfcj j]yt> 
hezar u hesht sad u si u du. 

The Cardinal Numerals are indeclinable ; and are prefixed to the Nouns, whose amounts 
they serve to express, which are usually in the Singular ; as, cu 1 W ^jZ-l besh yoz at, five 
hundred horses" (horse); ,»i>T CJju bin adem, "a thousand men" (man). The Turks are 
not singular in this irregularity : the Hebrews, Arabs, and Persians, have the same idiom, from 
whom no doubt it has been borrowed. 


The Turkish Ordinal Numbers are formed from the Cardinals, by adding -sr> indgi; and the 
Persian by adding * um ; as, 


ar 1 'j> birindgi, or tJLJJl ilek . . . First ... *& yegum, or ci^"»-<" > nukhust. 

js^.I ikindgi Second . . . t^ duum. 

,i*5"}1 iitchindgi Third . . . ty» suum, or ,»^x* sium. 

-=r> J. 4> dordindgi Fourth • • • *; \*- tcheharum. 

js^-V beshindgi Fifth . . . *sr^ pendgum. 

^s-*^l altindgi Sixth . . . Jttm sheshum. 

-^Jo yedindgi Seventh . . . *Iia> he/turn. 

The Turkish Ordinal Numbers are capable of receiving Possessive Affixes, as, ^^j^ji 
birindgisi, " the first of them." They are also subject to declension, and are put before the 
Substantives, hke Adjectives ; as, »_>b L j^ i j> kirkindgi bab, " the fortieth chapter." 


The Distributive Numbers are formed from the Cardinals, by adding . er to those which end 
in a consonant, and -2, sher to those which end in a vowel. The Persian Distributives are 
formed by the Plural of the Cardinals, or doubling the Singular ; as, ,jUo yegan ; ^Uo ,jl£j 
yegan yegan, or lLJj CJj_ yek yek, " one by one ;" .0 jj du du, " two by two." 

( 20 ) 


jji hirer 
wijUo! tkisher 



,ii..i> dorder 
JU> besher 
j£*&\ altisher 


lib CAj yek yek. 
. d ,ii du du. 
Ami Ami fte/i seh. 
jjjl.l^s- tcheharan. 
gL> gLj pendg pendg. 


One by one 
Two by two 
Three by three 
Four by four 
Five by five 
Six by six 

In expressing Number and Quantity, the Turks frequently add to the Numeral certain words 
expressive of the thing spoken of. If the Noun whose number or quantity is expressed relate 
to Man, the word Jo nefer, or JiJ kishi, " person," is used ; as, <_s/s£V. Jo lLLo Jj\ 
'iki bin nefer yehitcheri, two thousand Janissaries." 
\JT>. t/9^1 gp lJ^. d^&= )}i ^J jy^> y-o )* ^-^o }d J6 ULtjj* ^^o ^u 

***" U^ u5^' J£ ^~^° CL '' X * i-S^i u^^jji. 

Four of the Sons of Tolun ruled the Kingdom in Egypt. The a?ra of the commencement 
of the Dynasty was A.H. 297, and the end A.H. 567. The duration of this Dynasty was one 
hundred and fifty-five years." 

If the Nouns spoken of relate to Animals, the word ^jtb bash, or •*.]. reis, " head," is 
used; as, lijj ,£'j jy yoz bash boglia, "one hundred (head of) bulls;" ji&\> iy\ '** V ,s 
dort reis bargir, "four (head of) post-horses." 

Four (head of) horses, their saddles richly gilt, 
their trappings set with precious jewels." 
In speaking of Arms, or Instruments, Axlaii kiteah, or ILexs kibzeh, is used; as, 
t— -uls Aulas' ji) ^Jj) iki yoz kiteah top, "two hundred pieces of cannon." 

iJy i-_^i= Axlai' j^i til_>,ji> 4->4J> )}***> i_5p **^ 
I have strengthened your fortress, by placing in it four hundred pieces of cannon." 
To Small things, &Jli> daneh, or i^ju lokmah, is applied ; as,^=r>| &\d j bir daneh indgiu, 
a pearl" i^Ajl a^a! y bir lokmah etmek, "a crumb of bread." 

Also the words i L pareh, and £>£. wekieh, are used, in this manner, to express Inanimate 
things; as, ^jy gL ,i2j 6e*A pareh koi, "five villages;" tul AJu. ^yl o» wekieh et, "ten 
pieces of meat." 

( 21 ) 

AjS kileh, and i> Sc qded, are applied to Quantity and Number ; as, <Jj \ t\jS JJ 1 elli ktteh 
arpah, "fifty measures of barley ;" uLJ^'I litXc ^Jj yegirmi qded etmek, "twenty loaves." 

Fractional Numbers are formed by the addition of the word ^Lj pai; as, (<l> .sr^i! 
iindgipai, "the second part;" ^jlj jr°yi kirkindgi pai, "the fortieth part." 

The Half and Quarter are expressed by Zs?. butchuk, * .L> yarum, or (CjIj y«H, and ^Joa- 
tchirek; as, ^jji 1 ^k? or >.lj yarum, or butchuk gun, " half-a-day ;" Jo (_c,b or ^x> 
butchuk, or yan yo£, "half-way;" CJ Jka-j Wr tchirek, one-fourth." 

The Augmentation of Numbers is expressed by the addition of euli Arotf, or .jJ kadar, having 

the sense of the English word fold subjoined to numbers ; as, cuts _•! fitch kat, three-fold, 

triple;" .i\» CJ..J dort kadar, ' four-fold, quadruple;" uu\S ,¥*»- fc/«°0& fatf, "many-fold." 

The word "i'S kerreh, subjoined to numbers, refers to time ; as, %]£ ifij besh kerreh, 

'five times" %£ JJ\ iki kerreh, "twice." 



The Personal Pronouns are, ^ ben, "i;" ^ sen, "Thou;" and J5I 61, or } \ 6, " He," 
'She," "it;" which are declined in the following manner: 

j Ben, I. 



j ben, I. 

+h benum, of me. 

\Sj baha, to me. 

Ac. Jb beni, me. 

Ab. ,jSXi benden, from me. 


N. i^m sen, thou. 

G. LLJouj senun, of thee. 

D. LJLu sana, to thee. 

Ac. Ju seni, thee. 

Ab. jjJouu senden, from thee. 


^ fo'z, or Jji bizler, we. 

^ bizum, or 4^ bizlerum, of us. 

js# fo'reA, or *Jy bizlereh, to us. 
Ac. ,_s^; bizi, or (_5^JJ bizleri, us. 
Ab. yjjjj bizden, or ^0^ bizlerden, from us. 


j* *S*ew, Thou. 


N. j» siz, or ^!j<« sizler, you. 
G. i^Jjmj {town, &c. of you. 
D. ij»i sizeh, to you. 
Ac. ,_$ juj sizi, you. 
Ab. u^Jui sizden, from you. 

( 22 ) 

J.I 01, or ,1 6, He, She, It. 

N. J.I 61, or .1 o, he, she, it. 

G. t-Uol anuh, of him, &c. 

D. lil aha, to him, &c. 

Ac. -il am", him, &c. 

Ab. (jJol andan, from him, &c. 

N. ^iil awfor, they. 

G. i^J^JJI anlaruh, of them. 
D. is Jul anlareh, to them. 
Ac. f_s Jul anlari, them. 
Ab. ^li^iJl anlarden, from them. 

The Reciprocal Pronoun ji^ii gendu, or ,_$&}£ gendi, answers to our Own and Self, in the 
same manner as the Persian dji- Mod, and Arabic i>~ai »e/s. It is declined as follows : 

2&J& Gendu, Himself, Herself, Itself 
«iX*i gendu, himself, herself, itself. 


G. ^Jj. Jo£ gendunuh, of himself, &c. 
D. .JUmIJb genduyeh, to himself, &c. 
Ac. ^y.iiJii genduii, himself, &c. 
Ab. yjii.uUi genduden, from himself, &c. 



N. ))^& genduler, themselves. 

G. CJJ.AjS gendulerun, of themselves. 

D. js^Ij JoS gendulereh, to themselves. 

Ac. ,_s JjjJii genduleri, themselves. 

Ab. ^tiJj&Jb gendulerden, from themselves. 

ijm <xijl ui^ilii Jj&l jil ^+i a&Li- 

" If thou art merciful to thy fellow creatures, thou wilt find the Creator merciful to thyself." 
A man who has no mercy in his breast, ought not to find any one merciful to him." 

. Jo6 gendu is also used with the Possessive Affixes ; as, 
Persons. SING. Persons. PLUR. 

1 i.JoiS eendum. I myself. 1 


.'...j ii«~< <jS.i\J6 

LOjJ ^yA^-o <&j'^ <W»^ 

«jJoi£ gendum, I myself. 
CJjtiui genduh, thou thyself. 

^cjAiS gendumuz, or 
^j^JjJoS gendulermuz 

f you yourselves. 
^iJjJoii gendulernuz,) 

jij Jo6 gendunuz, or ' 

^ J.Jotf genduleri, or! 
3 " . f tne y themselves. 

jiVii or gendu, J J)^ genduler, J 

Each of the three preceding Persons may be declined by adding the Cases of the First 
and Second Declension of Nouns ; as, CXcjJuiS gendumuh, " of me myself ;" <U^JoS 
gendumeh, " to me myself " CJ6 }&& gendunun," of thee thyself;" CJJuwjjJii gendusinuii , 

of him himself." 

( 23 ) 

The Pronouns in the Ouigour, and other Tatar Dialects, differ very little from the Turkish. 
For the First Personal Pronoun, -« men is used instead of j ben, and is thus declined : 




^c men, I. 


y biz, we. 


lIJoluu mening, of me. 


d£ij}j bizning, of us. 


l£u manga, to me. 


t&j bizga, to us. 


JU meni, me. 


J y bizni, us. 


^JJL< mendin, from me. 


Jt>y bizdin, from us 

The Second Personal Pronoun is the same as in Turkish, except that it is declined after the 
mariner of Tatar Nouns. In the Plural it generally takes an additional <_§• i ; thus, j\~ siz, 
for jm siz. The Plural of the Third Person is often contracted; as, .ill alar, lL&ju J\ 

Instead of the Turkish Reciprocal Pronouns, *)Jok£ gendum, "i myself," CJ.SJS gendun, 
" Thou thyself," &c, the Tatars frequently employ the following : 

P erson s. SING. 

1 ,. :.1 ouzum, I myself. 

2 \* & *j^ ouzung, thou thyself. 

3 <_5j*^ ouzi, he himself. 

Person s. PLUR. 

1 j-«jjjl ouzumuz, we ourselves. 

2 ^jJojjjI ouzungiz, you yourselves. 

3 l^j^J)' vuzlari, they themselves. 


The Demonstrative Pronouns are, »j 6w, y£ #/tw, »Ju£.l ishbu, and (J.l 67; which are declined 
in the following manner : 

^ Bu, This, That. 

N. Jj\j bunlar, these, those. 

N. %i bu, this, that. 

G. liAJo bunun, of this. 
D. ^ buna, to this. 
Ac. ,e>)J 6«m, this. 
Ab. ll )^y> bundan, from this. 

G. <^J Jo »j bunlarun, of these. 
D. *Jj»J bunlareh, to these. 
Ac. ,_5 ijo bunlari, these. 
Ab. yp Ooo bunlarden, from these. 

yi *Aw, and *^£ I ishbu, This," That," are declined in the same manner throughout as »j 6«. 
ijy 6l, That," being both a Personal and Demonstrative Pronoun, is declined among the 
former. When ^ bu is prefixed to Postpositions, it generally has ^ Nun added to it ; as, /«Jy 
bunsiz, without this ;" jds\j bundgilin, "in this manner ;" not jm*} busiz, jki^v budgUin. 

( 24 ) 

The Turks sometimes use the Persian Demonstratives j| in, " This/' and ,j I an, " That," 
with their Plurals ^Uul inan, and ^ti I anan. 


The Relative Pronouns are, t£ keh, +x£ kirn, and J kim, " Who," " Which," ~ What." 
The Pronoun iS keh is declined by adding the Cases of the Personal Pronoun (Jji 61, in the 
following manner : 

iS Keh, Who, Which, What. 

N. xS, keh, who, &c. 


G. CJ^iil iS keh anlarun, of whom, &c. 
D. x^lit s$ keh anlareh, to whom, &c. 
Ac. <jju\ t£ keh anlari, whom, &c. 
Ab. yji^iil l& keh anlarden, from whom, &c. 

N. iS keh, who, which, what. 

G. i4*j! <s£ keh anun, of whom, &c. 
D. Lsl &$ keh ana, to whom, &c. 
Ac. J| iS keh ani, whom, &c, 
Ab. jjJol <x£ keh andan, from whom, &c. 

+j£ kim, and *£ kirn, are Indeclinable, when used in this sense. 

The season comes, in which mountains and rocks are coloured with tulips." 

In construction, t£ keh is generally changed into J ki, or -c ghi; in which case it often 
expresses the sense of the Verb Substantive, answering to which is; as, "jm J xjJii dildeh ki 
serr, " The secret which is in my heart " d/T ^ t^^A akhoremdeh ki at, " The horse 
which is in my stable " <— >!y I J x J^L^ .! ustemdeh ki eswab, " The clothes which are upon 
me ;" Jz XiJ/y. yokardeh ghi, "That which is on high." 

Instead of using the Pronoun t£ keh, it is considered more elegant to employ the Participle 
of the Verb ; as, ^l>j%c ^yu suun qwret, the loving woman," t. e. the woman who loves," 
instead of .y» ii Uij .%c qwret keh suer. 

The Turks have various kinds of Interrogatives, suited to the nature of the thing spoken of: 
the distinctions, however, are too frequently neglected. 

The Personal Interrogative ^ kim, or J kim, "Who?" "Which?" is regularly declined 
in the same manner as a Noun of the First Declension, and admits of Possessive Affixes ; 
as, ji ^X^S <£>,fj> bit qwret kimun dur, "Whose wife is this?" J } *^ kimum war, 
" What have I?" The following distich of Mesihi is an example of J, both as an Interroga- 
tive and Relative : 

( 25 ) 

cLs *!j| *i£ j eS cJj x/^ Jjl ^ *£ 
;^ (& ji >** /T (^ ^W 1 Lryj LT^ 

/F^O knows, when the fair season ends, which of us may be alive ? 
" Be cheerful, be full of mirth : for the Spring season passes quickly : it will not last." 

The Neuter or Immaterial Interrogative <sj neh, What ?" is regularly declined as a Noun 
of the Second Declension ; 

*&)<$ %di\ C^>^y ,jJv&<> jJ^j Xi>!Aij ^iSja* SAAs^I AsrJ^J iS jii ]m A> jJ -^1 

O Heaven '. what is the meaning of this, that in one night from Egypt to Babylon, 
and from my own home to this strange place, I have travelled ?" 

In declension, the final a is frequently dropped, or changed into ^j ; as, i^JJb* nenim, "Of 
what ?" .Li niler, " What ?" There are a great many Interrogatives formed from ij neh ; 
as, ,Jji<t3 neh kadar, " How much ?" *=£> nitcheh, How many ?" " How long ?" 

" JZcw many years to this tavern have I gone ?" 

^Uj^jJiiti we/* Ararfar zeman, " How long a time ?" J-cl <o «eA asil, "What kind?" 
t-^o— &> neh sebeb, "What cause?" "Wherefore?" ^^.1 <D neh itchiun, "What for?" 
"Why?" J*j £ neh zeman, "What time?" "When?" al^j ,tS neh wedghileh," In what 
manner ?" 

The common Interrogative ^JuS kanghi, "Who?" "Which?" "What?" is indeclinable, 
and is placed before Substantives, without undergoing any change ; as, i_>tl£ Joi kanghi 
kitab, "What book?" ^^W J>Ji kanghi kitabden, "From what book?" When, however, 
it is absolute, it admits of Possessive Affixes and Declension ; as, '-»A*Jui kanghimuz, "Which 
of us ?" ^j"*^' kanghisi, " Which of them ?" ^Jy^id kanghimuzuh, " Of which of us ?" 
(JJdwUJJi kanghisinun, " Of which of them?" j> Joj kanghi bir, "Which one?" is either 
used Adjectively or Substantively : if used Adjectively, it is indeclinable ; if used Substan- 
tively, it has the letter ^j added to it, and is declined like a Noun of the Second Declension ; as, 
^Xteji ^J6i kanghi birinuh, "Of which one?" <sJb^ ^ji kanghi birineh, "To which one ?" 

The Interrogatives of Number and Quantity are, _tf katch, "What number?" "How many?" 


( 26 ) 

^r*? 9 katchindgi, " How much?" "How many?" ^ji <o* neh kadar, .1 JoLo &i neh mikdar, 
jpd <b neh denlu, "How much?" "How many?" ^s^ katchindgi admits of Pos- 
sessive Affixes and Deelension, in the same manner as J<jj' kanghi. 

The Adjective ya her answers to our Each and Every ; and serves to form many Compounds, 
by being prefixed to the Relatives ; as, ^yt, her Mm, " Whosoever," which is declined like 
a Noun of the First Declension ; ^yt> her neh, " Whatsoever," " Whosoever :" 

J^s~ sLi &Xxt ,_s<^} i^}j>)/. '-r'i^) d^ 
The black gusts of Autumn have destroyed whatever was in the garden ; 
But the king of the world again appeared, dispensing justice to all." 

y jS> her bir is indeclinable, answering to our every one. It is, however, sometimes used 
Substantively ; when it is made declinable by the addition of ^ i, in the same manner as 
y ^«Jw kanghi Mr : 

Listen to the tale of the Nightingale : the Vernal season approaches : 
The Spring has formed a bower in every garden." 

'She gave to each of them many ornaments ; 

' And each night wandered from banquet to banquet." 


The Possessive Pronouns are of two kinds, Separates, and Affixes. The Separate Possessive 
Pronouns are the Genitive Cases of the Personals; as, Jb benum, 'Mine" i^Jom. senun, 
"Thine" tiAJI anun," His;" f ji bizum "Owrs f \^Jj»> sizun," Yours ;" CJJu] anlarun, 
" Theirs ;" which, when used absolutely, usually have the Relative £ ki subjoined to them ; 

( 27 ) 

as, ^*A> benumki, " Mine " (that which is mine) ; ^£i« senwlki, " Thine." They are 
declined as Nouns of the Second Declension. 

The Possessive Affixes are letters which are subjoined to the Noun, to form the different 
Persons ; and which are used either with or without the Separate Pronouns prefixed. The First 
Person of the Singular is formed by adding » m, or um ; as, ,»bb babam, or .,bb >Jb 
benum babam, "My father ;" JjS kitabum, or ^Jli *Jb benum kitabum, " My book." 

A I A A A 

The Second Person is formed by adding CJ h, un, or in ; as, CJbb babah, or CJbb CJJLj 

A A A 

senuh babah, " Thy father ;" CJ>>[j£ kitabuh, or CJJjz lUJu senuh kitabih, " Thy book." 

The Third Person is formed by adding ,_£ i, if the word end in a consonant ; or -« si, if in 
a vowel; as, -Ai£ kitabi, or ^^ CJJl awww kitabi, "His book;" ^wbb babasi, or 

jw'j'o ufJol OMMn babasi, His father." 

The First Person of the Plural is formed by adding y* muz ; as, _)^bb babamuz, or j-o(j'o *jj 
bizum babamuz, Our father." 

The Second Person Plural is formed by adding j£ huz; as, ;ibb babahuz, or jSbb i^J^u 
sizun babanuz, Your father." 

The Third Person is formed by adding y_$ i, j* si, or ^j} leri; as, ^l^ kitabi, 
or ^j'Jo CJ^lll anlaruh kitabi, "Their book;" i >JJ-j babasi, or ^hl> <*DX>\ anlaruh 
babasi, "Their father" ^^Lli/ i^J^iil anlarun kitableri, "Their book." 

When the Plural of the Noun is required, the Particle J ler is used, preceding the Possessive 
Affixes ; as, *ybb babalerum, or * Jbb Ai benum babalerum," My fathers ;" j^e J(j(j babaleru- 
muz, or y*j?-h fj> bizum babalerumuz, " Our fathers." Each of these Persons is capable of 
receiving declension, as will appear from the following Examples : 

bb Babam, or JJo A> Benum babam, My Father. 



JJj babam, or 
N. " • • V my father. 

JJj Ju benum babam, J 

G. CXebb babamuh, of my father. 

D. <L«bb babameh, to my father. 

Ac. .e^'j babami, my father. 

Ab. ^.^blj babamden, from my father. 


*^bb babalerum, or 
„ I f m y fathers. 

jyljb *Jj benum babalerum, J 

<Jj^cJ[>[> babalerumuh, of my fathers. 

&«^bb babalerumeh, to my fathers. 

-«/jb babalerumi, my fathers. 
yjiinjybb babalerumden, from my fathers. 

( 28 ) 

CJUU Baban, or L^JIj'j i^ALj Senun baban, Thy Father. 





i^Jbb baban, or \ 
* * ' ' >■ thy father. 

Uub *>^Ajui senun baban, ) 

i»LXmJj babanun, of thy father. 

<oblj babaneh, to thy father. 

-Mj'j babahi, thy father. 

yjiiiblj babandan, from thy father. 



I^J Jbb babalerun, or 1 thy 
CJJUj CJJu- senun babalerun, ) fathers. 
lLJ^ JUj babaleruhuh, of thy fathers. 
<K?Jbb babaleruneh, to thy fathers. 
pjlib babaleruni, thy fathers. 
^jii^ JL>L) babalerunden, from thy fathers. 




-Job Babasi, or ^^*,bL> viJJl Anun babasi, His Father. 


jJjL> babasi, or 1 
hFT* V his father. 

v*iIjIj dJol aMwre babasi,) 

^iAJLwiljlj babasinun, of his father. 

<KJuu.tjlj babasineh, to his father. 

Ju^Uj babasini, his father. 
jjjdJUkublj babasinden, from his father. 


■ cJOIj babaleri, or \ . 
"' *' ' > his fathers. 

,_S JL>L i^Jol aw«« babaleri,) 

^JjjjJilAi babalerinun, of his fathers. 

<tb JUj babalerineh, to his fathers. 

JbJljlj babalerini, his fathers. 
jjjJb jljb babalerinden, from his fathers. 



Vebb Babamuz, or >ebjj > y Bizum babamuz, Our Father 


our father. 

[>[) babamuz, or 
bizum babamuz 
CJyJJ*> babamuzun, of our father. 
tj*hi> babamuzeh, to our father. 

Ac. uSr*^ babamuzi, our father. 

Ab. jjj^j-oljb babamuzden, from our father. 


j*^!Uj babalerumuz, or "1 our 

i^lblj * v 6t?to» babalerumuz, J fathers. 

CJuo JWj babalerumuzun, of our fathers. 

KUoJljl) babalerumuzeh, to our fathers. 
(<VoXl> babalerumuzi, our fathers. 
utdl*jkfc babalerumuzden,from our fathers. 

( 29 ) 




.- * 

isUj Babanux, or jibb CJj« Six uh babanux, Your Father, 

jiljb babanux, or ^ your 
jSUj t^Jj^ f www babanux, ) father. 
i»LJ jiSLb babahuxuh, of your father. 
XjMjti babahuxeh, to your father. 
(_yjiL!j babahuxi, your father. 
.1) j£bb babanuzden, from your father. 

ji Jblj babaleruhuz, or ^ your 
jS^ibb I<±Jjm« *fcw;i&a&eWw»wz,jfa tners - 
^JjSJUj babaleruhuxuh, of your fathers. 
Sj2\jLjL> babalerunuxeh, to your fathers. 
^jS'Jbb babaleruhuxi, your fathers. 
^ Jp\ibb babaleruhuxden, from your fathers. 

f their 

*bb Babasi, or v*bb tfJjiil Anlarun babasi, Their Father. 

^-'bb babaleri, or J their 

,_5>bb lil^l anlarun babaleri, ) fathers. 
(^JouJbb babalerinun, of their fathers. 
<to Jbb babalerineh, to their fathers. 
Ju JUL> babalerini, their fathers. 
^.yb Jbb babalerinden, from their fathers. 


_»*ibb babasi, or 
N. Hr« '; 

v^bbuilJjJJl aw/arw«6a6a««,) father. 

G. t^Jjuwjbb babasinuh, of their father. 

D. <^**"bb babasineh, to their father. 

Ac. , JU«,bb babasini, their father. 

Ab. yjjJa^ubL babasinden, from their father 

In declining the Third Persons of the Personal Pronouns in ^j i, ^u si, or ,_gj leri, the 
letter ,_$ is frequently omitted ; as, CJUubb babasinuh for CLAJuwjbb babasinuh ; viJo^lbb 
babalerinun for i^Jou Jbb babalerinun. 

In some books, the Possessive Affixes are omitted, the separate Possessive Pronouns being 
alone used ; as, cu I Ju benum at for *S I Jo benum alum, My horse :" this, however, is 
considered vulgar, and ungrammaticaL 

( 30 ) 
J\*i\ OF VERBS. 

The Turkish Verbs are of Eight kinds ; viz. Auxiliary, Active, Passive, Negative, Im- 
possible, Causal, Reciprocal, and Personal. The Infinitives of all the Turkish Regular Verbs 
end either in t»LLc mek or JL*, mak ; on which account they have been, by most Grammarians, 
divided into two Conjugations ; all Verbs ending in l^Xe mek having been classed in the First 
Conjugation, and all in z*, mak in the Second : though, as the Student will hereafter perceive, 
there is no necessity for this division, as no difference exists between them ; except that the 
letter CJ Kaf, in which the First Conjugation ends, causes a softer sound throughout the 
word than the harsh letter k" Kof which terminates the Second ; as, i^A.XLu silkmek, " to 
shake ;" ^fju bakmak, to look." There are Six Moods, which may be called, Indicative, 
Imperative, Optative, Suppositive, Subjunctive, and Infinitive. The Tenses are Five in number, 
answering to our Present, Imperfect, Preterite, Preterpluperfect, and Future ; and the numbers 
are the same as in English. 

The Passive, Negative, Impossible, Causal, Reciprocal, and Personal Verbs are formed 
from the Verb Active, in the following manner : 

The Verb Passive is usually formed from the Verb Active, by inserting (J il between 
the body of the Verb and the Infinitive Termination LLLc mek or Z*> mak ; as, from 
CXe»*« sumek, to love," ^Lkjyu suilmek, to be loved;" from .*»£? bakmak, to 
look," .OJb bakilmak, ' to be looked at :" 

When the arrow of Fate is shot from the bow of Destiny, 
"it cannot be repelled by the shield of Prudence." 
When the Letter preceding the Infinitive Termination is either 1 J ■ 4 or ^ , ^ is 
usually inserted instead of J ; as, from ,J-«Ui - kapamak, ' to shut," 1 J v ilu kapanmak, 
"to be shut;" t^Jj bilmek," to know," CJvJJo bilenmek "to be known" J^yS}! 
okumak, "to read," < J^y^ okunmak, "to be read " CXoXjt bixehmek, "to adorn," ^Lk^ji 
bizenmek, " to be adorned ;" CJ^i> dimek, " to say," ^iXju i> dinmek, "to be said :" thus : 

Jii> iAlsuo ^cjjJjl CJj£~6 tiWyKs- j)'\m ^j^Jj <J«fl» CULj! ^Jo^J 
It is known that the excellence and dignity of man do not consist in those qualities 
which are common to all animals." 

( 31 ) 

There are also some Verbs whose Passives are formed both by ^ and J ; as, ^Jo u 
yunilmak, "to be washed," from Jh*ji yumak, "to wash ;" CAJJu yinilmek, "to be eat," 
from t^J^J yimek, ' to eat." 

There are a great many Turkish Verbs compounded of Arabic and Persian words ; which, 
if originally of Active signification, are made Passive, by having the Auxiliary Verb .J^U 
olmak, To be," in its Passive form, added to them ; as, .J^O (J^w kadi olunmak, "to be 
killed;" ,jh»i!)l ^.^ tebdil olunmak, "to be changed:" but if the word have originally a 
Passive sense, it has the Active form of the Auxiliary Verb added to it; as, L ¥V;1 (JiiLo 
maktul olmak, '" to be killed " ,»Jj' J J^o mubdil olmak, " to be changed." 

In the Ouigour, and other Tatar Dialects, the Passive is marked by the Particle Jj il, or (Jl il: 
but it may be observed, that, in the Ouigour, it is sometimes placed at the end of the Verb, 
and not inserted between the penultimate and final syllables, as in the Turkish : thus, (JjoIJuj 
kilmakil, "to be done;" JiUi' kilal, "let it be done," from j'ljuui kilmak, "to do." 

The Negative Verb is formed by inserting between the last letter of the body of the Verb 
and the Infinitive Termination the letter > or U ; as, from \^X*cy* sumek, "to love," CA^cy^ 
sumemek, "not to love;" z^so bakmak, "to look," 1 J vv ib bakmamak, "not to look" 
L jf v jla sapmak, to wander," jiJ^iLa sapmamak, " not to wander." 

In the rose-bower of this life, we are not permitted to possess the sweet odour of faith 
without the thorn of malignity. Neither great nor small taste a draught from the hands 
of the cup-bearer of Fortune, without draining a portion of the dregs of the sweet wine." 

This mode of Negation may be applied to all the other kinds of Verbs, in the same manner 
as ^X^yu suilmemek, "not to be loved," from the Passive form iJLX^ym suilmek, "to 
be loved." 

The Impossible Verb expresses inability to perform an action; and is formed from the 
Verb Negative, by prefixing to the letters of Negation either 1 » or ^5 ; as, from Jf**j[>. 
yazmamak, not to write," jL^JijU yazamamak, " not to be able to write ;" from 
tLl^c^j sumemek, "not to love," CA^Xy* suehmemek, "not to be able to love;" ^X,,-v}} 
itchmemek, "not to drink," i^JL^ac!! ttchimemek, "not to be able to drink:" 

( 32 ) 

I would wish to come to you; but, on account of many affairs, 
" it is not possible I can come." 

The Impossible form may be used like the Negative, to every kind of Verb ; as, ijJ^^lUyu 
suilehmemek, not to be able to be loved," from tfJ^y*, suilmemek, not to be loved." 

The Causal Verb is formed by inserting the syllable .J dur between the body of the Verb 
and the Infinitive Termination ; as, ^X*.t)»Mi sudurmek, " to cause to love." From the 
Causal Active V?.' yVm sudurmek is formed a Causal Passive, ijj^ yiyu sudurUmek, " to be 
made to love ;" and from the Verb Passive, CAJ »» suilmek, is also formed a Passive Causal ; 
as, liLe.jJ y» suildurmek, " to cause to be loved." 

Those Verbs which have a vowel or . preceding the Infinitive Termination, form their 
Causals by using t£j or t>, instead of ,t> ; as, J^iJol aldatmak, to cause to deceive," from 

r^cJJI aldamak; jf-cOUi kapadmak, "to cause to shut," from Jyh? kapamak; \JLX«djiS 
kuperdmek, " to cause to foam," from i^Xe^y kupermek. 

If the letter preceding the Infinitive Termination be either _. _ or .£, the Causal is 
formed by adding . or .^ instead of .J; as, Z<j2-Jj kudgermak, to cause to embrace," 
from i^s-y kudgmak; £«.»*-! atchurmak, to cause to open," from ,*»»-! atchmak ; 

z*oj&y*i bulashermak, to cause to pollute," from ^jiilo bulashmak. 

The Double Causal is not much used : it is formed by repeating ,ii ; as, V^Xo.ii.t)^ 
sudurdurmek, to cause one to cause another to love." 

The Reciprocal, or Verb of Mutual Action, is formed by inserting the letter ,1 between the 
body of the Verb and the Infinitive ; as, ^X^y* suishmek, ' to love one another mutually ;" 

H^Jso bakishmak, "to look at one another." 

Jj^yJ lA ^ifiji 1 Jj&^P?. ^ ^ d M J* tfl dj ^^ uc>..f~ fyjjt 

" A hungry fox coming by, lapped up the flowing blood ; when, of a sudden, they mutually 
" attacked one another, causing their heads to strike against each other. The fox, running 
" between them, received from both a deadly wound, and was caught in the snare of Death." 

( 33 ) 

There is also a Passive Reciprocal ; which, though having a distinct meaning in Turkish, 
is not distinguishable from the Active form in English ; as, i^XJjZiy* suishilmek, "to be 
loved mutually," or to be loved while loving." 

The Personal Verb or Deponent is formed by adding the letter ^ to the body of the Verb ; 
as, Cl^jyw suinmek, ' to love himself ;" ^SyJib bakinmak, to look at himself." 

It seems that there are no Impossible, Transitive, Reciprocal, or Personal Verbs in the 
Ouigour Dialect ; but merely Active, Passive, and Negative. 

The following Table will shew, at one view, the mode in which these various kinds of Verbs 
are formed. 


* CXoy* Sumek, To Love. 
Neg. CA^oy* sumemek, not to love. 

Imposs. \£Xr< x»A*i suehmemek, not to be able to love. 

liAjy* suilmek, to be loved. 
Neg. viJsrJ »*u suilmemek, not to be loved. 

Imposs. ^X^eilyM suilehmemek, not to be able to be loved. 

Cj^e.dyM stidermek, to cause to love. 
Neg. CJ*r<,ji5y» sudermemek, not to cause to love. 

Imposs. ^Xrvijdy* suderehmemek, not to be able to cause to love. 

Passive, *Jj*Ji.dy» snderUmek, to be made to love. 

Neg. Pass. CJ^J: L3 y* suderilmemek, not to be made to love. 
Imp. Pass. liA^o^iiyw suderilehmemek, not to be able to be made to love. 

i£X«,j4iy» suildermek, to cause to be loved, 
Neg. iZXrydiy* suildermemek, not to cause to be loved. 

Imposs. llXrvtj^y* suUderehmemek, not to be able to cause to be loved. 

* This is frequently pronounced Sevmek. 

( 34 ) 

i^X^yu suishmek, to love one another mutually. 
Neg. ilA,,.n^j suishmemek, not to love &c. 

Imposs. ^iA^o<t*i,y*i suishehmemek, not to be able to love &c. 

Passive, <lXJJi,yu suishilmek, to be loved &c. 

Neg. Pass. CJ.,,1!^ suishttmemek, not to be loved &c. 
Imp. Pass. (iX^cSlji yw suishilehmemek, not to be able to be loved &c. 
Causal, CXo ,i3«i«*>j suishdermek, to cause to love &c. 

CJ^riy*! suinmek, to love himself. 
Neg. Clv^Jyu suinmemek, not to love himself. 

Imposs. (^LJ^cX!»*u suinehmemek, not to be able to love himself. 
Passive, Cl^Liy* suinilmek, to be loved himself. 

Causal, liLc.iXiyjj suindermek, to cause to love himself. 

Each of the above forms, except the Negative, is conjugated in the same manner as the 
Verb Active ; of which we shall speak hereafter. 


The Defective Verb *j1 im, and the Verb Substantive ,£*V ^Iniak, To be," are used to form 
the Compound Tenses of the Regular Verbs : and as these are the models on which all Verbs 
are formed, a knowledge of their Inflections is indispensably necessary, as the first step towards 
conjugating Regular Verbs. The Verb *j| im has been usually considered as forming part 
of L * v l«l olmak, which has caused the latter Verb to be termed Irregular ; but its only irre- 
gularity consists in the addition of the Tenses of the Defective Verb ; by rejecting which, its 
inflection will be found to be perfectly Regular. 

There are no Verbs Auxiliary to form Compound Tenses in Ouigour. The Verb Sub- 
stantive is rarely employed with the Participle Present, but never with any other Participle ; 
and it is frequently understood. The Verb Substantive is expressed in Ouigour by ..t> dur, 
which is used for the First Person ; and .. ..i) durur for all the others, without any distinction 
of Number, or even, it appears, of Tense: as, ^jU ,.t> JjuIj^- Dgebraiil dur man, "I am 
Gabriel" j^ii j**h**t J^ y Bu Adam peighambar durur, "He is the Prophet Adam." 
J^<ijjj> yc& j)j-i)JJ6 foj ^Lu <uli Jjl 
" The commencement of our Epistle is in the Name of God ; for He is the suppporter of all." 

( 35 ) 


Present Tense. 

*j| im, |»1 i»ra, or j1 i'«, I am. 
j*i sen, thou art. 
.t> eftw, he is. 

y\ iz, or :! iz, we are. 
^»» siz, or jXw nrote, you are. 
J jt i durler, j£j lerdur, or 
.i>^li1 anlardur, 


they are. 

The Turks frequently drop the Initial Letters of these Persons, when they are joined to 
Nouns, Pronouns, or Adjectives; as, +dj£ guzelim, "i am beautiful" i\S guzeliz, "we 
are beautiful." The Negative of the Tenses of this Verb is as irregular as the Affirmative ; 
not being formed by the insertion of * according to the usual mode, but by prefixing (J^O degul, 
commonly pronounced de'iul, to each person ; as, 


*jJiii deguUm, or Jili> degulim, I am not. 
jjJiii degulsen, thou art not. 
jA&iS deguldur, he is not. 


jdSii deguliz, we are not. 
yJ&A degulsiz, yon are not. 
v i>liSi> degullerdur, they are not. 


* Jo! idum, or j,ii dum, I was, I have been 
<—) Jo! wfo/i, thou wast. 
^ Jo! i'rfj, he was. 

Preterite and Imperfect Tenses. 

i^JiijI iduk, we were, we have been, 
ji Jo! idunuz, you were. 
^IjAjJ idiler, or ^ Jo I J leridi, they were. 


iJol Jii> degul idum, I was not. 

" ^ 
UiJ Jo! J6 J cfe#w? «'<&<«, thou wast not 

i_$ Jo! Ji»i degul idi, he was not 



i^Jjol JiJ degul iduk, we were not. 
ji Jo! (_p ti degul idunuz, you were not. 
^taoo !(_)£»> degul idiler, they were not. 

( 36 ) 

Second Preterite and Imperfect Tenses. 

(n2*v?) imishem, or JL* mishem, I was &c. 
j^wivjj imishsen, thou wast. 
,J><»..;J imishdur, or (A»j1 'imish, he was. 

jxi^jj imishiz, we were &c. 
jM&vt) imishsiz, you were. 
jt^Ll^jl imishlerdur, they were. 

This Tense is also frequently used in the sense of the Present Tense. 

had been. 

t &A i £~i\ imish idum, or/ 
■ itifr.'l imishdum, 3 

CJ Jo! .Aril J'/w««A a?<&m, thou hadst been. 
^Si) irv^J imish idi, he had been. 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 

viJjo! i>i»j! imish iduk, we had been 
js Jo! iA,jJ wmwA iduhuz, ye had been. 
jlJol i/^J J»mA idiler, or # they had 
cS«^ i/vjlj! lerhnishidi, 3 been. 

Present and Future Tenses. 

rfjwjj j£l e^er esew, if I be, or shall be. 
'ijAnt 'I i\ eger isen, if thou be. 
<wl i\ eger iseh, if he be. 


CL«jJ J\ eger isek, if we be &c. 

yC*J_l S\ eger isehuz, if you be. 

J&mj) J>\ egerisehler, if they be. 

Imperfect Tense, 

^uj\ t fi^)\S) eger imish isem, if I were. 

wlJUtjl (jJyjj ji I eg'er i'»w/* iseh, if thou wert 

<Uio! [Jj^jj^Sl e^er «>»«*A j'seA, if he were. 


\^X^J\ ] f^\p, eger imish isek, if we were. 
^wj ( _^ v jj^i! egerimishisenuz, if you were. 
JStuj] { jS v )]J] egerimishisehler, if they were. 



Preterpluperfect Tense. 
* Jo! <WjI ^! e^er iseA idum, or iiiwl isidum, if I had or have been. 
CJ Jol &mi\ J>\ eger iseh idun, if thou hadst been. 
^5 Jo! &mj) J>\ eger iseh idi, if he had been. 

Cljo! &Mi\&\ eger iseh iduk, if we had been. 
jiJo! <Wj! £} eger iseh iduhuz, if you had been. 
^Jo Jo! <Ka«j! i! eger iseh idiler, if they had been. 

( 37 ) 

The word £ I eger, " If," prefixed to the Tenses of this Mood, may either be retained or 
omitted ; as without it the Verb has a conditional sense. 


Present Tense. 

., Si] idum, I should or would be. \jJSi\ iduk, we should be &c. 

i^J Jo! idun, thou shouldst be. £Si] idunux, you should be. 

,_$ Si] idi, he should be. J^Si] idiler, they should be. 


Present Tense. 

ijtj) iken, l*i iken, or 4 ken, being. 

CJjoI idwfc, having been. \A^} imish, having been &c. 


Present Tense. 

rVj'j' Slurum, I am. 
„f"j}£ Slur sen, thou art. 
Jjl 67wr, he is. 
This Tense is also used for the Future 

jj^j) oluruz, we are. 
y»j$^ Slur six, you are. 
Jj£)\ Slurler, they are. 


tSi) j^\ Slur idum, I was, I have been 
Cj&))j^j] olur 'idun, thou wast. 
^Si) ^jijl Slur idi, he was. 

Preterite and Imperfect Tenses. 

CJjoJ^jJjt ettwr i*rfw#, we were &c. 
jiJol j^ljl 67wr idunux, you were. 
Jj&Aj^j) Slur idiler, they were. 

( 38 ) 

Second Preterite and Imperfect Tenses. 

( H ^i'/j'j' °^ ur iinishem, I was &c. 
i j>mJL^>\ jJ.] olur tmishsen, thou wast. 
j &£**>) jjlji olur imishdur, he was. 

j^>) Jjt olur 'imishiz, we were &c. 
jmJ^>\ jyij) olur imishsiz, you were. 
jiiji^i) J. I 67«r imishlerdur, they were 

Compound Preterite, 
iiiJ.I .J.! o£«r oldum, I have been. 
siijjjlyj.l olur oldwh, thou hast been. 
,< jJ.I .Jjl o/wr o&#, he has been. 

Jfiiijl yjljl #MT o&fo£, we have been. 
ji Ajjl ^JjI o&w oldunuz, you have been. 
^LjJjl ^jl olur oldiler, they have been. 

* jJ.I oldum, and *£jj' olmishem, have the same sense. 
Preterpluperfect Tense. 

*ilo) iAJjI olmish tdum, I had been. 
V^JajI lAJjt olmish 'idun, thou hadst been. 
^•iio! (tivlj! olmish Mi, he had been. 


CJjol lAfJj' olmish iduk, we had been, 
ji Jo) iAJ^I olmish 'idunuz, you had been. 
jljiijl iA^jI olmish idiler, they had been. 

The Preterpluperfect Tense is also formed by *,jJL! (AJj! olmish oldum, (>£***) iAJj' 
olmish imishem, and ^1 ^jjJjl oldi'idum; which are conjugated in the same manner as 
*«Jj| idum, and .^i^jj imishem, in the Defective Verb *j! i'»». 

Future Tense. 

*jjl«l olaim 
aj^IjI olahim 
^wJljt olasen, thou shalt be 
v i>Jjl oladur, he shall be. 

», J.| o/«»?, or 7 
mm, ) 

I shall or will be. 

:.1U olauz, we shall be &c. 

j*u5l.| olasiz, you shall be. 
JUj! o/afer, they shall be. 

The Future is also formed by ***-^t oladgiaghim, *^lj! oliserem, and tiJ^ **J;I 
olsam gerek : the two former of which are conjugated like the Present of the Verb *j! 'im ; 

and the latter as follows : 

( 39 ) 


\jj Jt *>J jl olsam gerek, I shall be &c. 
CJ i i^JlJ.I o&are gerek, thou shalt be. 
kiJi <uJ«! ofeffA gerek, he shall be. 


CJ^ (iLJjl olsak gerek, we shall be &c. 
CJ^^jCJjl olsahuz gerek, you shall be. 
\JJJ>J*Jj] olsaler gerek, they shall be. 



(J.l o£, be thou. 

jo***!.] olsun, or 

be he, or let him be. 

JJIj! Slalum, or JaI.1 olahlum, let us be. 
lLAJjI o7w», or jiij! olunuz, be ye. 
^liyjj] 6lsunler,ox^Jyu^\ o*Mwfer,letthembe. 




Present and Imperfect Tenses. 



!»JoJ!j! &L2J kiashkeh olaidum, O that I may be, or was! 
CJ Jo J.l ACii" kiaslikeh olaidun, O that thou mayst be ! 
^Jo Jl.l <Uw£^ kiashkeh olaidi, O that he may be ! 

i'Joilj! aC^ kiashkeh olaiduk, O that we may be ! 
j^Jj)!.! &C£k£ kiaslikeh olaiduiiuz, O that you may be ! 
^b JoVjl <syC2^ kiashkeh olaidiler, O that they may be ! 


JlA iAj)l <W-*^ kiashkeh olmish olam, O that I may have been ! 
.mXI iAtIj! <tCi^ kiashkeh olmish olasen, O that thou mayst have been ! 
).] iij jl <*£»£»£ kiashkeh olmish 6la, O that he may have been ! 

;.5U (Av^ iSJiS kiashkeh olmish olauz, O that we may have been! 
)*wJI«l iAJO (WCi^ kiashkeh olmish olasiz, O that you may have been ! 
J)t.! iAJjI <oC£^ kiashkeh olmish olaler, O that they may have been ! 

& »jM 

imish olam is also used. 

( 40 ) 


Freterpluperfect Tense. 
iJoJIj! i£J)l nJJiiS kiashkeh olmish olaidum, O that I should have been! 

tLJjoilj! iiSJj! iJLiJ kiashkeh olmish olaidun, O that thou should st have been! 
(_5" JoJIjI i/ijj! iKX^ kiashkeh olmish olaidi, O that he should have been ! 
PLUR. JJoHj! ,j£Jjl AlCii kiashkeh olmish olaiduk, O that we &c. ! 

j^Joij! lAJjt <&w^ kiashkeh olmish olaidunuz, O that you &c. ! 
i/Aj£jl)j] (jSJj' *C^ kiashkeh olmish olaleridi, O that they &c. ! 

Future and Present Tenses. 
J } ] <*££/ kiashkeh 61am, O that I may be ! 
^uj5U <tC2k£ kiashkeh olasen, O that thou mayst be ! 

i!.l iSJii kiashkeh 61a, O that he may be ! 
j j5!j] (tCi^ kiashkeh olauz, O that we may be ! 
ujSjI <SjCii' kiashkeh olasiz, O that you may be ! 
jijtj) ACi^ kiashkeh olaler, O that they may be ! 
The Adverbs of Wishing, iSJlS kiashkeh, ^J^yi btdaiki, ^JoiLi nolaidi, &c, may be 
either prefixed or omitted in each Tense of this Mood. 




pAjfJi olurdum, I should or would be 
v^Jii.y.) olurdun, thou shouldst be. 
^i),*!.! olurdi, he should be. 

Present and Imperfect Tenses. 


i'J^y.l olurduk, we should be. 
j^ii.Jjl olurdunuz, you should be. 
•-S '■'jWj' olurlerdi, they should be. 



* Jjyi^e; J.I olurmishidum, I should or would have been. 
kiJjixiwe.J.I olurmishiduh, thou shouldst have been. 
,_S Joj^o . J .1 olurmishidi, he should have been. 

jJo^ J.I olurmishiduk, we should have been. 
jGiijJihi,. y'.l olurmishidunuz, you should have been, 
^y Jol^liw* . Jjl olurmishlefidi, they should have been. 

( 41 ) 


Present Tense. 


~ui}]J\ eger olsam, orl 
**y!j! olursam, J 

CAmJjI il e^er o&aw, if thou be. 
<x*»jjjl^l eger olsah, if he be. 

PLUR.! eger 8lsak,\ . 
w v > if we be. 

iwjj.1 olursak, J 

^CJ.j^1 e#er Clsarmz, if you be. 

^l&Jjl^l e^er olsahler, if they be. 

Imperfect Tense. 

iJjwJjl^l e^er olsidum, if I were. 
LiJjkXwj.1 jil e#er olsiduh, if thou wert. 
^jjuuwi^!^' eger<llsidi,tf\ievtere. 

j'll^Jjl^M e^er olsiduk, if we we: 
jiiWjjIji! e#er olsidunuz, if you were. 
jijiWjjljSl e#er olsidiler, if they 

fwe were. 

' were. 



***j! ,j2JjIj$1 <#er olmish isem, if I have been. 

t^Xojjl (jijjl^l e#er olmish isen, if thou hast been. 

<S*«jI jj^jjl^l e#er olmish iseh, if he has been. 

PLUR. ^XjjjI ,£J jlj^l e^er olmish iseh, if we have been. 

^JLjjJ iA<ijl /I 3§w olmish isenuz, if you have been. 
^(XwjjI (jijjl^l eger olmish isehler, if they have been. 



Second Preterite. 

dUu! *.iJjl j£l c^er oldum iseh, if I have been. 
*«j| l±JjJjt il ^er o7rfw» i'tfeA, if thou hast been. 
<t*ujl ,_$ jJj! il e#er o&ft if eh, if he has been. 

&u*>) J|«l>i_)l ^1 e^er oWw£ iseA, if we have been. 
Smj) jiJj.l ^St fg'er oldunuz iseh, if you have been. 
&j*j1 ^IjOOjI j^l e#er oldiler iseh, if they have been. 

( 42 ) 



Preterpluperfecl Tense. 

>i3oK! ( ii v ij1^l eger olmish olaidum, if I had been. 
kiJdo^l (AJjl^l e#er olmish olaiduh, if thou hadst been. 
jj-JjJI.l iAJ *l jii e^er olmish olaidi, if he had been. 

jfJo^l ^ji^l^l eger olmish olaiduk, if we had been. 
jiJoJ^I ,£Jj)ji! e^sr olmish olaidunuz, if you had been. 
i_$Jo1y3!j] [ jl^ i \J) eger olmish olaler tdi, if they had been. 



Future Tense. 

jkw.J jl .S?-^ £l 3?c r oladgiak olursam, if I shall be. 

i^X*i,J,l ,¥?-iU .^ <5gw oladgiak olursah, if thou shalt be. 

<w J.I is-5!.l^1 e^er oladgiak olursah, if he shall be. 

i*M,Jjl i»-5)jl^1 e#er oladgiak olursak, if we shall be. 
jiLw, Jjl ia-KjI^I e^er oladgiak olursahuz, if you shall be. 
jI&oj.J.I isJI.I^I e#er oladgiak olursah ler, if they shall be. 



Second or Preterital Future. 

I»^j1 ,£Jjl Jl eger olmish olurum, if I shall have been. 

n/"/^ lA>V J^ e ^ cr ^ m ^ sh olursan, if thou shalt have been. 

.J.I 1AJ5I i^l eger olmish olur, if he shall have been. 

•J.I 1/2J.1 £l eger olmish oluruz, if we shall have been. 

jm .J. I i/2-J.I 73I e^er olmish olursiz, if you shall have been. 

J.J.1 L >i v i.l ^1 e^er olmish olurler, if they shall have been. 

jjjl dlmak, To Be. 

( 43 ) 


Present. Past. 

J.I olur, being. j . J!J,! Slmish,) . 

'- 7 -' i having been. 

^jD.I o&ro, being, that which exists. iS^i^ °lduk, ) 


Ls-"i .1 oladgiak,) 
'^ r J \ about to be. 

^oijl oliser, ) 

JJ.I olmalu, that which must be (necessarily). 

^Sjy^ olurken, in being. A^j' olindgeh, while in being. 

i_>J.l olup, ) iti^.l olmagheh, ) 

' , ' > when in being. * > through being. 

is^j] ofidgiak, ) elf? 1 '' Jh^J olmak ttehiun, ) 

The Negative of the Verb l $J') Olmak is formed as follows : 


Present Tense. 

fjj*\ olmazem, I am not. 
j*p^i.l olmazsen, thou art not. 
jjj! olmaz, he is not. 

j}j*>j\ Slmazuz, we are not. 
JmjjJ.I olmazsiz, you are not. 
^jjjl olmazler, they are not. 

Preterite and Imperfect. 
j,Jo!jJjl dlmaz Mum, I was not &c. 

Second Preterite and Imperfect. 
JLf)} jjjl ^/waf imishem, I was not &c. 

Compound Preterite. 
juXlj! jjjl #»»<w oldum, *^j) Slmadum, and jhSJJjI Slmamishem, I have not been. 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 
*&>) ^Loljjl olmamish idum, and ,»Jol ,_$ JlJ.I olmadi idum, I had not been. 

Future Tense. 
fjljjl olmaim, **?-U jt olmadgiaghim, and CJ^ *jj_j) olmazem gerek, I shall a/- will not be. 

( 44 ) 

SING. pluk. 

<sjj! dlmah, be thou not 
^y**Jj\ olrnasun, let him not be. 

J<ujjl olmiahlum, let us not be. 
dJ<uJj! olmiahlun, be you not. 
J>jy»jj) Slmasunler, let them not be. 


Present and Imperfect Tenses. 
t JolJ^l <tC£fc£ kiashkeh olmaidum, O that I may not be ! 

,»>^l (Ji^ljjl <U&> kiashkeh olmamish olam, O that I may not have been ! 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 
* Jo)jl ^UJjl <0^ kiashkeh olmamish olaidum, O that I should not have been ! 

Future Tense. 
A^j\ *Clf kiashkeh olmam, O that I may not be ! 


Present and Imperfect Tenses. 
»0^- J Slmaxdum, I should or would not be. 

tS^cjJi^i olmazmishidum, I should not have been. 


Present Tense. 
*-jj„!j] ^Sl eger olmezsem, if I be not. 

Imperfect Tense. 
itio^ijj.l J I e#er olmezsidum, if I were not. 

jkjjj) .ykJvIj! ^1 c^er 6lmamish isem, if I have not been. 

( 45 ) 

Second Preterite. 
<Uij| *00}! ji' eger olmadum iseh, if I have not been. 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 
*&>)Ji Jltiji' >*' e 8 er olmamish olaidum, if I had not been. 

Future Tense. 
*»«,y.l Sa-UJjI^I cg'er olmiadgiak olursem, if I shall not be. 

Second Future. 
0) y*\ ,£«l»Jj1 ^1 e^er olmamish olurum, if I shall not have been. 

^.-Jj! Olmamak, Not to Be. 


' ■* > not being. 

^Ly'jl olmian, 5 

(ArJjl olmamish, or .^l,^! olmamish 


not having been. 
i'jJsrj' olmaduk, 


Es-U,!.! 8lmiadgiak,i 

. , / not about to be. 

y**Jjl olmiser, ) 

^iyyJ^' olmamlu, that which must not (necessarily) be. 


( XjI^Jj! o&Ma? i'few, not in being. 

t— »jjU.l olmiup, ( 

1 . . ' c wnen not m being. 

jfa^Vjl olmidgiak, ) 

<t=rV.I olmindgeh, while not in being. 

(Ki^Jjl olmamagheh, r 

.1 it,,, , .. , . I through not being. 

yj^ssl JhrJ^l olmamak itchiun, J 

( 46 ) 

In the Tatar Dialects, the Verb Substantive is expressed by j'ljo Bdmak, answering to 
the Jj^iji Olmak of the Osmanli. It is conjugated in the following manner : 

^Jy bdamen, I am. 

>jJ»j bdasen, thou art. 

,_5 i>5tjj boladi, he is. 

I»j jJjj bddim, I was. 

l£jS.jJ»j boldung, thou wast 

(_yj>!»j 6oto", he was. 

Second Imperfect Tense. 
^c^jWo bolghanmen, I was. 

j^Wjj bolgfiansen, thou wast. 

,_y jJULj bolghandi, he was. 


Present Tense. 


j*o3l«J bolamez, we are. 

^*>J^ bolasez, you are. 
Jh^yj boladilar, they are. 

Imperfect Tense. 


ijiiujj bolduk, we were. 

> #&« JJjJ bddungiz, you were. 
^IbjJy boldilar, they were. 

-»,»ij»j bolmishmen, I have been. 

wjj/^Jjj bdmishsen, thou hast been, 

.jiii^vJ^i bolmishdur, he has been. 


j^CyjUL; bolghanme.z, we were. 

jm [jij) bolghansez, you were. 
^V^J^Ul^j bolghandurlar, they were. 

j~c,fijyi bolmishmez, we have been. 

^(kijjj bolmishsez, you have been. 

Jijjd^Jl^yi bolmishdurlar, they have been. 

Second Preterite. 

,«i_>J»j boluhmen, I have been. 

^*it__>J»j bolubsen, thou hast been. 

,_5 JoJ»j bolvbdi, he has been. 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 
^c^lc..^^ boladurghanmen, I had been. 

^-j^jlc.. jil»j boladurghanseti, thou hadst been. 

^Siiolc^JjIy boladurghandi, he had been. 

yc\—>jy> bolubmez, we have been. 

jAwt_j>J»j bolubsez, you have been. 

Jh&jjl^ bolvbdilar, they have been. 


^jlc..i>J)j bdadurghanmez, we 

_^*olc..ii}Lj bdadurghansez, you 
jijjti^l-jSij) bdadurghandurlar, they . 



( 47 ) 

Second Preterpluperfect Tense. 
^ Jo! (i ;Lc..jlLj boladurghan idim, I had been. 
<JtJ!jo&>\ id^jj^j} boladurghan Ming, thou hadst been. 
^j Jo! ^Ic.jJ^ boladurghan Mi, he had been. 

i^JbJo! ^li .jJiL; boladurghan Mik, we had been. 
poCioJol ^Ic.. jilo boladurghan Mingiz, you had been. 
X>Jo! ij£.j)St*i boladurghan MUar, they had been. 

Future Tense. 

ufjyji bolurmen, I shall or will be. 
y/w/jJv bolurzen, thou shalt or wilt be. 
JjUSjJ bolurol, he shall or will be. 

ycjif. bolurmez, we shall or will be. 

y»j$*i bolursez, you shall or will be. 

XJjJ bolurlar, they shall or will be. 

-c^jUJjj bolghaimen, I shall be 

Second Future Tense. 


io^jUiij bolghaimez, we shall be. 

vi^ULj bolghaisen, thou shalt be. 
(JjI^Uljj bolghaiol, he shall be. 

j**,_sUijj bolghaisez, you shall be. 
yV^yU) jj bolghailar, they shall be. 

.« *»i»? bolmak men, I must be. 

Necessary Future. 


;.« ,V»i»? bolmak mez, we must be. 

Necessary Preterite. 


*oJo! i^J^) bolmak 'idim, I must have been. | lib ;Jo! J*J>** bolmak idik, we must have been. 


ljy> bol, 

0*i+> bolghil, 

jwu^yliJy bolghaisen, 

jtii'i*) boladur, 

yiyjjj bolsun, 

^ytiv bolghun, 

^Uly bolghai, 

ijyuj^'lji boladur sen, 

be thou. 



^joo Jy> bolungiz, 

\L&f%} bolung, 
jM^Xy bolghaisiz, 
jtfjjj.iitj) boladuringiz, 
Ji^yviyi bolsunlar, 
jl^JAtf bolghunlar, 
jhjj<iy> bolghailar, 
jliy^j.ii'iyi boladur sunlar, 

let him be 

be you. 

let them be. 

( 48 ) 

Present Tense. 

teT\f!}"i# bolghulekmen, O that I may be ! 
<J M d i f^f- bolghuleksen, O that thou mayst be ! 
;J«*J^jJ bolghulekdur, O that he may be ! 

X°sj^f^y. bolghulekmez, O that we 
yu^Ji Ji io bolghuleksez, O that you 
^jrj^Jfiy^ bolghulekdur lar,0 that they 

Second Present Tense. 


liT ^ !^%J bolghvdaimen, O that I may be ! | j^^l «>jil^ bolghudaimez, O that we may be ! 

Imperfect Tense. 

SING. ^djiljfyiJji bolghulek idem, O that I might be ! 

PLUR. Ck^JjIj^AL} bolghulek idik, O that we might be ! 


SING. ^l^byly bolghudai idem, O that I might have been ! 

PLUR. v£Ldol,_s!i>y«!jj bolghudai idik, O that we might have been ! 


Present Tense. 


i'Ujj bolsak, if we be. 

jxCLJy bolsangit, if you be. 

jXUjj bohalar, if they be. 

Imperfect Tense. 


tLb Jj ,J - UJ*J bolsak idik, if we were. 

I»L*J^ bolsam, if I be. 

cfJoLd i»j bolsang, if thou be 

<XmiJ»j bolsah, if he be. 

*J»JoJ *LJy bolsam idim, if I were. 

J'Uy bolmak, to be. ij^ bolghali, to be (of necessity), 


tt) lc..t>)Lj boladurghan, being. 
^Uv bolghan, been. 
| ii„L; bolmish, having been. 

, r in being. 

i_>j»j bolub,j 

_U!^ bolghatch, while in being. 

yiLj bolghu, capable of being. 

. J»j bolur, being to be. 
2l Jjjj bolghulek, that which should be. 


f until being, or 
^* ^""^4 whilst being. 

Jiiytijj bolghudai, what may be. 

( 49 ) 

THE IRREGULAR VERB ^ War, Far, or fifo Wardur, There is, To have. 

The Verb .! . War or Var answers to the Latin Est pro habeo, and to the French Imper- 
sonal Verb Il-y-a : it has but one word in each Tense, the Persons and Numbers being formed 
by prefixing the Possessive Pronouns. 

Present Tense. 

j)y War, jiijj Wardur, or ;t > Bur, There is. 

j 1 « tJo benum war, I have (there is to me), 

.1. wOLm senun war, thou hast. 

,1, tiii) anuh war, or/ . . 
V •? > he has. 

j»>,lj wardur, \ 

Preterite and Imperfect Tense. 
^_g ikjIJL Waridi, or /rvi'jtj Warimish, There was 
j^JoJ Ljj Jb benum waridi, I had. 
^yJol JL CJJLu *e«K« waridi, thou hadst. 
(CJkjI.lj t^Jol a«w» waridi, he had. 

.1. * u bizum war, we have. 
Jj CJu« «t?M» war, you have. 
.!. CJul anlarun war, or) 

jdj\) wardur, 3 



^yJoUj ijj bizum waridi, we had. 
(_5 JjUj CJ^u sizuii waridi, you had. 
jd>iUj k^J^o' anlarun waridi, they had. 

JU .)« war 8la, or yjy^j) .1 j w UU *e««w war olsun, have thou. 


Present Tense. 
AwjUj wariseh, if there be. 

Preterite and Imperfect Tense. 
,_5 SJm), warsidi, if there was. 

Jol.lj warjA'ew, there being, having. 

( 50 ) 

J 5 ^j-ij'j ImJLSI t-rJ) jl^J vLt |j«_a!j 

It is the season of Mirth and Pleasure : the Vernal season has arrived. 
Make no prayer with me now, O Priest ! That has its own time." 

Ci^J~ ; A jy J <tJUJL« dAj^^ 

There are no bounds to the wealth of the King : 
His munificence and clemency are great." 

The Verb ^ War frequently has the Possessive Cases attached to the Noun; as,^!^ j**^' f*l 
benum aktcheham rvardur," I have money" .i>J. i^J&s*l CJj*» senun aktchehan wardur, 

thou hast money." 

Sometimes the Possessive Cases are omitted, and the characteristic letters alone used ; as, 
,\j *<te 9 l aktcheham mar, "i have money." 

The Verb .1. War is also used with the Personal Pronouns, and the Preposition SO deh 
prefixed; as, ht&*i bendehwar, .i}L%Sx> bendehwardur, or jdi&ij bendehdur, "there is 
in me," i.e. ' I have ;" ^gjuuu sendehwar, "thou hast." 

In Ouigour, Jj Bar is used instead of .!» War; as, L ill! dy*. Jv^* Sxj tiJtiiUi 
" Maning bila Mohammed rasul Allah bar, ' I have Mohammed the Prophet of God with 
me." jjjjii Jj bar durur answers to the Turkish j <}j wardur, and j_yOjUj tvaridi; as, 
...*& .b JjoI^jo- "Dgebra'il bar durur, "it is GabrieL" 

The Negative to this Verb is jjji yok, or />**£ yokdur, " there is not " which forms its 
Tenses in the same manner as .L war; thus, ^yJoiiv yoghidi, or ^jJol Xy> yok idi, "there 
was not;" fl w A ry yoghiseh, if there be not" as, ,J>*^J. **=^ aktcheham yokdur, "l have 
no money." 

" In his time, there was no other orphan than the pearl of Aden. 

" In his reign, there was no other bleeding heart than the Musk of Khoten." 

( 51 ) 


Before proceeding to the Conjugation of the Regular Verbs, it may not be amiss to exhibit 
the modes in which the various Tenses are formed ; a little attention to which will save the 
Student the trouble of committing to memory the whole of the Inflexions of the Regular Verbs. 
The Turks frequently use one Tense for another, particularly the Present for the Future, and 
the Preterite for the Present ; but this will be rendered familiar by a short course of reading. 

The Present Tense of this Mood is formed by rejecting the Infinitive Termination ^iLo mek, 
or t« mak ; and adding to the body of the Verb the syllables > . erum, rum, or *jj urum ; 
as, fj^,y*> soilerum, "l speak," from <JLXJb»>» soilemek ; *£)& dogurum, "i strike," from 
CJ^SjiS dogmek; > Jj bilurum, "i know," from liAJo bilmek; t^ gelurum, "i come," 
from \^XJ& gelmek. 

fjj^ ^^^^r ^h-J trf^ to &W ^/i* &»»?£> ^ *h ] '\0 ****** J* 

A Hare once said to a Lioness, I bring forth every year many young ones ; and you in the 
whole course of your life only bring forth one or two.' True,' answered the Lioness, i" bring 
forth but one ; but that which I bring forth is a Lion/ " 

In order to prevent this Tense being understood in a Future sense, which it frequently is, 
tjjt iurum is used instead of *, erum, or ^ urum; as, >.jj6.t> dogiurum, "i am (now) 
striking, I strike ;" pjjdi geliurum, " I come." 

By rejecting the final > from the Present Tense, you have the Participle Active in . ; 
as, jSj ti dogur, " striking ;" . Ji gelur, " coming." This Participle is much used in forming 
the Tenses of the Regular Verbs. 

The Negative of this Tense is formed by changing the final syllable , . rum, or * .. urum, 
into +yo me rem, or ^ mem; as, fjj>^ dogmexem, or »J>^ dogmem, "l do not strike ;" 
#>»jy korkmazem, " I fear not." 

Those Verbs in which the action is confined to the Present by the termination *jji iurum 
form their Negatives by prefixing the letter * to the termination; as, fjfr)& gelmiurum, 
I do not come." 

( 52 ) 

The Imperfect Tense is formed by adding to the Participle Active in the Imperfect Tense 
of the Defective Verb *j 1 ; as, * Jo! J } 4 doguridum or «&**] j>) <S dogur imishem," I struck ;" 
fSjirf korkardum or J^,^^ korkarmishem, "i feared." 

7 liXji> ^j j*J ,_yJol ^jJii Jj 

The sword was the sickle, and the warrior the gleaner ; 
They plundered, and laid waste the fields." 

When this Tense is formed by **£»»■>! imishem, or *£*> mishim, the syllable .d dur is 
frequently attached to each person; as, jd JL,A J,^d dogur imishem dur, "I struck;" 
jd ^j^JLj] fijd dogur imishsen dur, "thou didst strike." 

The Negative to this Tense is formed by rejecting the letter . from the Participle Active, 
and substituting j* mez in its stead; as, >Jj1 }J>*d dogmez idum, "i did not strike" 
Jt^A yjirf korkmaz imishem, " I did not fear." 

The Imperfect in *j£k»jt imishem, or *£^o mishem, indicates a more distant period than that 
formed by *Jo! idum, or *& dum; thus, 

Last year I lived in Baghdad." 

When the Imperfect Tense is applied to a particular time past, the syllable ,»j iur is pre- 
fixed to ^t> dum, in the same manner as in the Present; as, f&jffa geliurdum, I was (hen 
in the act of coming." 

The Preterite is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination of the Verb into * J dum, or 
j*£~o mishem; as, *^k> dogdum, " I have struck" (J*i>jj> korkmishem, "i have feared." 

Since Alexander has become Emperor of Rum, 
He Aas decked his throne with various jewels." 

!»^jS t—y^" ggj) c^slc i^i^Jl ^^j j>i ais^' 

I am He whom they call King Dh'oulkarnein : I am the Prince who governs the Seven Climates. 
The East and the West / have conquered by my sword : And now, in departing. I have 

left them to another." 

( 53 ) 

The Preterite is also formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into ,£<> mish, and 
adding ..jJ.! oldum; as, aJJJ ^jH^^ii dogmish oldum, "i have struck" and also by adding 
*Jj«t oldum to the Participle Active ; as, * Ju.1 .S.J dogur oldum. 

The Negative of the Preterperfect in it) te, and .j^i^o mishem, is formed by inserting * 
between the body of the Verb and these Terminations; as, iJ^S.J dogmedum, ' I have not 
struck ;" Ju^ijJ korkmamishem, " I have not feared." 

The Preterperfect in > jJ.1 oldum, formed by the Participle in ifi-o mish, prefixes the letter 
t to the Participle; as, >jjj! .^^ijj dogmemish oldum. 

The Preterite formed by j, jj,! oldum, and the Participle Active in . , is made Negative by 
by changing j into y* me? ; as, ., jj.! }£*<> dogmez oldum. 

^yJojl ^Jujj Xlu^J JjU' xCvJ CUse» lit 
No one was found able to dispute with him." 

The Preterpluperfect Tense is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into JS4 and 
adding ( »^ v jI or .» Jo! ; as, **i^>! ^JL^^ii dogmish imishem, "l had struck," * Jo! ,A»J\»» 
korkmish idum, " I had feared." 

fii Jjl c5^' u5^ <~-^9 *rf J^-li *«Jl t_T^' J 4 s ^ U~^ i-OUjI ,J-»- 

" He A«rf excited so much terror in the people, that, if he committed murder, no one dared 
even to call him Tyrant. 
Some men, who had come to him to claim their rights, he cruelly ordered to be hanged." 

This Tense is also formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into *i> or ,_y t>, and addinsr 
., Jo! 'idum; as, aJo! ,_£ JS.J dogdi 'idum; ,»Jo! iJi.J dogdum 'idum, " I had struck." 

The Negative of this Tense, in JL^A imishem, or *Jo! iV/wwj, is formed either by 
inserting * in the regular manner ; as, *£^o! ^JL^J^ J dogmemish imishem," I had not struck," 
j, Jo! jJl^.yi korkmamish Mum, " I had not feared •" or by using the Negative ^jSo degul; 
as, *^vj! Jm ( >i v iji> dogmish degul 'im'shem, > Jo! J.S J .ji^i, Ji korkmish degul Mum. 

The Future Tense is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into »»*.l~ dg'k or 
^Ja- dgak, and adding the Present Tense of the Verb ^j\ im; as, J\ LLW>.t> dogdg'k im, or 
^J dogigigim, "l shall strike," J*f£rf korkdgaghim, "l shall fear." 

( 54< ) 

This Tense is also formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into »Lc melu or Jau 
mehlu, and adding the Present Tense of the Verb >j] im, which implies a necessity of action \ 
as, +j]AJiii) dogmeluim, " I shall (necessarily, I must) strike" **}A&JijJi korkmahlmm, 
"l shall fear." 

If you, my friend, propose to apply to the Sublime Port, you must write in this manner." 

" You must fear me, who am thy master." 

This Tense is also formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into +.M serim, or 
j, jmJ iserem, or into **> sem, and adding ^JJS gerek; as, ^^aSjO dogiserim, &£ ( »»^i'«ii 
dogsem, gerek, " I shall w will strike." 

When suddenly the trumpet shall be sounded, 
"The scroll of the heavens will be rolled up." 

The Second Future is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into ,£« mish, and 
adding the Present Tense of the Verb ,jf»l)1 olmak, to be;" as, *,j!jl LJ*^3^ dogmish 
olurum, I shall have struck ;" * Jj! ^J^JijJ korkmish olurum, " I shall have feared." 

The Negative of the Future in *£&. or *i»- is formed by inserting ^-c; as, ^s^.ti 
dogmidgigim, I shall not strike ;" Jts^jj} korkmidgaghim, " I shall not fear." 

The other Futures form their Negatives, regularly, by the insertion of » ; as, ^jwAjini 
dogmiserim, ^y »-*v^jt) dogmesem gerek, ^J;! ^J^^^ii dogmemish olurum. 


The Imperative is formed by rejecting the Infinitive Termination; as, \Lf*ii dog, "strike 
thou ;" ;\Ji kork, " fear thou." 

Songster, tune thy lute ; Raise thy voice in every place. 
Melodiously chant a lay ; And let all thy lovers be charmed." 

( 55 ) 

In common discourse, the sound of the letters ! or X is frequently added to the Imperative ; 
and sometimes it is written so ; as, ^i> doga, " strike thou ;" iSjjs korkah, fear thou." 

The syllables Jj£ gil, (Joe ghil, and ,_s<^) imdi, are sometimes added to the First Person 
of this Mood; as, Jj^jt> doggil, " strike thou;" Jjktfgi korkghU, "fear thou;" ^S^i) ji 
gel imdi, " come thou." 

The Negative is formed by adding <JU> meh ; as, xjjd dogmeh," strike not" ijtjjt korkmah, 

"fear not." 

**&} ***■ ^->. itf ^ 
&li^ <tJUWi <ZJk AarSilj^ 

" O Heavens ! bring me not to the tomb, 

Until I have embraced the breast of my Mistress." 

The Present Tense of this Mood is formed by dropping the final letter of the Infinitive 
Termination ; as, ^.li dogem, " that I may strike;" *j\ Ji korkam, " that I may fear." 

-Hkjl ,jijl ^jJ! jjj^s- ^l^ii j»J-^i' urt/-* i/Au*" ^j' *-^ 

"You four must each write an admonitory epistle, Each of which shall contain many 

different counsels : 
" So that I may hear the advice of each ; And that, by conforming to it, I may increase 

my power." 
There are certain words usually prefixed to the Tenses of this Mood ; such as, &C£*i kiashkeh, 
Jolly bulaiki, ^ydojljl <xi neh olaidi, ^f»j>,) <xJJ1 allah wirsen, i_s Jo^j <fi) allah miridi; 

signifying " O that ! " " Would to God that ! " 

The Negation is formed by inserting _« mi; as, *J^iji> dogmiem, " that I may not strike." 
The Imperfect Tense is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into +&)} tdum, or 

* Si) i eh idum ; as, * Jol i^/j J dogidum, > Jol <o^ <i dog eh Mum, " that I might strike ;" ., &£>•£ 

korkidum, that I might fear." 

,_$ AajU ^(Cc^J ,^5/bj fSJ-i^ J 
A certain thieving Cutpurse and Impostor, who was possessed of such power, that he 
could penetrate the walls of the Castle of Keiwan, and snatch the collyrium from 
the eye of Venus." 

( 56 ) 

The Negative is formed by inserting -*> ; as, >Jol &$S)£ dogmieh tdum. 

The Preterite is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into f^, mish, and adding 
l»Jiy Slam, or Jjl 67e»»; as, jjjl i^/^ji) dogmish 61am, or J.) ^j dogmish olem, 

that I might have struck." 

The Negative is regularly formed by the insertion of j, ; as, Ji^] \£^£. dogmemish 61am. 

The Preterpluperfect is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into ^i^e mish, and 
adding the Optative Preterpluperfect of the Verb .SvU! olmak; as, *Jo)U ifiJs^iS dogm'sh 
Slaidum, " that I might have struck." 

The Negative is formed by the insertion of the letter * ; as, fAjJUl [Ar»£«i> dogmemish 



The Present Tense of this Mood is formed by adding +1$ dum to the Participle Active in . ; 

as, fiiSji) dogurdum, "l would strike." 

If the cloud of her ringlets had not been veiled, the flames of its beauty would 
" have added fire to the sun." 
The Negative is formed by changing ^ intone ?nez; as, >i)j^.i) dogmezdum. 
The Preterite is formed by adding to the Participle Active in ^ the contracted form of the Com- 
pound Preterite of the Verb *j! tm; as, *Jok<i^o^ji> dogur mishidum, " I would have struck." 
There is also a Second Preterite or Imperfect, which however is very little used, formed by 
changing the Infinitive Termination into ji* mish, and adding the Suppositive Present of 
the Verb j^ljl olmak; as, fijjj [j^S^ dogmish olurdum, " I -would have struck;" 
id^yy ijZJijy korkmish olurdum, " I would have feared." 

The Present Tense of this Mood is formed by adding to the Participle Active the Sub- 
junctive Present of the Verbs *j| im or .*»Jj1 olmak; as, ***j1 i^d dogur isem, or 
jH-/ji> dogur sem, "if I strike;" *Jj|j»JI korkar olsem, "if I fear;" 

If you find a wandering Monk in a Monastery." 

* In detaching the Tenses of this Mood from the Optative, to which they are assigned by Meninski, 
I have followed M. Jaubert ; whose opinion is supported by the dissimilarity of these Tenses to the rest 
of the Optative Mood, in respect of the distinguishing Particles ; which may be prefixed to the Persons of 
each Tense in the Optative Mood, but which the Tenses included in this Mood never take. 

( 57 ) 

To each Tense of this Mood the Conditional Particle js \ eger may be prefixed ; though it is 
frequently omitted, the Verb retaining the same sense as if it were expressed. 

The Imperfect Tense is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into >*> sem ; as, 
+»&*<$ dogsem, "if I struck ;" *»**ji> korksam, "if I feared;" 

,_s^ M ^^ **■»>£ i_s^ f*";/ 4^ 

" If I lost sight of thee but for a moment, grief would torment me. 
If I saw thee with another, jealousy would consume me." 

The Preterite is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into ,£« mish, and adding 
the Subjunctive Present of the Verb *jl im, or .sjjl olmak; as, *«ul ,£~£*d dogmish isem, 
if I have struck;" **»jJ}1 l/***/** korkmish olsem, "if I have feared." 

If the table of the Imam have been spread with delicacies, what is it to thee ?" 

This Tense is also formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into ^jj di, or *t> dum, 
and adding *«jjl tsem, if changed into ^jiJ, or <Wj>1 i'se/t, if into >ii; as, *«ij1 ^J^.i) 
dogdi'isem; &»j\ >iXSj J dogdum tseh. 

The Preterpluperfect Tense is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into &« se/i, 
or ^juj si, and adding *.\j| j'fa or *£ dum; as, ^Jol s^J,^ dogseh idum, "if I had struck ;" 
^JjwlJ) korksidum, "if I had feared." 

There is also a Preterpluperfect formed by changing the Infinitive into •>£-« mish, and 
adding the Subjunctive Imperfect of the Verb .jjjl olmak; as, *J>JuJjl JlJjJ dogmish 
olsidum, " if I had struck." 

The Future Tense is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into CAs- dgik, or 
Jf*. dgak, and adding the Subjunctive Present of the Verb *j! M»; as, **«j1 (^A=r^4> dogdgik 
isem, if I shall strike;" *«*j] jjsfjJi korkdgak tsem, "if I shall fear." 

The Second Future is formed by changing the Infinitive Termination into t£*c mish, and 
adding the Subjunctive Present or Future of the Verb ij J olmak; as, **«.}!. '.ii^.ii dogmish 
olursem, "if I shall have struck." * 

The Infinitive Present is the Verb in its primitive form., without any variation whatever ; and 


( 58 ) 

always ends either in viL* mek, or £*> mak; as, liA^i.J dogmek, "to strike;" yj^srf 
korkmak, "to fear." 

O ravisher of hearts ! O sweet-lipped Damsel ! 

My heart aspires to love thee. 

O thou, whose countenance is fair and fragrant as a jessamine leaf! 

My heart aspires to love thee." 

The Infinitive Present admits of Declension, like a Noun. The Nominative Case is 
usually formed by changing t^J or Jf into t; as, Nom. <tj^t> dogmeh, "to strike ;" 
*•*!«* korkmah, " to fear," from i*ZXJ>jii dogmek, ^yjijji korkmak. These Infinitives 
are declined like Nouns of the Second Declension. 

Sometimes the Infinitive in its primitive form is used for the Nominative, and the Cases are 
formed like those of a Noun of the First Declension ; as, Nom. \£X£jd dogmek, Gen. CJ£j>* J 
dogmeguh, Dat. t\$}d dogmegeh, Nom. ^>j^ korkmak, Gen. CJ^ijy korkmaghuh, 
Dat. &■£/& korkmagheh. 

After Abu Ali had seen this, he turned himself to fly from the place." 


The Infinitive Preterite is formed by changing the Termination l^Xc mek, or ^-o mak, 
into |i£U> mish, and adding the Infinitive of the Auxiliary Verb sjj 1 olmak ; as, J^J .1 i^JjA 
dogmish olmak, ' to have struck " Jfjj) ifi^jjs korkmish olmak, to have feared." 

The Infinitive Preterpluperfect is formed by changing the Terminational CXo mek, or 
£« mak, into ^^ii dukten, ^lii't) dukten, or y;t>j*c mezden; and adding the Adverb 
tJjl ewwel; as, iJj] yjJ^JSj<3 dogdukten ewwel, "to have struck;" Jll »\Jjj\»i' korkdukten 
ewwel, Jjl ^l^s,^' korkmezden ewwel, " to have feared." 

" Before the rising of the sun, I ought to have been in the appointed place." 

( 59 ) 

The Second Preterpluperfect is formed in the same manner as the Preterpluperfect, substi- 
tuting ijLc sonrah for Jj] ewwel; as, zjLc ^tiSjS.ii dogdukten sonrah, "to have struck," 
"after having struck;" %jLo gpMJJiSgS korkdukten sonrah, "to have feared." 

After having done all the duties of hospitality in receiving his guest." 

He separated one from the other ; and after having done so, he tore and devoured 
each of them." 

The Future is formed by changing i^Xc mek, or ( £« mak, into CA=~ dgik, or z*. dgak, 
and adding the Infinitive of the Verb Jfyljl olmak; as, ^.1 Cks^«i> dogdgik olmak, "to be 
about to strike ;" Jfjjl Jr^J? ^ or ^gak olmak, "to be about to fear." 


CLXj^iJ dogmek, To Strike. 

Present Tense. 


*^jiJ dogurum, I strike. 
voj^Sji) dogur sen, thou strikest. 
^S^ii dogur, he strikes. 

j^t> dogur uz, we strike. 
y»Sy} dogursiz, you strike. 
^i^jJ dogurler, they strike. 

Imperfect Tense. 

* Jol ijii rfo^wr i7/w»«, orl 
1 ' * > I struck. 

jjO^jJ dogur dum, J 

CJajJ^SjiJ dogur iduh, thou struck'st. 

j_5 Jol ^SjO rfo^-wr i'cft, he struck. 

dJjo! Itii dogur tduk, we struck. 

j£iij]jSji} dogur idunuz, you struck. 

JjJol S.d dogur 'idUer, ori 
* " " '/ > they struck. 

tJ&i>JJ>y} dogurleridi. J 

( 60 ) 

Second Imperfect Tense. 

j£*v?) jijii dogur 'imishiz, we struck. 

y*Z>-*>\ Sjii dogur 'imishsiz, you struck. 


they struck. 

t^ri) Stii dogur 'imishem, or "J 
jL*>£*ti dogur mishem, J 
{ jmJL v }] Jj<i dogur imishsen, thou struck'st. J&^>) f*ii dogur hnishler, or "I 
j^^i\ j>)& dogur imishdur, he struck. | ifi^A )S^ dogurler imish, J 

Each Person of this Tense may have the syllable .£ dur subjoined; as, .J^i^j] £*£ 

dogur imishemdur. 


CJjOjO dogduk, we have struck. 

*iil»i) dogdum, I have struck. 
CJjo.J dogdun, thou hast struck. 
^jJ^.iJ dogdi, he has struck. 

••iiii.i) dogdunuz, you have struck. 
^.jJ^jii dogdiler, they have struck. 

Second Preterite. 

j£*S*ii dogmishiz, we have struck. 
j^A^i^.ii dogmishsiz, you have struck. 
^&J>*>) dogmishler, they have struck. 



*<i^«4> dogmishem, I have struck. 
.j^uifcyi.J dogmishsen, thou hast struck. 
jtXi^jO dogmishdur, he has struck. 

Third Preterite. 
juVJ.l i/Lji.d dogmish oldum, I have struck. 
iJSJtSJ.I (A^.ii dogmish olduh, thou hast struck. 
,_5ijJ.! [ji^.J dogmish 6ldi, he has struck. 
iJJJj' ,&J}A dogmish olduk, we have struck, 
jijj.l ifi^*<5 dogmtih oldunuz, you have struck. 
^LjJjl ^J^S^ dogmish oldiler, they have struck. 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 
iJol (i^ijj dogmish Mum, orT 
tSJ^S^ii dogmishdum, J 
^L) Jjl (j^ijii dogmish idun, thou hadst struck. 
,_$ Jol iJLjjj dogmish 'idi, he had struck, 
fciljjl (ii^ji> dogmish iduk, we had struck. 
ji Jol i^vS.t) dogmish 'idunuz, you had struck. 
^JjJjI ^ji^.t) dogmish idiler, they had struck. 


I had struck. 


( 61 ) 

Future Tense. 

fj>\& dogurum, I shall or will strike, the same as the Present; also, 


y£js?.ii dogdgegiz, we shall strike. 

juJis^jii dogdgeksiz, you shall strike. 

.i> JiXs^jJ dogdgeklerdur, they shall strike. 

f*^y> ****** "X^^ 
j^jj dogdgegim, J 

^Jis^.ii dogdgeksen, thou shalt strike 

.jXs^.J dogdgektur, he shall strike. 

Second or Necessary Future. 

SING. *j 1 $S}& dogmelu im, I shall be obliged to strike, or shall necessarily strike. 
^J^.i) dogmelu sen, thou shalt strike. 
.dSjtii dogmelu dur, he shall strike. 

PLUR. j>\ Os/jiJ dogmelu iz, we shall strike. 
j«jJsr£«i> dogmelu siz, you shall strike. 
JjiiyiJ^ii dogmelu durler, they shall strike. 



Preterite or Third Future. 

f J,| lA/jii dogmish olurum, I shall have struck. 
./".J)' i«/ji) dogmish olursen, thou shalt have struck. 
J. I lJ^J)<> dogmish olur, he shall have struck. 

i^j' U~-^J' i d°g mish oluruz, we shall have struck. 
j-'Jjl ifi-S^ dogmish olur siz, you shall have struck. 
Jjjij] [J^-S^ dogmish olurler, they shall have struck. 


£/) J <&>§•, strike thou. 
^yuSji) dogsun, let him strike. 


J&£.i) dogehlum, let us strike. 

i^Ji.ii dogun, or~l 

.v .' > strike you. 

jXS.ii dogunuz,) 

Jjyui^ii dogsunler, let them strike. 

( 62 ) 


Present and Future Tenses. 

SING. J*d &££v£ kiashkeh dogem. or ) „ 

r^ • • e V O that I may strike ! 

*j> <6jJ dog eh im, ) 

^wi£.d &JL£j kiashkeh dogehsen, O that thou mayst strike! 

<J6ji> aJJ^S kiashkeh dogeh, O that he may strike ! 

PLUR. ;i»«ii tiiSJ kiashkeh, dogehuz, or i 

<- o that we may strike ! 


y>J&^ dogehiz, 

jM&.iS &££,£ kiashkeh, dogehsiz, O that you may strike! 

Jt£ji} dcC^i' kiashkeh dogehler, O that they may strike ! 

Imperfect Tense, 

SING. *Jo^<t) <*££.£ kiashkeh dogidum, or / 

P " J • • ° > O that I might strike ! 

*Jol <o«t> dogeh tdum, ) 

t^Ji\» .J <uC£k£ kiashkeh dogidun, O that thou mightst strike ! 

,_5 lio^.ii (OCii' kiashkeh dogidi, O that he might strike ! 

PLUR. tiJja^ djCii" kiashkeh dogiduk, O that we might strike ! 

j£sXi,<} <t££j kiashkeh dogidunuz, O that you might strike! 

1»Jj^,i> ^ii" kiashkeh dogidiler, or) _, , 
- rr ' " J - " ' V O that they might strike ! 

^JoJJ&.ii dogehleridi, y 


SING. «)J \jLSjd X.&S kiashkeh dogmish 61am, O that I may have struck ! 

^ujVjI iiLjjd tJL&£ kiashkeh dogmish olasen, O that thou mayst have struck ! 

^j] (fi^ji) <k££k/ kiashkeh dogmish ola, O that he may have struck ! 

PLUR. jjilj ijr*Jyi *^ kiashkeh dogmish olauz, O that we may have struck ! 
j>»1)\ t j£ v £jii &JjiJ> kiashkeh dogmish olasiz, O that you may have struck! 
J"i)\ ijZjijd X&J kiashkeh dogmish olaler, O that they may have struck! 
Preterpluperfeet Tense. 
SING. <Jo5lj| 1 £ v £j 4 } t&£S kiashkeh dogmish olaidum, O that I might have struck! 

<ZJ JoJU { iLj^ii tfJlJ kiashkeh dogmish olaidun, O that thou mightst have struck ! 
,_S JuKjl .Ji^ii &££j kiashkeh dogmish olaidi, O that he might have struck ! 

PLUR. JfiXjJjl fjljjii <uC£j kiashkeh dogmish Slaiduk, O that we might have struck ! 

jAiijJjl i^S^jt) <sX£^ kiashkeh dogmish olaiduhuz, O that you might have struck ! 
^b Jj Jj] ^vSjJ <K&lJ kiashkeh dogmish olaidiler, O that they might have struck ! 

( 63 ) 

Present Tense. 

.ji.ii dogurdum, I would strike. 
v^JiJi.ii dogur dun, thou wouldst strike. 
^ ji.J dogurdi, he would strike. 


<jjdfyi dogurduk, we would strike. 

jiii/.i> dogur dunuz, you would strike. 
Jj^jSm) dogurdiler, they would strike. 




j,Sxi^<Stii dogurmishidum, I would have struck. 
^JsjJmJ^ dogur mishiduh, thou wouldst have struck. 
^gSx^vi.d dogurmishidi, he would have struck. 

i^J&x&^ji.iS dogur mishiduk, we would have struck. 
jpdJ&«/)J dogur mishidunuz, you would have struck. 
JoJUwc/.J dogur mishidUer, they would have struck. 

Second Preterite and Imperfect. 
SING. * **/*!)' (A/ji) dogmish olurdum, I would have struck. 

<i)i> lJJ jijjj dogmish olurdun, thou wouldst have struck. 
uS«Ji}J}1 (Jt^.ii dogmish olurdi, he would have struck. 

PLUR. ^'^1^1 ijiJjO dogmish olurduk, we would have struck. 

jilij J.J (ArS.t) dogmish olur dunuz, you would have struck. 
^Jbii^jl ,Jl^ji> dogmish olurdiler, they would have struck. 


Present and Future Tenses. 

*-ji.i> /I c^er dogursem, ot\ 
■ / >if I strike. 

fmJjSjO dogur 'is em, J 

CXw/jii i! eg'er dogursen, if thou strike. 

&»£)£ J>\ eger dogur seh, if he strike. 

i^Ju^.J^! c^o" dogur sek, if we strike. 
JLj^jJ il e#er dogur sehiz, if you strike. 
1jU>£*A j>\ eger dogursehler, or\ if they 
l#}$yb dogur ler seh, J strike. 

( 64 ) 

Imperfect Tense 

*«*SjJ p\ eger dogsem, if I struck. 
'J^Sjii j>\ eger dogsen, if thou struck'st. 
<t^ji> ^1 c^er dogseh, if he struck. 


ijXjJjd J\ eger dogseh, if we struck. 
jwfji) ^1 e#er dogsenuz, if you struck. 
J&hJjA p\ eger dogselder, if they struck. 


*«±j! ^jLjjii J\ eger dogmish isem, if I have struck. 

i^Amjj! ^l^jj^il eger dogmish iseh, if thou hadst struck. 

&mj| [ jZJj<> /! e^er dogmish iseh,, if he has struck. 

PLUR. wLL*jI { j^J i ii J) eger dogmish 'isek, if we have struck. 

^L*jj ^JL$^ j>\ eger dogmish iseniz, if you have struck. 
^<Uol |> _ / ^jJ^t e^er dogmish isehler, if they have struck. 





Prefer pluperfect Tense. 

,Juw£,i> il eger dogsidum, or") . 
r " ■ jf > if I had struck. 

>iAj! (KuiSjJ dogseh 'idum, J 

CLJ (Xujljii ^fl e^er dogsidun, if thou hadst struck. 

,_SAAa»Jji}^s1 c^-er dogsidi, if he had struck. 

uLJiU^J^t) ^1 e^er dogsiduk, if we had struck. 
jiJowSjii^Sl e^er dogsidunuz, if you had struck. 
j_S Jo!j!<)Uuiji>^t e^er dogsehleridi, if they had struck. 

Second Preterpluperfect Tense. 
■hXjuJjI jii^i.t) ji! e^er dogmish olsidum, if I had struck. 
i^J JjuJj! ifijijd J>\ eger dogmish olsidun, if thou hadst struck. 
j_jJ>a«Jj! i JL,i i L> J>\ eger dogmish olsidi, if he had struck. 

i'JOmJj! iliij>^ j>\ eger dogmish olsiduk, if we had struck. 

^JowJ.l /li^jiij^t eger dogmish olsiduhuz, if you had struck. 

JoJjI &>J,] , A^.J $ e#er dogmish olsah idiler, or ) 

" . ^^ / > if they had struck. 

,_5doy<]aJj] u»J>j<) dogmish olsahleridi, J 



( 65 ) 

Future Tense. 
ftui\ Cla:' «!>_/! eger dogdgek is em, if I shall strike. 
CAwjI \^Xs?*ii J>\ eger dogdgek 'iseh, if thou shalt strike. 
<l«jj] \£Xs?^ p\ eger dogdgek iseh, if he shall strike. 

i^LjjI iiW>.4> S\ eger dogdgek isek, if we shall strike. 

jiLo! Cla^jii il e^er dogdgek isehiz, if yon shall strike. 
^JAujjI CAsr^^! e^-er dogdgek isehler, if they shall strike. 



Second or Preterital Future. 
*M. J.! (i^S.ii^s! e#er dogmish olursam, if I shall have struck. 
j.J.t /i^vSjt) ji! e^er dogmish olursan, if thou shalt have struck. 
<JU.Jj) /li^i.ii^Sl «^er dogmish olursah, if he shall have struck. 
JfwfjUl tJt-Sjii f\ eger dogmish olursak, if we shall have struck. 
/«yJjl zii^Sjii jil e.g'er dogmish olursanuz, if you shall have struck. 
HmJjJj} fjuj>^ f\ eger dogmish olurlersah, if they shall have struck. 


Present Tense. 
vii^ii dogmek, to strike. 

j^Jj] jjin^jii dogmish olmak, to have struck. 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 

(J.I „jix£j6«i> dogdukten ewwel, or) , N 

.- / r to have struck (formerly,). 

Jjl ytijjijii dogmezden emwel, ) 

Second Preterpluperfect Tense. 
iJLa ^liS^Stii dogdukten sohrah, to have struck, after having struck. 

Future Tense. 

Jfclj! viXs*jt> dogdgek olmak, to be about to strike. 


( 66 ) 


Present {indeclinable). 
Jjti dogur, striking. 

. Preterite {indeclinable). 
Ijitj>jii dogmish, having struck. 


-*kAS.J dogiser, or i 

*• about striking. 

Present (Declinable). 
^S.i> dogun, striking. 

Preterite (Declinable). 
t«iJj6jt> dogduk, having struck. 

^iAs^jii dogdgek, 

Jl^.J dogmelu, or ) 

/ > obliged to be about to strike. 

y-«Kij4> dogehmelu, 3 


i^S.ii dogurken, or 1 
,fi ' f in striking. 

^W£}i> dogur iken, ) 

\—jS,d dogiup, in striking, having struck. 

^JjiS.ti dogehrek, in striking, (continuing) while striking. 

<fcr".t> dogindgeh, f 
h . > in striking, until, as far or as long as. 

&s? 4 \S.4j dogduktcheh,} 

iS^S^ii dogmekteh, | 

StViiAS.i) dogdukleh, / in striking, until &c. 

Af^J^ii dogmegileh, J 

tiAs^. J dogidgek, after having struck, after striking. 

<x£^.i> dogmegeh, i 

/ } to strike, through or on account of striking. 

^^sJ.I v^JOji) dogmek itchiun,} 

A comparison of the Inflections of the preceding Verb with those of a Verb ending in £* 
will sufficiently prove the impropriety of dividing the Turkish Verbs into Two Conjugations. 
These imaginary Conjugations do not differ in a single letter from each other ; and their only 
variation consists in the letter i^J, in which Verbs of the First Conjugation end, attracting 
softer vowels than the harsh letter i" which terminates the Second. This will be evident, on 
examining the Tenses of the following Verb, which is an example of what has been termed 
the Second Conjugation. 

( 67 ) 

JrJj)* Korkmak, To Fear. 

Present and Future Tense. 

ffjf korkarum, I fear. 

il f^J>j^> korkarsen, thou fearest. 

y'y korkar, he fears. 

jyy korkar uz, we fear. 

jwj*>%* korkarsiz, you fear. 

Jj*j)» korkarler, they fear. 

Imperfect Tense. 

t &>\ji.ji korkaridum, I feared. 

l^JjjJ.J korkaridun, thou fearedst. 

(CjjjJtJ korkar'idi, he feared. 

fN&s^l y ■ y korkar 'imishem, I feared. 

^JL^i\J>j^» korkar 'imishsen, thou fearedst 

i»Xw.,jI y\y korkar imishtur, he feared. 

i'Jolyy korkartduk, we feared. 

jiJo'i.y korkar iduhuz, you feared. 

li&Ajs.Ji korkar idiler , they feared. 

Second Imperfect Tense. 

vis^l y, y korkar 'imishiz, we feared. 

yJL^Ajijji korkar imishsiz, you feared. 

jli^j] yy korkar imishler, they feared. 


ijji,»* korktum, I have feared. 

CJ JJ. J korktuii, thou hast feared, 

j_5 iSi", y korkti, he has feared. 

Second Preterite, 
f&^>jj> korkmishem, I have feared. 

mJL,SjJ horkmishsen, thou hast feared 

j&£*J>,J korkmishtur, he has feared. 


i'J^y korktuk y we have feared. 

ji Jjj J korktunuz, you have feared 
JjiXs\y kork tiler, they have feared. 



jAJsjji korkmishiz, we have feared. 

ju+£JijJ korkmishsiz, you have feared. 
J^yy korkmishler, they have feared. 
TAz'rrf Preterite. 
> jjj (ilyij y korkmish oldum, I have feared. 
lLJjo.1 iu^J.J korkmish olduh, thou hast feared, 
^yjjj) fjL^jJ korkmish oldi, he has feared. 
JfjJjl ijLjijJ korkmish olduk, we have feared. 
j?jj.i (Ayy korkmish oldunuz, you have feared. 
^bjjjl tAjfjJ korkmish oldiler, they have feared. 

( 68 ) 



Preterpluperfect Tense. 
>Jo! (J»^»j*> korkmish idum, I had feared. 
•«— '^J fjLji.ji korkmish idun, thou had feared. 
,_$• Jo! fii^s.^ korkmish idi, he had feared. 

i' Jjj t&^jjj korkmish iduk, we had feared. 
jiSjoj LJ^jf korkmish idunuz, you had feared. 
JjiIjI cU*>j£ korkmish idiler, they had feared. 



I shall or will fear. 

Future Tense. 

*j! jfs^, yi korkadgagh 

korkadgaksen, thou shalt or wilt fear. 
korkadgaktur, he shall or will fear. 

ji'tf?, or 1 
fhim, J 

korkadgaghix, we shall or will fear. 
korkadgaksiz, you shall or will fear. 
korkadgaklerdur, they shall or will fear. 

Second or Necessary Future Tense. 

^j'J^i.y korkmalutm, I shall fear. 

mAJ>.J» korkmalusen, thou shalt fear. 

dS^i,j> korkmaludur, he shall fear. 


JiVvfi)* korkmaluiz, we shall fear. 
jujjl^ji.y korkmalusiz, you shall fear. 
i.ii^ij y korkmaludurler, they shall fear. 



Preterital or TA?*roJ Future. 
pjjij) (J»-i>ji> korkmish olurum, I shall have feared, 
j*.. J.l (J*Jh<£ korkmish Slur sen, thou shalt have feared. 
_, J.! /Av»i y korkmish olur, he shall have feared. 

j;, J} I fjSi^ijS korkmish oluruz, we shall have feared. 

j»>j^ jjL^ij^ korkmish olursiz, you shall have feared. 

^,^1 fjZjijj) korkmish olurler, they shall have feared. 

( 69 ) 


jt, y kork, fear thou. 

tjyms.Ji korksun, let him fear. 

J&>,*> korkahlum, let us fear. 

tLJji.j' korkan, or J 

.-. JJ V fear you. 

do' J korkanux, J 

liyuSjyi korksunler, let them fear. 


Present and Future Tense. 

SING. *j'.»i» JULj bulaiki korkam, or / 

' „ r',' O that I may fear ! 

*j&j.y Juj kiashkeh korkahim, ^ 

M&ijS ^Jj}tf bulaiki korkahsen, O that thou mayst fear ! 

xjijj)jj}js bulaiki korkah, O that he may fear ! 

PLUR. ))&.£ ,Jj})> bulaiki korkahux, O that we may fear ! 
yx&ijji .c^: 1 .^ bulaiki korkahsix, O that you may fear ! 
J<0. Ji ^>)+> bulaiki korkahler, O that they may fear '. 

Imperfect Tense. 
SING. f&ifjlp Lj^i'ii bulaiki korkidum, O that I might fear ! 

CJjow,** ( J^}^ bulaiki korkidun, O that thou mightst fear ! 
,_5 J>£s\Ji JoL bulaiki korkidi, O that he might fear ! 

PLUR. jfjjkiyi' ^>)y> bulaiki korkiduk, O that we might fear ! 

j£&±s.js Ls)j> bulaiki korkidunux, O that you might fear ! 
Jj^j.ji XJjJ bulaiki korkidiler, O that they might fear ! 

SING. * X.) tp^ij^s ,j£j5Uj bulaiki korkmish Slant, O that I may have feared ! 

^wJ.1 t£j/J ^J^)?. bulaiki korkmish olasen, O that thou mayst have feared ! 
Xjl u»*»jj> .j&.^J bulaiki korkmish 61a, O that he may have feared ! 
PLUR. ^Kjl ijii^ijJ ijL bulaiki korkmish olauz, O that we may have feared ! 
^u5lj] tfiJs.J ^^}y> bulaiki korkmish olasiz, O that you may have feared ! 
jillj) tAjfjjt L «^i^ bulaiki korkmish olaler, O that they may have feared ! 

( 70 ) 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 
SING. **xOU (j*kv*/jj> ,ek^ bulaiki korkmish olaidum, that I might have feared ! 

viJjoJIjl fjLjjji i&)]>. bulaiki korkmish olaidun, that thou mightst have feared! 
j_5 JjJIj) iZiJ),Ji Jo Jty bulaiki korkmish olaidi, O that he might have feared ! 

PLUR. Jj^^ U^J}* (_s^i^ bulaiki korkmish olaiduk, O that we might have feared ! 

j^Joiljl fjLjijji ^I^j bulaiki korkmish olaidunux, O that you might have feared ! 
,_5 iVj^JJj! {Ju-i^jj* ,_s^.^ bulaiki korkmish olalefidi, O that they might have feared ! 

Present Tense. 

,n>/i y korkardum, I would fear. 
Cl ii ij\yi korkardun, thou wouldst fear. 
j_5 Ji . «i' korkardi, he would fear. 

JjAjijf korkarduk, we would fear. 
£<Sfji> korkardunuz, you would fear. 
JbiijijJi korkardiler, they would fear. 





*iia£^y\y korkarmishidum, I would have feared. 
CJ&x2m,J)jJJ korkarmishiduh, thou wouldst have feared. 
^SiiL^jSjjs korkarmishidi, he would have feared. 

^•Juyi^yy korkarmishiduk, we would have feared. 
£&**L<JSjJ) korkarmishidunuz, you would have feared. 
Is&iJLojSjji korkarmishidiler, they would have feared. 

Second Preterite and Imperfect. 
i^J.l t/t-J>jj korkmish olurdum, I would have feared. 
CJt>. J.I fjLjJjJi korkmish Slur dun, thou wouldst have feared. 
,_yi>. Jj! fjL^jJ korkmish olurdi, he would have feared. 

; - 4), Jjl >4J.ii korkmish olurduk, we would have feared. 
jHJ/JLl ij^jji korkmish olurdunux, you would have feared. 
yj^Jj! i^Jt-Jijf korkmish olurdUer, they would have feared. 

( 71 ) 

Present and Future Tense. 

ZmjS.Ji J] eger korkarsak, if we fear. 

JLuJs.Ji i\ eger korkarsanuz, if you fear. 

J &mj>jS j$\ eger korkarsah ler, if they fear. 

Imperfect Tense. 

**ui;*» $\ eger korksam, if I feared. 

0-»j>jji j>\ eger korkarsam, if I fear. 
CXuJijy J) eger korkarsah, if thou fear. 
iwfrf j,\ eger korkarsah, if he fear. 

tLLJ^yi^l eger korksah, if thou fearedst 
<t*j'yi^! eger korksah, if he feared. 


VI, vv. 



z»J.j£} eger korksak, if we feared. 
jL»jjji J>) eger korksahuz, if you feared. 
itmi.y J>\ eger kor ksahler, if 'they feared. 

*mjjI fjZ^i.j) p\ eger korkmish 'isem, if I have feared. 
i«LLjj1 ^Jt^i.jijs] eger korkmish iseh, if thou hast feared. 

<S*«jI (ji^jjyi p\ eger korkmish iseh, if he has feared. 
i^XwjI (JLjjji j>\ eger korkmish isek, if we have feared. 
ji^J ij»-£jjs Ji\ eger korkmish isehiz, if you have feared. 
J&*»j] (jLJijji £\ eger korkmish isehler, if they have feared. 

Prefer pluperfect Tense. 
*JJWjj>;ji"^l eger korksidum, if I had feared. 
CJ&x»Jjj> J] eger korksiduh, if thou hadst feared. 
ij &Xt»ijJs ^} eger korksidi, if he had feared. 
Jjjouji.ji'^1 eger korksiduk, if we had feared. 
j^JkWKji' ji I eger korksiduhuz, if you had feared. 
yj&SSj&utSjj) J>\ eger korksahler'idi, if they had feared. 

Second Preter pluperfect Tense. 
I»i}oaJj! iji^ijf j>) eger korkmish olsidum, if I had feared. 
^LJiWjJjI ^^i.JijS] eger korknish olsiduh, if thou hadst feared. 
,_Si\XuJjl (j*J>jj> j>\ eger korkmish olsidi, if he had feared. 
^j'Jou.Jj! jJLiijji il e#er korkmish olsiduk, if we had feared. 
jiiiJwij! {jM^ijJi J\ eger korkmish olsiduhuz, if you had feared. 
<_$&)) J <cJjl yL^>.j) J>] eger korkmish olsahlefidi, if they had feared. 



( 72 ) 

Future Tense. 
SING. **ijj| Zs? '.J p\ eger korkadgak isem, if I shall fear. 

WJJLtj) ZsJjji Ji\ eger korkadgak isen, if thou shalt fear. 
&uJ\ ZxfjJ Ji\ eger korkadgak iseh, if he shall fear. 

PLUR. CJ^jj.j) ^=r> .J) i\ eger korkadgak tsek, if we shall fear. 

j&wj! ZsfjJs £] eger korkadgak 'iseniz, if you shall fear. 
J&mj) Jjsfjji] eger korkadgak tsehler, if they shall fear. 

Second or Preterital Future. 
SING. ~« jj.1 tjLjtj* S\ eger korkmish olursam, if I shall have feared. 

\£XhjJ)) ifi-^jf j>\ e g e >" korkmish olursan, if thou shalt have feared. 
<Ui.J.! im^Js.Ji i) eger korkmish olursah, if he shall have feared. 

PLUR. Jy")^^ (J*^j^ P 1 e S er korkmish olursak, if we shall have feared. 

^£* Jj! iJL^j^i i\ eger korkmish olursanuz, if you shall have feared. 
&m )jh^ 1 U^jf fi e & er korkwwh olurlersah, if they shall have feared. 


Present Tense. 
Jf^i '<,J korkmak, to fear. 


Jfj.l tuJj.J korkmish olmak, to have feared. 

Prefer pluperfect Tense. 

Jjl ^dSAS.J korkdukten ewwel, } 

, ■ „ , " \ to have feared. 

Jj! ^Jv^y korkmazden ewwel, j 

Second Preterpluperfect Tense. 
Ir^ 9 ttJ^^vy korkdukten sohrah, to have feared. 

Future Tense. 
jf^ijl J}=?jj> korkadgak olmak, to be about to fear. 

( 73 ) 


Present {indeclinable), 
ji.js korkar, fearing. 

Preterite {indeclinable). 
fJL^ij^i korkmish, having feared. 

jMxtjji korkiser, 

Present {Declinable). 
fjtjy korkan, fearing. 

Preterite {Declinable). 
Jj&'ijy korktuk, having feared. 

User, or 1 

> about fearing. 
Jfc*jy> korkadgak, J 

J^i.y korkmalu, or "I 

, _ _ f obliged to be about to fear. 

jLc&tjjs korkahmalu, J 


ij'.ji' korkarken, or\ 
, i :. . - ' f ' n fearing. 

l Xjly 7 y korkar'iken, J 

^-jjjijji korkub, in fearing, having feared. 

Jjjtejy> korkahrak, in fearing (continuing) while fearing. 

fe^yi korkindgeh, or "1 . 
;■...., , , , , , ( in fearing, until, as for or as Ions as. 
&s?&>jj3 korkduktcheh, J 

K<&Jjjji korkmakteh, J 

*&te*jf korkdukteh, > in fearing, until &c. 

slikjijys korkmaghileh,) 

Jfpi'jf korkidgak, after having feared, after fearing. 

**J>j)» korkmagheh, 1 

■I .. - ~ , t , ••. ,. f to fear > trough or on account offenrinjr. 
cJ^I Jfw 3 ^ korkmak itcham, ) ^ 

( 74 ) 


Present and Future Tense. 

*}£]& dogmezem, I do not strike. 
tofjjiy) dogmezsen, thou dost not strike. 
}J}i3 dogmez, he does not strike. 


j}S^ dogmeziz, we do not strike. 

j—jj*y) dogmezsiz, you do not strike. 

)j$}<5 dogmezler, they do not strike. 





Imperfect Tense. 
,» Jo! yj'ii dogmez idum, I did not strike. 
\£J Jo! yvSjO dogmez idun, thou didst not strike. 
i_$ Jo! j-S}& dogmez idi, he did not strike. 

CJ Jo) J^jii dogmez 'iduk, we did not strike. 
ji Jo! ^■.J'j'J dogmez 'idunuz, you did not strike. 
^ij Jo! ^ji> dogmez idiler, they did not strike. 

Second Imperfect Tense. 
*£*r>) jS}& dogmez 'imishem, I did not strike. 
^t»iStvt\yJjd dogmez 'imishsen, thou didst not strike. 
j&tLfi) y$*d dogmez 'imishtur, he did not strike. 

j^ri) jS\& dogmez imishiz, we did not strike. 

jmm^i] yj}<$ dogmez imishsiz, you did not strike. 

JULji\ j£)ii dogmez imisMer, they did not strike. 

* ±J)<) dogmedum, I have not struck 

'■^J sjs> J dogmedun, thou hast not struck 
,_S JsPjO dogmedi, he has not struck. 


i^Jjvis. J dogmeduk, we have not struck. 

£ Jv^ji> dogmedunuz, you have not struck. 
l>\ijii dogmediler, they have not struck. 

( 75 ) 



Second Preterite. 
Jit^S^d dogmemishem, I have not struck. 
^iwny dogmemishsen, thou hast not struck. 
j/ iV.'?>..Sj4> dogmemishtur, he has not struck. 

y^s^jjii dogmemishiz, we have not struck. 

j nht':*,,>2& dogmemishsiz, you have not struck. 

j l'M,,Sjt> dogmemishler, they have not struck. 







TA«Vcf Preterite. 
* jjj) fJLrSjd dogmemish oldum, I have not struck. 
WiiJj! fjii^JjA dogmemish oldun, thou hast not strack. 
i_5 AijI yZ^JjA dogmemish oldi, he has not struck. 

JfjJjt fjLrJsjii dogmemish olduk, we have not strack. 
jajJjl yLrJjd dogmemish oldunuz, you have not struck. 
^ja!jI (JLfJ^d dogmemish oldiler, they have not struck. 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 
iiioJ^^SjiJ dogmemish idum, I had not struck. 
••^Jiij! iJLrSjd dogmemish iduh, thou hadst not struck. 
uS 1 ^.' (jllrJjA dogmemish idi, he had not struck. 

viJ^I yLrSjd dogmemish iduk, we had not struck, 
jiiij] (_ ( £ vv Sjt> dogmemish idunuz, you had not struck. 
ItV/VJ iJ^rSi 1 ^ dogmemish tdiler, they had not struck. 

Future Tense. 
*£s^<5.i> dogmidgegim, I shall not strike. 
l jutXjsi^^ii dogmidgeksen, thou shalt not strike. 
v .i£^>r5j4> dogmidgektur, he shall not strike. 

yxCs+rijt) dogmidgegiz, we shall not strike. 
y«Xsiv*jiJ dogmidgeksiz, you shall not strike. 
jdjXsi^^ dogmidgeklerdur, they shall not strike. 

( 76 ) 





Second or Necessary Future. 
ty^rSjiS dogmemlu'im, I shall not strike. 
^y^Jy^ dogmemlusen, thou shalt not strike. 
j^y~*£)<5 dogmemludur, he shall not strike. 

)>)y^r$y^ dogmemlu'iz, we shall not strike. 
ya t ^j lyd dogmemlusiz, you shall not strike, 
y^iijivvijj dogmemludurler, they shall not strike. 

Preterite or Third Future. 
tJ$T {J*-r$y* dogmemish olurum, I shall not have struck. 
itfj^y iJ^rSy^ dogmemish Slur sen, thou shalt not have struck. 
J$y {J^r&y* dogmemish Slur, he shall not have struck. 

JJ$£ {Jv-rSy* dogmemish oluruz, we shall not have struck. 

J^J^i 1 U^^y^ dogmemish olursiz, you shall not have struck. 

)jy K y S iJ^rJy^ dogmemish olurler, they shall not have struck. 

&J.d dogmeh, do thou not strike, 
^yw^ijii dogmesun, let him not strike 



JiJj^ijt) dogmiehlum, let us not strike. 

CJsi.J dogmen, ot\ 

$ * r strike ye not. 

^X^Sjii dogmehuz, J 

^iJ^Sjii dogmesunler, let them not strike. 





viem, or "I 
\iehem, J 

that I may not strike ! 


Present and Future Tense. 



dogmiehsen, O that thou mayst not strike ! 

dogmieh, O that he may not strike ! 

dogmiehuz, O that we may not strike ! 

dogmiehsiz, O that you may not strike ! 

dogmiehler, O that they may not strike ! 





) that I might not strike ! 

( 77 ) 

Imperfect Tense. 
4J0! &$Jyi dogmieh idum, or "\ 
iiXuL.i.ii dogmiidum, J 

CJ JoJ JU^S.tS dogmieh 'iduh, O that thou mightst not strike I 
^5 Jol &$S}& dogmieh Mi, O that he might not strike ! 

CJjol <U^jt> dogmieh iduk, O that we might not strike ! 
^SJyl &$$)& dogmieh idunuz, O that you might not strike ! 
Ljj! &$£)£ dogmieh tdiler, O that they might not strike ! 

Jjl ^jXl^jii dogmemish olam, O that I may not have struck! 
j*5!j] ijLrJji) dogmemish olasen, O that thou mayst not have struck ! 
Jlj] (Ji^jO dogmemish 61a, O that he may not have struck! 

jjiljl ^^L^ji) dogmemish olauz, O that we may not have struck ! 
juj'ij} ijlrj^ dogmemish olasiz, O that you may not have struck! 
pj\ ^jLrJjt) dogmemish olaler, O that they may not have struck ! 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 
SING. * JoSjl ^J^Jjd dogmemish olaidum, O that I might not have struck! 

CJ^jl ifivJji) dogmemish olaidun, O that thou mightst not have struck ! 
j_5 JoHjl (^l^jii dogmemish olaidi, O that he might not have struck ! 

PLUR. J'^.l ^ w ^t> dogmemish olaiduk, O that we might not have struck ! 

jiJjUj! ffi^J.ii dogmemish olaidunuz, O that you might not have struck! 
AjJoilj! i£rJ±i) dogmemish olaidiler, O that they might not have struck! 

Present Tense. 

ttijS^d dogmezdum, I would not strike. 

CLJii^i.i) dogmezdun, thou wouldst not strike. 

^j6jS}& dogmezdi, he would not strike. 


L^Jiijvi.i} dogmezduk, we would not strike. 

Sdjjitii dogmezdunuz, you would not strike. 
Judy£t& dogmezdUer, they would not strike. 

( 78 ) 





AiXAA-c^iji) dogmezmishidum, I would not have struck. 
^&x2~cjj>}^ dogmezmishidun, thou wouldst not have struck. 
^5 Joi^c^Sjii dogmezmishidi, he would not have struck. 
\£Jii>im**j£m t> dogmezmishiduk, we would not have struck. 
jaAxS^o^SjJ dogmezmishiduhuz, you would not have struck. 
jUAAw^&at) dogmezmishidiler, they would not have struck. 

Second Preterite and Imperfect Tense. 
fdjj>)i {JT^i 1 ^ dogmemish olurdum, I would not have struck. 
CJt^jl l j£ ¥V Sj 4 J dogmemish olurduh, thou wouldst not have struck. 
^yO^jl ijZrJji) dogmemish olurdi, he would not have struck. 
Jj^j^ji (ArJ)^ dogmemish olurduk, we would not have struck. 
jiii.Jjl i^^.J dogmemish olnrduhuz, you would not have struck. 
^Jii^ijl i^^jii dogmemish SlurdUer, they would not have struck. 

Present and Future Tense. 

fv'jjji} dogmezsem, if I do not strike. 

lL^u^j J dogmezsen, if thou dost not strike. 

&jj^jJ dogmezseh, if he does not strike. 

Imperfect Tense. 

*is4^ji3 dogmesem, if I did not strike. 

d.. v Ci) dogmeseh, if thou didst not strike 

Aw^i .t) dogmeseh, if he did not strike. 


^X^jS^ dogmezsek, if we do not strike. 

jLuyJ.ii dogmezsehiz, if you do not strike. 
JdU^Cjii dogmezsehler, if they do not strike. 



iSJLwjLj dogmeseh, if we did not strike. 

diujiji} dogmesehiz, if you did not strike. 
J&mJ>*<} dogmesehler, if they did not strike. 

****;! ,i„?ji> dogmemish isem, if I have not struck. 
i^X«j| tfirJji) dogmemish is en, if thou hast not struck. 

AmijI { £~ r J>*t} dogmemish 'iseh, if he has not struck. 
CXwjI ffirJ.ii dogmemish 'iseh, if we have not struck. 

jiw*ol ifi^J.i) dogmemish isehiz, if you have not struck. 
j)<Wj1 ^jZ^S^d dogmemish isehler, if they have not struck. 

( 79 ) 

Prefer pluperfect Tense. 
SING. idJUj^Sji) dogmesidum, if I had not struck. 

\£) JokM^ijii dogmesidun, if thou hadst not struck. 
^yJoUu^.J dogmesidi, if he had not struck. 

PLUR. kiJjuw^.ii dogmesiduk, if we had not struck. 

ji Jow^ijiJ dogmesidunuz, if you had not struck, 
^bj^w^.ii dogmesidiler, if they had not struck. 

Second Preterpluperfect Tense. 
SING. iJjyJjl ■Ji^i.t) dogmemish olsidum, if I had not struck. 

(^Jjjwjjl ^J^S^ti dogmemish olsidun, if thou hadst not struck. 
,_y JuyJjl ,^^l^ji> dogmemish olsidi, if he had not struck. 

PLUR. jf JjwJjI (Jl^.j dogmemish dlsiduk, if we had not struck. 

jiJuuJj) ijLrSjii dogmemish olsidunuz, if you had not struck. 
^jJa»Jjl .Ji^pjt* dogmemish olsidtter, if they had not struck. 

Future Tense. 
SING. *«j1 LLks^ji> dogmidgek isem, if I shall not strike. 

k^-L*jl lilsr^jii dogmidgek iseti, if thou shalt not strike. 
iWj) uLksrN->jt> dogmidgek 'is eh, if he shall not strike. 

PLUR. C X jjjI iiAs£»Jji> dogmidgek 'isek, if we shall not strike. 

^jwjI CAsrS*jt> dogmidgek iseniz, if you shall not strike. 
Jiutj) <iAs6Pj4> dogmidgek isehler, if they shall not strike. 

Second or Preterital Future. 
SING. f^jl ^Ary^j'i dogmemish olursam, if I shall not have struck. 

Vi*«gl)l ^l^jJ dogmemish olursan, if thou shalt not have struck. 
*%j!y U»v£)& dogmemish olursah, if he shall not have struck. 
PLUR. Jf^jl U^^J)^ dogmemish olursak, if we shall not have struck. 

J™/^j' (J^rrJ}>i dogmemish olursanuz, if you shall not have struck. 
Sm )j^ (j*W}J dogmemish olurlersah, if they shall not have struck. 

( 80 ) 


Present Tense. 

lLA,,S.iJ dogmemek, not to strike. 


Jn^I (J>*eSi^ dogmemish olmak, not to have struck. 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 

cJjl ^iiSs^jj dogmedukten ewmel, } 

Jj-1 ^>Xi) dogmemezden ewwel\ not to have struck ( for ^rly). 

Second Preterpluperfect Tense. 

*j*4 ij&iJ^.i) dogdukten sonrah, not to have struck, after not having struck. 

Future Tense. 
J^Jjl l^AsiVj J dogmidgek olmak, not to be about to strike. 

Present (indeclinable). Present (Declinable). 

jS}& dogmez, not striking. 

Preterite (indeclinable). 

fji^J^ii dogmemish, not having struck. 

^xjjj dogmiun, not striking. 

Preterite (Declinable). 

CJxSjd dogmeduk, not having struck. 


j*uJt»i.i} dog miser, i 

> > not about striking. 

tL%Vjii dogmidgek,) 

£-r£*& dogmemlu, obliged not to be about to strike. 

GERUNDS. , : ., 

Jol^ij J dogmenken, in not striking. 

t_>^Sj4> dogmiup, in not striking, not having struck. 

^Lij&^J^ dogmiehrek, in not striking, (continuing) while not striking. 

<S=r^w^.J dogmindgeh, "I 

• *> V in not striking until, as far or as long as. 

fcs'Xji^ dogmeduktcheh, J 

SiiX^jJ dogmemekteh, 

JSA^ii^jii dogmedukteh, > in not striking until &c. 

AiX^Jjd dogmemeghileh, 

Clar6r>ji> dogmidgek, after not having struck, after not striking. 

aL^i.J dogmemegeh, ~i 
• - I > f n °t to strike, through or on account of not striking, 

y^il (-J^jO dogmemek itchiun,) 

( 81 ) 

The Impossible Verb is formed in the same manner as the Verb Negative ; with the addition 
of the letter 5 to the body of the Verb, throughout all its Tenses. 

The Passive, Causal, Reciprocal, and Personal Verbs* are conjugated after the following 


Present and Future Tense. 

* ji.J dogilurum, I am struck. 

>* J6j4> dogUursen, thou art struck. 

il.ii dogilur, he is struck. 

j, Jj! J^«t> dogilur 'idum, I was struck. 

ClJ JolJi.O dogilur 'iduh, thou wast struck. 

,_S Xi) Ji.J dogilur idi, he was struck. 



^ylijJ dogilur ux, we are struck. 

jmJSy} dogilur Hz, you are struck. 

^lijO dogilurler, they are struck. 

Imperfect Tense. 


liJAjl^jii dogilur iduk, we were struck. 

jiJol^iSjt) dogilur 'iduhux, you were struck. 
y Jo Jo l^jii dogilur idiler, they were struck. 

Second Imperfect Tense. 

JL^\ Jiij J dogilur imishem, I was struck. 

^wji^jl ^jt> dogilur imishsen, thou wast struck. 

jJ^i^jl^jt) dogilur imishtur, he was struck. 

^I*yj! ^^ojii dogilur imishix, we were struck. 

j^U^i} )$;<} dogilur imishsix, you were struck. 

J^i) J&)ii dogilur imishler, they were struck. 


*i^S*i) dogildum, I have been struck. 
cL)jJ^«i> dogildun, thou hast been struck. 
^ydJi.ii dogUdi, he has been struck. 

CJiiiSjt) dogilduk, we have been struck. 
jiujJ^ji} dogUdunux, you have been struck. 
JjJ>K.4> dogildiler, they have been struck. 

For the mode of forming the various kinds of Verbs, see pages 30 — 34. 


( 82 ) 

Second Preterite. 

ȣ^ii.i> dogilmishem, I have been struck. y!L)&*d dogilmishiz, we have been struck. 
j**£jl.4> dogilmishsen,thovih&st been struck. ^Ajij^ dogilmisftsiz, you have been struck. 
.iXi^Jl.J dogilmislidur, he has been struck, j JAJSm) dogilmishler ,they have been struck. 



Third Preterite. 
j, iXljl tJL^^d dogilmish oldum, I have been struck. 
i«^J<\! J (iS^K.i} dogilmish oldun, thou hast been struck. 
^liJj! (li^i.J dogilmish oldi, he has been struck. 

iW;.) fjL^jii dogilmish olduk, we have been struck. 
ji jjjl /iji.i) dogilmish oldunuz, you have been struck. 
Jj^.l ifi^jii dogilmish oldiler, they have been struck. 



Preterpluperfect Tense. 
.,Jol ijLjitii dogilmish Mum, I had been struck. 
CJjol /iij^.i> dogilmish idun, thou hadst been struck. 
^Jol ^/ijijj dogilmish idi, he had been struck. 

diJjo! /li^ls.ii dogilmish 'iduk, we had been struck. 
jiJaJ (ji^ll.ii dogilmish idunuz, you had been struck. 
Jj.Jol //*vJi.4> dogilmish idiler, they had been struck. 



Future Tense. 
*£=".4> dogUdgegim, I shall be struck. 
( j*jCs"«t> dogildgeksen, thou shalt be struck. 
j&£=x>jd dogildgektur, he shall be struck. 

y^s"jt) dogildgegiz, we shall be struck. 
^uJ«s"ji> dogildgeksiz, you shall be struck. 
.i> JXac"}t> dogildgeklerdur, they shall be struck. 

( 83 ) 





Second or Necessary Future. 
■tjjjlJiSji) dogilmeluim, I shall be struck (necessarily). 
wjJviijJ dogilmelusen, thou shalt be struck. 
^liji^.J dogttmeludur, he shall be struck. 

^IJ^iijii dogUmeluiz, we shall be struck, 
^uji^ii.t) dogilmelusiz, you shall be struck. 
J.^S^S'i) dogilmeludurler, they shall be struck. 

Preterital or Second Future. 
j, J.I (ij*j>i.i> dogilmish olurum, I shall have been struck. 
|i f>j*U) (ji-Jijii dogilmish olursen, thou shalt have been struck. 
.«i.1 /li^lS.i) dogilmish Slur, he shall have been struck. 

j.J.1 /ji^iSji} dogilmish oluruz, we shall have been struck. 
^ Jjl ijLjSjii dogilmish olursiz, you shall have struck. 
J.Jjl iikJS.ti dogilmish ohirler, they shall have been struck. 


J.£«t> cfo£77, be thou struck. 

y^AjJli J dogilsun, let him be struck. 


Jddijii dogilehlum, let us be struck. 
viW^ii dogttuh, or) 
^jWijJ dogilunuz, J 
JJyJSj J dogilsunler, let them be struck. 




Present and Future Tense. 
*iiji> dogilem, O that I may be struck! 
^Mj<xlSjt> dogileh sen, O that thou mayst be struck ! 
<*liji> dogileh, O that he may be struck ! 

jjils.ii dogilehuz, O that we may be struck! 
jmUMi J dogilehsiz, O that you may be struck ! 
JaiSji) dogilehler, O that they may be struck! 

( 84 ) 

Imperfect Tense. 



*ojuoj J dogUidum, that I might be struck ! 






CJ Jo^jii dogUidun, O that thou mightst be struck ' 
^jJoji^ii dogilidi, O that he might be struck! 
CJjddSj J dogUiduk, O that we might be struck ! 
jiJoklijt) dogUidunuz, O that you might be struck ! 
^b JoklSjO dogilidiler, O that they might be struck ! 

iSjl tJL^Syi dogUmish olam, O that I may have been struck ! 
j*i5I.I jii^K.ii dogUmish olasen, O that thou mayst have been struck! 
Jl.l /li^li.iJ dogUmish ola, O that he may have been struck! 

jjllj] /ii^il»J dogUmish olauz, O that we may have been struck ! 

j«J.! /jiLj^.ii dogUmish olasiz, O that you may have been struck! 

JUjl (AjiS'.t) dogUmish dialer, O that they may have been struck! 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 

a Si}.\ /li^iS.J dogUmish olaidum, O that I might have been struck ! 

t^J Joil.l/ii^.ii dogUmish vlaidun, O that thou mightst have been struck ! 

,_y Jo V .1 /li^ll.J dogUmish olaidi, O that he might have been struck! 

i'JolU /ii^.l^.i5 dogUmish olaiduk, O that we might have been struck ! 

i£iX>5U /ii*j6.4> dogUmish olaidunuz, O that you might have been struck! 

JoJoilj! /iyil^i> dogUmish olaidUer, O that they might have been struck ! 



Present Tense. 
* J J^.ii dogUurdum, I would be struck. 
l^J J.iL ii dogilurdun, thou wouldst be struck. 
^ J Ji«i> dogUurdi, he would be struck. 

v^J(> dogUurduk, we would be struck, 
ji JjK.ii dogUurdunuz, you would be struck. 
Jjiiil.J dogUurdiler, they would be struck. 

( 83 ) 



t^iJ^Jijii dogUurmishidum, I would have been struck. 
C Jo^o^jJ dogilurmishidun, thou wouldst have been struck. 
f_$ i\Jf2>*tJ&ui dogilurmishidi, he would have been struck. 
CJiixi^lSjJ dogilurmishiduk, we would have been struck. 
J>i>») S >«j»m) dogilurmishidunuz, you would have been struck. 
JjA jA^ ajJ dogilurmishidiler, they would have been struck. 

Second Preterite and Imperfect. 
SING. (H^yj! (^*v^j<^ dogilmish olurdum, I would have been struck. 

i^j^^ijl (ji^lSjJ dogilmish olurdun, thou wouldst have been struck. 
^li.Jjl jilJ^O dogilmish olurdi, he would have been struck. 
PLUR. Ji^yjl (wjiji) dogilmish olurduk, we would have been struck 

ji J lfj|}1 ,/i^.lSjii dogilmish olurdunux, you would have been struck. 
^bj^lj! ^i^iijO dogilmish olurdiler, they would have been struck. 

Present and Future Tense. 

■wjj^jti dogilursem, if I be struck. 

uLLjJijii dogilursen, if thou be struck. 

<KwjJ^.ii dogilurseh, if he be struck. 


^LjJi.J dogilursek, if we be struck. 

jx^lijii dogilursehix, if you be struck. 
jJ<x«j^!S.iJ dogilursehler, if they be struck. 

Imperfect Tense. 


lLLj.U'.J dogilsek, if we were struck. 

Xu*i£.i> dogilsenux, if you were struck. 
JiWlLiJ dogilsehler, if they were struck. 

^l^jii dogilsem, if I were struck. 

lLL*1^j J dogilseh, if thou wert struck. 

X*Jiji) dogilseh, if he were struck. 

SING. *moJ /^J^t) dogilmish isem, if I have been struck. 

t^«L*j! ijSt^Sjii dogilmish is en, if thou have been struck. 
<W}J (iJL»ij«t> dogilmish iseh, if he have been struck. 
PLUR. v^X*o] (£jiji> dogilmish isek, if we have been struck. 
jLj] (ilkvii.^ dogilmish isehix, if you have been struck. 
^!*«jjj ^Ji^jJ dogilmish tsehler, if they have been struck 

( 86 ) 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 
SING. *dAM&jt) dogilsidum, if I had been struck. 

WtU«*iiji3 dogilsidun, if thou hadst been struck. 
j_5Jo*Jij4> dogilsidi, if he had been struck. 
PLUR. viJjokwJijJ dogilsiduk, if we had been struck. 

jiiijuJ5;i> dogUsiduhuz, if you had been struck. 
yb«U»wiSji) dogUsidUer, if they had been struck. 

Second Preterpluperfect Tense. 
SING. ^ *jjujjj! (jijijii dogilmish olsidum, if I had been struck. 

cSJiWJjl ( << £ v lSji> dogilmish olsidun, if thou hadst been struck, 
^y JowJjt /li^iijii dogilmish olsidi, if he had been struck. 

PLUR. ^jAjwjJj! /ii^iS.t> dogilmish olsiduk, if we had been struck. 

jiJoyJ.l /li^iSjJ dogilmish olsidunuz, if you had been struck. 
^btla«jj}l /iJiSjii dogilmish olsidiler, if they had been struck. 

Future Tense. 
SING. jhuj] CAs".t> dogildgek isem, if I shall be struck. 

t-Li^jj] CLl=".t> dogildgek iseh, if thou shalt be struck. 
<Wo! liA="j4> dogildgek iseh, if he shall be struck. 

PLUR. CLul liAa^jt) dogilgek isek, if we shall be struck. 

jiLo! t-LW^jJ dogildgek isehiz, if you shall be struck. 
J<K«j1 CAa^jt> dogildgek 'iseh ler, if they shall be struck. 

Second or Preterital Future. 
SING. (**'/}'j' i/^j^ dogilmish olursam, if I shall have been struck. 

^Xw.jJjl /i£ji£}i> dogilmish olursan, if thou shalt have beeen struck. 
<wJ.I /p-Jo.i> dogilmish Slursah, if he shall have been struck. 

PLUR. l*"^)' (Ar^)^ dogilmish olursak, if we shall have been struck. 

iwJ.1 /iji v li«i> dogilmish olursahuz, if you shall have been struck. 
JaUuJjl /jlJijJ dogilmish olursahler, if they shall have been struck. 

( 87 ) 


Present Tense. 

ijj^ll.t) dogilmek, to be struck. 


£„).! jA^jt) dogilmish olmak, to have been struck. 

Preterpluperfect Tense. 

J:! ,J^jJi,4> dogildukten ewwel, 1 . \ 

'. C J > to have been struck (formerly;. 

Jj! ^ijJijii dogilmezden ewwel, ) 

Second Preterpluperfect Tense. 

ijLs ,j|d^L>J^i> dogildukten sohrah, to have been struck, after having been struck. 

Future Tense. 

jj»l CJjs^j J dogildgik olmak, to be about to be struck. 


Present {indeclinable). 

i£,t) or ) 

•* J . > dogilur, being struck. 

Preterite {indeclinable). 
■ jij^ji) dogilmish, having been struck 


Present {Declinable). 
^j »!£)«> dogilun, being struck. 

Preterite {Declinable). 
(iJjJijt) dogilduk, having been struck. 

/-J^jiJ dogiliser, or "I . .^^ dogilmelu, orl obliged to be about 

^Xs^jJ dogildgik, J a ou mgS " jUa^jJ dogilehmelu, ) to be struck. 

^J^.ii dogilur ken, in being struck. 
i__> J^jt> dogilup, in being struck, having been struck. 
viJ <)d£. J dogilehrek, in being struck, (continuing) while being struck. 

&s^<j>i dogUindgeh, or *l . ,,.,,. , 

T .* > in being struck, until as far or as long as. 

&a£i\)Jj4> dogilduktcheh, J 
«AXji)J dogUmekteh, j 

XJ^^J dogildukten, > in being struck, until &c. 
<0jlO^j»> dogilmegileh, ) 
CXs^^ dogilidgik, after having been struck, after being struck. 

*£#,,) dogilmegeh, "I ^ ^^ through ^ on account rf ^ struck 
^,^.1 viJOiji> dogilmek itchiun, J 

( 88 ) 

The Turkish Nouns are of two kinds, Primitives and Derivatives. The Primitive Nouns, 
^^Xi-c Jkc, are radicals, not being derived from other*' words ; as, l^JS giok, "heaven;" 
cj' at, ahorse;" ilb balik, " a fish ;" ^SL,! arslan, ' a lion." The Derivative Nouns, 
JUm ** t are such as derive their origin from other Parts of Speech ; and of these it is our 
present object to treat. 


Names of Agents, (Jxli *<J, are formed from Verbs, by changing the Infinitive Termination of 
liXo mek or j(*e mak into .s?, idgi or js- dgi; as, ^s^i bakidgi, "a spectator," from 
Jf^ib bakmak, ' to look " s^,"iji] irlaidgi, " a singer," from ^5^,1 irlamak, " to sing ;" 
^sr^ii dilendgi, "a beggar," from y^X^Xii dilenmek, "to beg." 

y\jUolcj ^S^J ^^UU j&OyOS* &J&\ LW J ^Ci v^*"^ 

The highest praise and thanksgiving are due to God, the nourisher of his creatures, 
and who is Lord." 

Names of Agents are formed from Nouns by adding ,»- dgi or ^j*. tchi; as, ,e?-*w 
kapudgi, ' a door-keeper," from .a» kapu, " a door ;" ^k^Hj tashtchi, a stone-mason," 
from (^11= tasA, " a stone." 

The Turks also employ the Persian mode of forming Agents from Nouns, by adding >li gar, 
f g er > J<S ( ^ ar > or \Ji ban; as, j\£t\j£ giunah gar, "a sinner" from ali£ giunah, "a sin;" 
j&JiS kifeshger, "a shoemaker," from /Aa£ kifesh, "a shoe;" .IaCc! emekdar, "a 
labourer," from liX«l emek, " labour " ^Jo JiJU shuter ban, a camel-driver," from 
^li shuter, " a camel." 

The Noun of Action, jXe*> *»J, is formed from the Verb, by changing the Infinitive (^Lo mek 
or l*> wa/fc into iLi is/*, jji isA, > um, % eh, or .s gu ; as, j/Sj Jlyl irlaish, "a song," from 
JL«J yj irlamak, " to sing ;" <j£.o I inlish, " a groan," from <JLAJ^! ihlemek, " to groan ;" *j'l 
a«*M»», "a throw," from £,51 atmak, "to throw;" <dj 6i7eA or ^flj 6«7^«, "knowledge," 
from CAJo bilmek, " to know." 

The Noun of Action is also formed by adding \^jj lik to the Infinitives of those Verbs which 
end in C*Lo mek, and 6 lek to those which end in i^, mak ; as, \^JSLj^ii dogmeklik, " the 
action of striking," " a striking ;" djl^ij ,1 iinutmaklek, ' forgetfulness." 

( 89 ) 

The Noun of Passion is formed from the Verb Passive, according to the same rules as the 
Noun of Action from the Verb Active ; as, t/tMji) dogilish, " a being struck ;" ii^ilj 
bUenmegheh, a being learned ;" iSaJJu bakilmaklek, " a being seen." 

The Local Noun, cyyt£ *J, is formed by adding the particles liU lik or Jfi lek to the radical ; 
as, CAI <d> I igineh lik, " a needle-case," from Jj£\ igineh, " a needle ;" jd £ As doriuzlek, 
"a pigstye," from -i^o donuz, "a pig" CJJxiju, misheh lik, "a grove of oaks," from 
&£ju misheh, " an oak." 

The Turks also form the Local Noun after the Persian manner, by the addition of i Jj MI is tan, 
yj'ii dan, !i(£ gah, U- dga, and Jtj far; as, ^CiyjG^j Frankistan, "the country of the 
Franks;" Jisjii kelemdan, "a pen-case" all v_>!^i- Mwa& #aA, "a place of sleep," 
" a bed " \j tit laleh zar, " a bed of tulips." 

This place, on every side of which is a rose-garden, 
Has a running stream flowing through every part." 

' A Rose-bed like the Garden of Paradise ; and a parterre of Tulips like the abode of Eternity." 

The Possessive Noun, LjJjytJU *•»), is formed by adding £ lu or J V; as, JJL, mallu, 
"possessing riches," "rich," from JU »»a£, " riches ;" J^e/ kiremlu," endowed with humanity," 
" humane," from * •> kirem; JJJLc qkillu, possessing reason," "reasonable," from (JjLc a/fc«7,- 
J»*u sw#, watery," from »*u su ; ^JJitju betakli, muddy," from rbo betak. 

"A clement and merciful Monarch will cause pain to but few of his subjects." 

The Particles J lu and J li are also added to the Names of Countries, Cities, and Towns, 
to form their Gentile or Patrial names ; as, JJjjotuJ Istambollu, " an inhabitant of Constan- 
tinople," "a Constantinopolitan," from <J»Jituj! Istambol, "Constantinople;" }-a* Meserli, 
"an Egyptian," from ja*> Meser, Egypt;" ^s>. Betchlu, ' an inhabitant of Vienna," from 
A Belch, " Vienna ;" ,})}■> Parizli, " a Parisian," from jjo Pariz, " Paris." 

Possessives are formed from Nouns of Colour, by adding JSO^s- tcherdeh, Jo yaghiz, 
Aifam, and ^S gun ; as, t <$f*- ye Lu biaz tcherdeh, " composed of white ;" Jo %Jk karah 


( 90 ) 

yaghiz, " of a blackish hue ;" *U dj^oj zemerd fam, " of emerald colour ;" ^ J^ gulgun, 


The Turks frequently use Possessives formed after the Persian and Arabian manner, by 

subjoining ^L far, jXo mend or fo var, or prefixing b ba or j i zw; as, Jf-ittk tashsar, 

stony;" &X*jj& hunermend, 'endowed with virtue," "virtuous" Ls^e)umidvar, "possessed 

of hope," "hopeful ;" JS } b ba wekar, "endowed with majesty " ^U-jj zu dgian, " possessing 

a soul." 

ji pur, full of," is often used, prefixed to Nouns, giving them the sense of endowment or 
possession, as in the following lines of Mesihi: 

Every morning, the clouds shed pearls over the rose-beds :" 

The breath of the breeze possesses the scent of the musk-bags ofTatary." 

i^^sJ^o sahib and <Jjb! ehl are sometimes elegantly used in the same sense ; as, 

Those times are passed, in which the plants were sick (possessed of sickness), 
And the rose-bud hung its thoughtful head on its bosom." 

Think not that we are intoxicated with the juice of the grape : 
We are the frequenters of those taverns where we drink the wine of the 
divine covenant." 

A great many Turkish Adjectives are formed from Verbs, by cha ngi ng their Infinitives into 
^S kun, 3 kun, ^^t ghun, J ko, or (A*> mish; as, ^j^ duzkun, adorned," from 
viJUjj^ duzmek, "to adorn;" &&$£ katchkun, "fugitive," from J**-6 katchmak, "to 
flee ;" ^y^J-J parlaghun, " shining," from ^jJ.U parlamak, " to shine ;" ja£j£ shishko, 
"swollen," from J^U& shishmak, "to swell;" Ju^,^\ okumish, "learned," from Jre/}' 
Skumak, "to learn." 

Abstracts are made either from Substantives or Adjectives, by adding CJJ lik or Jfl lek ; 

( 91 ) 

as, CJJJy> kollik, " slavery," from Jy kol, " a slave ;" liAJyl^j behalulik, " dearaess," 
"scarcity," from Jl^ behalu," dear;" Jj^Im biazlek, whiteness," from (jolfj biaz, white." 

The Turkish Substantive Diminutive, .xi^u >»J, is formed by adding the Particles Cb- dgik, 
£=>- dgek, \^Xs- tchik or ^e>- tchek, and generally implies endearment as well as diminution ; 
as, v^-bb babadgek, "a little father ;" CA»-li I anatchik," a little mother;" ,£s?^ kitabtchek, 
" a little book." 

The last letter of the Noun is frequently absorbed in the termination ; as, i^Ik$ȣ kopedgik, 
" a little dog," from lilo^ kopek. 

From these Diminutives are formed others, which serve to lessen the object in a greater 
degree, by changing the final ijj into cL/, and i - into c, and adding y, as, from u\ el, 
"a hand," is formed viWl eldgik, "a little hand," and from that j&J\ eldgigez, "a very 
little hand" from ^Jt,^ kush, "a bird," Jfc^f kusMgek, "a little bird," and j*s?"y> 
kushdgeghez, " a very little bird." 

The Prepositions IS na, -j bi, J la, and ^c ghir, and the Postpositions ^w six and (JiJ 
degul, prefixed or subjoined to Nouns, denote privation or negation ; as, jf»- U na hekk, 
" without justice," "unjust ;" 8.U- J it tchiareh, " without remedy," ■ destitute." 

The gates of the city he found were closed ; a stupor seized him ; 
The destitute Monk was like a wandering dove." 

fH^^ la yufhem, "unintelligible;" ^y\r**> j** ghi* mqhud, "unknown;" ^ JJoia- 
tchengilsiz, thornless," without spine ;" as, 

There is not a rose without a thorn ; nor a lover without a rival." 
J^ii JJo billu degxd, " unknown ;" as, 

His being about to come, was unknown." 

The Preposition *ju nim implies a slighter degree of privation ; as, <&>v *■£> nim pokhteh, 
not quite done," "half cooked." 

The Particles *a> hem and iXt fash, or |£lt> dash, are used to form many elegant com- 
pounds, implying association or conjunction, which are of frequent occurrence in Turkish 

( 92 ) 

Poems; as, iJsrft hemdum, of the same breath," a companion ;" .yi^* hemsheher, of the 
same city," ' a fellow-citizen ;" y^v* hemshir, of the same milk," a brother ;" iAw^b 
hemsaieh, of the same shade," a neighbour ;" tJuu^ia hemsofreh, of the same table," 
"a messmate;" .Ju^ hemsinor, a countryman ;" tl[> &s-]*±- khoadgiah lash, a school- 
fellow" i^tkiXi.ii dushek tash, "a bedfellow ;" ,£llubl ayaktash, and ^IjJ^ yoldash, 
" a fellow-traveller ;" ,£!i3oJ> karindash, a brother;" ifi\djm serrdash, an intimate 
friend," a confidant :" 

A companion may be found, but a faithful friend cannot : 
"Should you traverse the whole world, you may not find a friend." 

There are certain Particles which are of frequent use in Turkish composition, and which are 
generally prefixed to the Adjectives to convey an affirmative or determinate sense : of the most 
common of these the following are Examples : 


wtfU- t_»l ap hazir, "quite prepared." 
jijj ^o bom bosh, "entirely empty." 
^jd i—j4> dip dirt, "all alive." 

x'juj *mj sent siah, wholly black." 
Lo < . -■/■> sap sari, "entirely yellow." 

ASs l_ >As top tolu, quite full." 
. .c As :As doz doghru, all right." 
J Ji <^s» kip kixil, "quite red." 

jjjj c_>ji> kup kuru, "entirely dry." 
CJ^JOjy boz biuk, "very large." 
(Jjy£j *j yem ishil, "quite green." 

l_^olu t^Jo ben biaz, quite white." 

<r^. j,[j yamyash, very wet." 
5^U i/~U> mas maui, 'all blue." 

jXlb i_>b yap yaleniz, "all alone. 


There are a great number of Turkish Verbs which are derived from Nouns, by adding to 
them the Verbal Terminations CAJ lemek, jfj lamak, ^J^Jl lenmek, j^jj lanmak, 
and Ji^ lashmak ; as, viAj^o muherlemek, " to seal," from j^« muher, a seal ;" 
j^i 3 ) awlamak," to hunt," from ^1 am, "prey" CXj^-/ ferehlenmek, "to rejoice," 
from —f fereh, "joy;" J^iilT atlanmak, "to ride," from csjT a*, "a horse;" Jfv^y'jb 
bazarlashmak, "to cheapen," from^'jU bazar, a shop or market." 

( 93 ) 

Many Verbs are formed from Turkish, Persian, or Arabic Nouns, by adding to them certain 
Auxiliary Verbs, of which the most usual are the following ; ^Xjj) itmek, or CU^i! itmek, 
liXJj] ilmek, and JL^S kilmak, "to do," "to make;" as, \2X^J\ iiLJ tesliyeh itmek, 
" to console ;" CXJj>) C^oIj sabit ilmek, " to affirm " ^jj^-j ?iper kilmak, " to shield." 

The following Verbs are also much used in this kind of composition ; Jp«jy% biurmak, 
"to command;" as, j^ju C^, riaiet biurmak, 'to honour." 

JfvJy bulmak, "to find;" as, .^JjJ ,_e*^y kolaini bulmak, "to find opportunity;" 
jijyijslb zufer bulmak, "to conquer;" .tJjJ ^"' fWB* bulmak," to overcome," 
" prevail " JiJ*> ^)*"5 vudgiud bulmak, to find existence," to exist." 
i£XJ$ gelmek, "to come" as, CAJ^jlj wax gelmek," to desist;" vilj^ 0*J y 
rast gelmek," "to meet;" CAJa ^y-j vudgiudeh gelmek, "to be born." 
\£X«JXm£ gustermek, "to shew;" as, (ib^u^ euliuil iltifat gustermek, "to shew 
regard for." 
CL„j imek," to eat ;" as, t^J^ *c #Aa»j imek, "to grieve," " to eat grief;" kiJ^J CAjjS 
giotek imek, to be beaten," " to eat a rod." 
\JLXJ*&- tchikmek, " to draw " as, Cl^Xa- u^lS* «ttfe{ tchikmek, " to be troubled ;" 

CAvXsj-j! a«? tchikmek, "to traduce." 
i»jJLe.}£ gurmek, " to see ;" as, CLo. J Ojlti riaiet gurmek, " to receive honour ;" 
C-L«,jl tiAbl i'fe'A gurmek, " to receive a benefit." 
viijo bilmek, "to know;" as, Cljo }\i fali bilmek, "to divine;" i^J^b is Jo I i'«fe/< 

bilmek, ' to be able to do." 
JUji komak, "to put," ' place ;" as, £^J>Jk»« «J9«r komak, to place a shield in oppo- 
sition," to oppose;" jLo*s ji^s*] alehmaz komak, to use deceit," to dissimulate." 
tiJLe j»j virmek, to give ;" as, viLoo. ^l». dgian virmek, to set one's mind on any 
thing ;" WJJUjjj ^ol J! eJ eteA virmek, " to shake hands ;" CA^jj 4->1}»- 
dgiuab virmek, " to reply ;" viLoJ, (_ aj -i sAeriif virmek, " to ennoble." 
zjl almak, " to receive," " take;" as, tjl ^i<2.U»- tchashni almak, "to taste ;" J^>^f 
giru almak, to resume ;" zjlcys- tchioghalmak, ' to multiply," ' increase," 
(from ,}*»- much.) 
^U- tchialmak, " to strike," " beat " as, ^l*- kiX**- tcheng tchialmak," to sound the 
harp;" JfJL»- C^Jy ««6e£ tchialmak, "to relieve guard (by beating of drums)." 

( 94 ) 

There are a great number of Derivatives formed by compounding two Verbs together, 
changing the Infinitive Termination of the first Verb into ,_g or . ; as, from zj 1 almak, 

to receive," and JimS komak, to put," is formed j^yuil alikomak, to retain ;" from 
| i v jJi koimak, " to leave," and (£A*/>j virmek, " to give," is formed C-Lc Jjy.}* fa»«- 
virmek, to dismiss;" from .tJyJ bulmak, "to find," and viXo^« virmek, "to give," 
is formed CXcjykio bulivirmek, or viLc jj J»j buluvirmek, " to procure." 

The Auxiliary Verb jUjI olmak, with its Passive .fcrW olunmak, is also of frequent use 

in the composition of Turkish Verbs formed from the Persian and Arabic ; as, ,Sj)! Jiu naxir 

olmak, "to look" j^jl^eU- hazir 6lmak, "to be prepared;" J^jl x»>li^ gushadeh 

olmak, to be opened" Jfjjl JiLe maktul olmak, 'and ,£ri!jl J^w Araft7 olunmak, 

to be killed;" Jfjj! J J^o mvbdil olmak, and jSyJJji J^. 1 ^ fe6rf«7 olunmak" to be changed." 

The writings of the Turkish Authors abound in Compound Epithets, which give a grace and 
elegance to their sentences, hardly conceivable by a person unacquainted with the beauties of 
Turkish Literature ; and the ease with which these Compounds may be multiplied allows free 
scope for variety and originality. The Turks are very fond of using the Persian Compounds, 
and often nil a distich entirely with them; and in the Turkish Compound Epithets it is usual 
to find one of the words borrowed from that language ; so that to comprehend the full force 
and expression of the Turkish Poets, it is necessary to have some knowledge of the Persian 
Language . The modes of forming these Compounds are three : First, The union of Two 
Substantives; Secondly, the Conjunction of an Adjective and a Noun; and Thirdly, The 
prefixing a Noun to a Participle. The following Examples will serve to shew the manner of 


L_J i^- ghuntcheh leb, rose-bud lipped — with lips like rose buds. 
(w*JyC£ sheker leb, sugar -lipped — with lips like sugar. 

J ~wj semen ten, jasmine-bodied. 
jok»- % Jbj zuhereh dgebin, with a face like Venus. 

* I would recommend to the Student the perusal of Sir William Jones's Grammar of that Language, 
edited by Professor Lee, 9th Ed. Lond. 1829. 

( 95 ) 

(_$•«*« ;»■>, ywz sui, with a face as clear as water, i.e. innocent. 

-iii'l ;%J #w? akligki, white faced, i.e. glorious, 
yjy. i-5^ periyuzlu, j 
JLh i^j-ji peri peiker, > angel-faced, with a face like an angel, angelic. 

c5-jv i£jj P^ rui, J 

,_$ »j juc amber bui, with a scent like ambergris. 
l_*J J*! toe? leb, ruby-lipped. 

I^juj xLc »ia/« sima, with a face like the moon. 
^%\£JL*> mushkbui, with a scent like musk. 

r) cS>> P er * ru kh, with the cheeks of an angel. 

i^ij J^ gui ru h """ a ros y f ace - 

:li . .*« fert) wa«, pleasant as the cypress. 
OoJ. CJJi filek rifaet, of heavenly height. 
Jjjj (Ji #«£ ywzlu, rosy-faced. 
ZjAsujjSJXm) iskender setuat, with the majesty of Alexander. 
Jl»»- t— wj yusuf dgemal, with the beauty of Joseph. 
J ju. . ruyin ten, brazen-bodied. 
,£. ^jy peri vesh, like an angel, angelic. 
f^Jii juc amber shemim, scented with ambergris. 

yX^u semenber, jasmine-breasted, with a bosom like jasmine. 
,lixJi gulezar, rosy-cheeked, with cheeks like roses. 
liJUutj <Jt> dil tabnak, with an inflamed heart. 
^.liJ jJL shir gohullu, lion-hearted. 
^y J litf gulzar bui, with the scent of a rose-garden. 
)tb ,j*u *e«> 6afa, with a form like the cypress-tree. 
viJjb <Jd dil tenk, of an afflicted heart, of a broken heart. 
i£l^»- Ji> dil khirash, of a wounded heart. 

jj' . .« *ert> kedd, cypress-formed. 
C^J eu Jib yakut leb, ruby-lipped. 
iiJla. <l)uwj sineh tchak, of a wounded breast. 

( 96 ) 


,_$y»- (j!iy»- khosh khui, of a sweet temper. 

\Jiy lj"F~ k° s h S u h °f a sweet voice — talking or singing sweetly. 
l J^]fJu^s- khosh elhan, with sweet notes. 
JUi CJS> nikfial, of good deeds — benevolent. 
C^fc" Jo bad bakht, of a bad fate — unfortunate. 

MtJJU tizfehem, of a sharp understanding — ingenious. 
*&j*.jx> tiz tcheshem, sharp-sighted. 
$)£ i_S^' ifyyuzlu, of two faces, 

a. - , , / deceitful. 

viJo, ^S\ tki reng, of two colours, 

(_?j^ ' , 'j ^ - khub rui, of a beautiful countenance. 

+&»■ sLuj s«aA tcheshem, black-eyed. 

*SiJ ^ij ?*ba rui, with a beautiful face. 

uriJ {j?-jt?" s ^ er i n xuban, sweet tongues. 

c/ 6 ^ (j/i^* 1 s kirin dehan, sweet-lipped — with a sweet mouth. 

<*» ^^ *A*rt« kelam, of sweet words or speech. 

JJJj,j£ shirinkar, with gentle manners. 

Ji> ^f*- khonin dil, of a bleeding heart. 

yjJ>jS uL^JJ fanmish gonullu, ) 

, „ >• of a broken heart. 

J J <U*X£ shekesteh dil, ) 

(Ji> <JU*£J teshneh dil, of a thirsty heart — avaricious. 

y#. <-!/r # M ? e ^ yuzlu, of a beautiful face. 

^iJULo j;1 a* sakallu, of a white beard, ^ 

t aged. 
(j«J; i\jyu» w/Srf ra«, of a white head, } 

^MO jiiL fl?a#w dillu, sweet-tongued — a narrator of tales, orator. 
,_5 uXjju sebukpai, of a wavering foot — inconstant, unstable, 
ylj I l -r , ^=- AAwi dwaz, with a pleasing voice. 
_,&, \^_P-^- khosh reftar, walking gracefully. 

^d £&s datlu dehan, with a sweet mouth. 

&Xx»t (Jj£ guzel sineh, with a beautiful breast. 
(i/ U*J &£ kutah asitin, short of sleeve, i.e. a thief. 

( 97 ) 


(jLiJl J.' gul efshan, scattering roses. 
yjliil ^ti- khun efshan, dropping blood. 
^Lii! jtofs- dguhar efshan, scattering jewels. 
jjtlil +x»j sim efshan, silver-shedding — an epithet applied to the blossoms of the almond- 
tree ; as in the following elegant verses : 

jLtf ,bb jUyl lil ^LiJl *JUi uS^j' ;^-? i»y i_S ^ f-^ ti/" <1U3 -' J-^ '^ 

Listen to the tale of the Nightingale : the Vernal Season approaches ; 

The Spring has spread a bower of joy in every grove 

Where the almond-tree sheds its silver blossoms. 

Be cheerful, be full of mirth: for the Spring passes soon away ; it will not last." 

j)js- ifiy^- khosh khuar, sweet-tasting. 

»'_}*- /•* gham khuar, tasting misfortune — unfortunate. 
j)j I J J dil dxar, afflicting the heart. 
j\j\ jjU- dgian dxar, afflicting the soul. 
( j£i) l_>Ij tab afgan, 

l Xi) i_Jo tab afgan, "1 

f>.> ' i . f darting flames. 

( jij) (jbj xuban afgan,) 

^j-cl *i«j sitem amir, casting reproach, threatening. 
2iiJt> *!Lu sitem dideh, seeing (i.e. receiving) injuries. 
jjydi} dilftruz, heart-enlightening, inflaming. 
jjjligJt) dilsitan, heart-enslaving. 
.!jJt> dildar, heart-conquering. 
Xi li rJ"& dushmen shiken, overthrowing enemies. 
^a*wj ci^^ takht nishin, sitting on a throne. 

<U~% ^ %fy a P asn > casting or scattering light, illuminating. 
xjjjj iiys- khodayendeh, self-existent — an epithet applied to God. 
ij^ 1 j/ 5 *" ?ehra nishin, sitting in a desert — a Hermit. 
(i/ jjSl jxXc amber agin, full of ambergris. 
jIaJI^- dgehan dar, possessing the world. 
fii&iZjj risheh dar, receiving a wound. 


( 98 ) 

:IJ| jm ser afraz, head exalting. 
:. j| jjl^-»- dgehan afroz, enlightening the world. 

jjLu . .!: I dzar resan, causing affliction. 
(_jyi I _^i sheher ashub, disturbing the city. 
^IjjJ (Nj^Jla- J6 her dganeb firuzan, illuminating every place. 

cj'j^- •"!>" U^ u/" *»^ty* uhj 

A stream, like the fountain of life, flowed throughout ; 
The lamp of the tulip illuminating every part." 

SJoi^U mar gezideh, serpent-bitten. 
8i\J4> {J*c?- dgehan dideh, seeing the world — a traveller. 
SJjJ.m) umur dideh, transacting business, experienced. 
jju Jac afar biz, shedding perfume, 
j^a- (_)i gul tchin, gathering roses. 
jtiiJIyJ tir endaz, shooting arrows. 
j Jo U*e ziya pezir, receiving light. 
lutjsi fji^- dgian baklish, restoring life. 

C^iliai^j i_S''^'j **"# ji *<* */i/?" J.j' 'y 6 U~}^~ ^-H^4 <-SA/l} i J i -)f' ji ^ V^ (^'j 3 " 

" Not far distant from Basra was an Island, fanned by the sweetest air ; and in this Island 
" was a wood, full of beauty and delight. Pleasant fountains flowed through every spot; and 
" life-restoring zephyrs breathed in every part. The many-coloured flowers displayed their 

tints on every side, and various trees adorned each border." 

( 99 ) 


The Turks frequently use the Adjectives as Adverbs ; as, ifi^- khosh, handsomely ;" 
J jJ> guzel, " beautifully ;" y 1 eiu, " well." 
Substantives are made Adverbs by the addition of the Particles <x1j! 'ileh, <s1j ileh, &i ileh or 

%jj)\ iizreh; as, <0ol \L&u<} dililig'ileh or <)JuflaJt> dUiligileh, "foolishly;" ^Suulc, riaetileh, 
"honourably;" i.jj slILyiS dostlik iizreh, "friendly." 

<s1j! (H.Ui JitX-'i '*, L ,1, M , j-i„jM 

O Heaven ! let justice and equity be continually with him ! 
Let him be firmly fixed in his kingdom !" 
Adverbs are also formed, after the Persian manner, by adding Ik I aneh or AJ'o yaneh ; 
as, *iU»*ji> dostaneh, "friendly;" *ibblj bahayaneh, fatherly." 

They moved and acted courageously and heroically." 



Ji kani, ~l 
[xiS kania, V where. 
t&xi kandah, ) 
JU %j nerehyeh, whither. 
iii)j] ij neh aradeh, J 
iiiji di neh yerdeh, \ in what place. 
kaLx-* £J neh meheldeh, J 

xjl^u buradeh,~\ 
iiijti bundeh, 


%SJJ^ shundeh, 

n, s 

XJol andeh, there. 
iSiii^ berudeh, on this side. 
*t><£.! otehdeh, on that side. 
Siiyyi) her yerdeh, every where. 
Hjlj> ^i* hitch bir yerdeh, no where. 
x^cLe saghdeh, to the right. 

xjjytf soldeh, to the left. 
*<>js£l itcherdeh, within. 
ZiifSAs dishardeh, without. 
sjj J>V yokarideh, above, 
xjoki^l ashaghideh, below. 
SAJuib yakindeh, nigh. 
XiXsl,! irakdeh, \ 
xjj'ljjl iizakdeh,) 
XJJLL! atrafdeh, round about. 
jjJojj bundan, \ , 
(jjL^j buraden, J 
^iXil andan, ~\ 
^i^jUj] olyerdan,) 

yjjjiji kandan, 
(jjiil^lAJ weA araden, 
^lijji^ yokariden, from above. 

far off. 




( ioo ) 


yjLs 9 katchan, when. 
jjjUj <xj neh zeman, at what time. 
y_S&v& shimdi, now. 
f j^vii dentin, just before, lately. 
jjAa henuz, just now. 
(J«rl ^j* fi'lhal, immediately, forthwith 
j& tit, quickly. 
xAijuu yakindeh, lately. 
Si^UaJu yakinlerdeh, nearest, lastly. 
jjiXiy*. tchiokdan, formerly. 
j^i^i bolder, last year. 
J-i l; /sJ getchen yil, the year past. 
(JJ 1( j* *Jjl ofeA fa'ytf, the year before last, 
yjji) dun, yesterday. 
^ftf bugun, to-day. 
&s^y bu gidgeh, to-night. 
&sy ^ ii dun gidgeh, last night. 
^j>,Jj yarin, to-morrow. 
_Lu9 sebah, the morning. 
J&2-) akhsham, the evening, 
jjjjiyb Aer #wra, every day. 
j Jo.S gunduz, in the day-time. 

lrl)i) daima, always, continually. 
^Lj yb for zeman, every time. 
xjJJi^ getchinlerdeh, formerly. 
*.>iU; ^s^ getchin zemandeh, heretofore. 
y <K=r*o giahetchah Mr, sometimes. 
:]j) biraz, a little while. 
^t>;|j birazden, a little after. 
^£,1 erken, in time. 
^ getch, slowly, late. 


to, as long as. 

'lo! asla, J 


hitch, > never. 

|jol abedd, J 


nitcheh Mr, how long. 


gehkeh, while. 

*«iliS1 ^j 

6m esnadeh, in the mean time. 


mukaddem, before. 


tchun, when. 


sohrah, after. 


a» sohrah, at last. 


ahsiz, immediately. 

its** 5 siktcheh, often, frequently. 


yazin, during the summer. 

kishin, during the winter. 


dt?ttt, at noon. 



Mr kerreh, once, once upon a time 


tchiok kerreh, many times. 


reafira, abundantly. 


sirek, rarely. 


giru, ~\ 

yineh, 1 

>■ again, anew. 
gineh, I 


tikrar, J 


yehiden, over again, afresh. 

<t2s*^ siktcheh, frequently. 


P ek .y } 

keti, I 

> much, very. 
ah, ( 


ihen, J 

( ioi ) 

j»- J ji Mr dakhi, once more. 
i«iL^! eksik, less. 
*!uolc ghaietileh, \ extremely, 
*1a«j Xiibj ziadehsileh, J very much. 
x jbj yj^'i^- hodden ziadeh, \ excessively, 

.xIaLI^s! ifratileh, 



Xjl emela (ervelan) ) 

o - V 

UjjU mukeddemd, J 

xjJjl erorveldeh, in the first place. 
lju»lc qekebeta, finally. 

aJjuLy nubetilehA 
5 /> alternately. 

Luy nubeta, J 

J in regular order, 

. , I in regular 01 

<0j1x-o sarah'ilehA . _ . 
" •* " (_ following, 


AULaS kezaileh, by chance. 
<1c1j! Uai- khetaileh, involuntarily, by mistake . 
j^iJ! ittifak, by chance. 


te^ nidgeh, ( the same as, like, 
(_«^ #$*> C as ^Ugh- 
aCILo sank eh, J 
ijy»- tchun, so. 
^1^1 andgelin, ~\ . 


in the same manner. 



we/*, What? Who? How? 
nitchiun, Why? Wherefore? 
weA sebeb, From what cause ? 
nidgeh, How? 
katch, How many ? 
nekadar, How much ? 
weA shekil, What kind? 
»ra, Whether? If? 
oj7eA we, Indeed ? 


■>JI ewe£, 

tij) eved, 


jJilJjjl oi/e/t <for, it is so. 

i ,* . , f no; not so. 
JiJ degul,) 

ji^- khir, it is not so. 

v ^«, ; not - 

^Ife zahir, certainly, clearly. 
y» £^L shubheh sit, without doubt. 
JjS> hergiz,) 
'lc)asla, \™™> h y 
*»■/ gertcheh,') 
'tixi*. hakikat, f tni f> verU y- 
as^ sahih, 
jjLo mukarer, seriously, decidedly. 
( J^as J tahkik, certainly. 
XJoJuis- hakiketteh, in truth. 

no means. 

( 102 ) 

ij neh, not, nor, neither. 
y Aft hitch bir, no one. 
*l*-»s gudgileh, scarcely. 
jjJlj yalan, falsely. 


i 'ishteh, | 
ti^y 6shteh,\ 
U ma, Look! 

>Look! Behold! 


ZjSj <0J1 Allah wireh, Would to God! 

sJJiA kiashkeh,) 

Jo!Lj bulaiki, V I wish, O that ! 
,_jJo5Li nolaidi, ) 
&\ }Jli\ insha Allah, Please God! 


(_y JvJ 1 ^5 J eft imdi, Well done ! Courage ! 
i^j t> eft, Bravo ! 

U aya, Proceed ; Go on ! 
Ujl >*J fi? ol, Quick then ! 

jJ\ aferin, Excellent! Well done! 


jL* meger, if, but, perhaps. 
<s«*i»V yokhsah, if not 

iSli belkeh, i perchance, perhaps, 
*£joL£ shaidkeh, 3 may be. 

jsjlx* mabadah, lest. 


<dj bileh, together. 

i^ijij) birbirileh, one with another. 

. 1 . . A , , \ all in a body, 
^J.^.Ij bir oghurdan, \ _ 
u jj-j r- e ' ^ all together. 

, . \ from man to man, 

aJa !,««,»- dgumhur tlehA 
~)TC-r s >^ throughout. 

aJLib bashkeh, separately. 

1 ))ej> bir taraf, on one side, afar off. 

. ji\ airu, apart. 
lyJo tenha, privately. 


<xi)lj wallahi, By God! 
^jarf! *£b basham itchiun, By my head ! 
<xjty»- dgehenemeh, To Hell ! 


liU- AoMa, Far be it ! Forbid it ! 
!suo sakin, Take care ! 
ll X & l j ,_$ !j 7»ai bashuh, Woe be to you ! 
l» <S^j>1 ?7/»eA Aa, Do it not ! 

Gentile Adverbs are formed from the names of countries or nations, by adding &s~ dgeh, 
*»- tcheh, or &=* indgeh ; as, from As** Nemtcheh, " Germany ;" <te-<fesv> nemlchehdgi, 
" after the German manner," " Germanice ;" from CJ,J Turk, <X=s?y Turklcheh, " a la 
Turque ;" so, ts^iiit JJtJU: Osmanli aedetindgeh, " according to the Ottoman custom." 

( 103 ) 


The Turks have no Prepositions, properly so called; the Particles, answering to those 
Parts of Speech in our language, being subjoined, and not prefixed. The Persian Prepositions 
are, however, frequently used by the Turks ; of which the following are of most usual occurrence. 

:! az, from. 
u »o pes, after. 
j or <0 beh, in. 
b ba, with. 
,ii der, in. 
ji\ zir, under, 
,c yu sui, towards. 

jjlxe mian, between. 

ijZu. pish, before. 

j> bi, without. 

j] aber, upon. 

<ijji firud, beneath. 

j>\ zeber, above. 

<ip nazd, near. 

The Turkish Postpositions are of two kinds, Declinable and Indeclinable. The following 
are the Postpositions admitting of Possessive Affixes and Declension. 


u, 1 


ara, between, 
antf, behind. 

ortah, between, in the midst. 
'ilru, before. 
alt, under. 
'itcheru, within. 
bin, among. 
iizreh, upon, above. 
tchureh, round about. 
ghiri, besides. 

ijj yan, near. 

t-^oi> dip, below, beneath. 

iji^o dishrah, without, beyond. 

. yV yokaru above. 

JL iS karshu, against. 

i_j> taraf,\ 

... r beside, near, 

uyu kal, J 

£.\ itch, in. 

Aib *}«! otahyakah, over, beyond, on the 

other side. 

iM >*ji beru yakah, on this side 

CJjt on, before. 

( 104 ) 

The Postpositions j^IjJ ilru, ^gcLil ashaghi, ^js?} itchru, ss.jjl iizreh, ^j Jkc ghiri, 
ij&ks dishrah, *ji£ yokaru, and JL 3 karshu, are also frequently used as Indeclinables, 
without Affixes or Cases ; as, 

The whole of his Books, being collected together, were put into a Cave constructed by 
Talismanic art ; and over which he placed Guardian Demons, having given orders for its being 
opened once a-year." 

The Postposition t \.\ J iizreh, when used indeclinably, governs the Nominative Case ; as, 
*J Ji 1 C~^ bash uzreh, ' upon the head ;" s. ul cuOlc qedet iizreh, ' according to custom." 
y5* Ji karshu governs the Dative Case ; as, »>£ J> <0 &A> kelqeh yeh karshu, " against the 
castle." The other Postpositions govern the Ablative Case; as, .Jul ^SJm senden 'ilru, 
" before thee ;" ^-cLil ^li^t sheherden ashaghi, " beneath the city ;" .js>] yj^os kapuden 
itchru, within the gate." 

^SjyA ashuri, } 

. / across, beyond. 

Sjvi.1 ashreh,) 

The Indeclinable Postpositions, and the Cases they govern, are as follow : 

iii deh, in. 
ijii den, from. 
Ai\ ileh, with. 
yu siz, without. 

-da- dgelin, like, in the same manner. 
*jst\ 'itchreh, in. 

i\j] ileh, »j6 gibiy and ,.\j^ itchiun, when joined to Pronouns, sometimes take the 
Genitive Case; as, <d>! CJo! anun ileh, "with him;" -Ji lL)J nj neh nun gibi, "in what 
manner," "like what?" yj^.l ^-Kr^ kimun itchiun," "on account of whom?" 


• jcJs doghru, towards. 

j£ gibi, as, like. 
!j*3j.\ itchiun, for, on account of. 
<te- dgeh, in, according to. 

kiJj dek, i 

* ' I until, as far as. 
jjij degin, ) 

(JjlJLo mukabil, against. 

i.S goreh, like, according to. 

jwj yakin, I # 

.. r mgh, near. 

L^^s kerib, ) 


oteru, ) 

> on account of. 
^JJ oteri, ) 

lio yana, towards, to. 

JLi- khali, without, void of. 

(Jj! evvel, before. 

( 105 ) 


tjia sonrah, after. 
iKj.1 oteh, beyond, across. 
2j> beru, on this side. 
^JOjt ondin, before. 
*JjLo mukaddem, formerly. 

The Interrogative Postposition _« mi, if?" whether?" may be used after any of the 
Parts of Speech, and with any case; as, j&^c jVo 'y*> hawa suk midur, "is the air cold?" 
i_yJolj ^r»jt evunmi yandi, " Is it thy house which is burnt?" In the Second Persons 
Singular and Plural of the Indicative Present of Verbs, _« mi is put before the last syllable ; 
as, ^ju,/j4> dogurmisen, "Dost thou strike?" j^uX^SjJ dogurmisiz, "Do you strike?" 
In most other Tenses it follows the Verb; as, _£j«Sji> dogduhmi, "Hast thou struck?" 



whether, either, or. 

ve, and. 

deh, and, likewise. 

hatti, so, also. 

eger, if. 

meger, but, except. 



bileh, also, not alone. 

gertcheh, ) 

f although. 
egertcheh, ) 

tek, provided that. 

keh, since, for. 

buileh, | 

shuileh, ' 

ister, or, either. 

dakhi, yet, still, also. 

fso, thus. 



andgak, but. 

ya, or. 

yakhod, or, either. 

Ae»?, also. 

emma, but. 

lakin, nevertheless, notwithstanding. 

gineh, still, even. 

joe*, then, now, but. 

to, since that. 

«tt>a, for, because. 

tchunkeh, \ 
yokhsah, else, save. 
i7cA, with, and. 
madamkeh, whilst. 
neh, neither, nor. 

> since, when. 

( 106 ) 

Frequently, instead of repeating the Copulative Conjunction « ve, the Preposition i.i>] ileh 
or a! ileh, with," is used ; as, 

" Rustem, and (together with) Zal, and Sam, have fallen to the earth • 
While nothing in the universe remains of them, but an empty name." 

If two Verbs are used Conjunctively, the sense of j ve is frequently expressed by putting 
the former in the Gerund in ub ; as, yiilji l-_>*S(j yatub kalkar, It fell and rose " .t:L) t— >yj«l 
dkiub yazar, He read and wrote." Jl'ls .yb yatur kalkar, and J\p^ .Ji.| 6kur yazar, are 
also used in the same sense. 

The Copulative or Disjunctive Conjunctions are seldom used with Numerals ; as, 
Jo j&j fjLjii] jyi t jCj! V^Jju (i*j besh bin iki yoz altmish besh yil, "five thousand two 
hundred and sixty -five years ;" > J I :J.I l e*j&, ^jj I on yegirmi otuz ddem, " ten, twenty, or 
thirty men." 



a, O! 

to' Aa«, Alas ! 
bireh, Ho ! 
ba, No! 
aivah, Oh! 

derigh, "I 



behi, O! 

zinhar, Take care ! 

aferin, Well done ! 

solah, Get you gone ! 

haidah, Go on! 

xl oA, Oh! Ah! 
^ylj «G«, Woe! 
b J«, Heigh! 
Lyu swsa, Hist! Hush! 
i> Jc<i meded, O help ! 
^.1 o£/«, Oh! 

I ya, O ! Ho ! 

Hollo ! Ho there ! 

iji bireh ,1 
«, J 
<io jooA, Fine ! Well ! 


&*&> pohpoh, Very fine! 
jM J fi gider, Get you gone ! Away ! 

( 107 ) 

The Article j bir, though usually prefixed to its Noun, is, in construction, sometimes 
subjoined to it ; the Noun being put either in the Genitive or Ablative Case, and the Article 


receiving the termination of (_$ i or v*i si ; as, ,_$• j <*LX2*j , .<} Dervishih bin, a Dervish ;" 
l _s** 1 ^ jj^J&liiilj padshahlerden birisi, "a King." 

' It is related, that a J^'w^ gave a beautiful vest and embroidered robe to a Monk." 
When two Substantives come together, the former is put in the Genitive Case ; and the 


latter has ,_$• «' added to it if ending in a Consonant, or -»*, H if in a Vowel; as, ^Le.1 t^JoliL 
Pashanuh oghli, "the son of the Pasha," literally, of the Pasha the son;" -wbb viJb'LiL 
Pashanuh babasi, " the Pasha's father." 

^bo <K_jLL>«*> <JLj jj^Juil ^jJ^Ljuw f-*-*- tiLJy (j^-Js* 

The odoriferous Herbs join their hands together ; 
The languid Tulips bend beneath their crowns ; 
" The black eyes of the Narcissus shine forth ; 
While you behold them with an inebriated look." 

A A 

If Declension is required, the Cases are affixed to the latter Substantive ; as, l^Jjuic.l l^JuLtb 
Pashanuh oghlinuh, " Of the Pasha's son" <fc ^bb i^JJli'o Pashanuh babasi yeh, 
" To the Pasha's father." 

If three Substantives come together in the same manner, in addition to the ,_$ i or .** si 
of the second Substantive, the sign of the Genitive Case is subjoined ; and the third also takes 

~ A A 

,_$ i or -*j si; as, Jfl CUaIc.1 i^JjUL Pashanuh oghlinuh ati, " the horse of the son 
of the Pasha;" ^Jo^lo! t^JdAic_jl (iUlilj Pashanuh oghlinuh atleriden, "from the Pasha's 
son's horses." 

When the sense is indefinite, or the two Substantives relate to the same thing, the former 

( 108 ) 

remains in the Nominative Case; as, Ifejl liL Paslia oghli, "the son of a Pasha" 
| _ 5 «Li1j Lilj Pasha babasi, " a Pasha's father ;" ^j^ £ Betch sheheri, "the city of Vienna ;" 
^jy£ \j£s Tuna suyi, "the river Danube." 

When two Substantives are used, the one expressive of the material of the other, they are 
either both left in the Nominative, the material Substantive being prefixed like an Adjective ; 
or the former is put in the Ablative Case ; as, *£ ~ai demir kapu, " a gate of iron," " an 
iron gate " jXs^j ^yj! altun zendgir, " a golden chain " £ ^Ci^ demirden kapu, 

an iron gate," a gate made from iron;" j^j <^J>J^! altunden zendgir, "a chain 
made of gold." 

jd)) JiSjO <ks£> jdj\} *ji,jo- ji i&hb Jjl } jtjb Z~jS j> ll'jJuu XJo) (jl d Jj&)\ jSa^o y_ 

jyljl <£*»*] *j £ & fb) } CUi^ tfyftji jsa1L.j! CJSjiijSi 

It is narrated, that there is a mountain in which the Moon rises but once a-year ; and 
within that mountain is an island : and it is said that there are there a great many high 
columns, upon each of which is a balcony of gold." 

In Compound Nouns, the latter alone is subject to declension ; as, <KJu JjJ ifcs^ guntcheh 
leblerineh, "to her lips like rose-buds," from t__J <ts AC ghuntcheh leb. 

The Adjective is usually prefixed to its Substantive, without undergoing any change on 
account of Gender, Number, or Case; as, 41)! y\ eiu adem, a good man;" <Jjl^a\ y\ 
eiu ddemlerun, "of good men;" X>.*c ol eiu qwretler, good women." 

The Turks sometimes adopt the Persian mode of subjoining the Adjective to its Substantive, 

called by the Arabs &daaj HLo] izafetun lefziyetun ; in which case, the Substantive either has 
the letter ,_$ attached, or is read with esreh ; as, <J jjS ^yj* I ahui guzel, " a beautiful fawn ;" 
j wi /m>v imishi sherin, sweet fruits." 

" Different sweet fruits, for different seasons, of various colours, and produced from different 
" species, adorned the trees." 

When the Adjective is subjoined to its Substantive, the Adjective admits of declension, like 
a Noun; as, >jj.l Ji-J t***^z jY"j? ^ir sheheri qzimeh dakhil oldum, I arrived at a 
great city," instead of aAJj] J^-i> iy^ *&£/> bir qzim shehereh dakhil oldum. 

( 109 ) 

In comparison, the Adjective is put after the Case it governs ; as, ^liJo ^ Jol andan yegdur, 
"better than him;" ^Jjy <ZJJt~cd\ ademlerun guzeli, "the handsomest of men." 

" In strength, he surpassed Rustem ; and in liberality, he excelled Hatem." 

Adjectives of Number and Quantity are generally joined to Nouns in the Singular Number ; 
_ a 
as, *ii\ i-^JO bin idem, "a thousand men (man);" Jj JC*> ^.1 on sekiz yil, "eighteen 

years (year) ;" t^jl/i r JJ .c^.' ***' kedah sherab, two cups (cup) of wine." 
He commanded Omar Beg to go, with two thousand men." 

" How strange, that, among so many Infidels (infidel), there is not one with a white beard !" 

Adjectives implying plenty or want generally require their Substantives to be in the Ablative 
Case; as, J^L (jiJSjJU, mivehden dolu, "full of (from) fruit;" Jjfc. ^jjjlc qkilden khali, 
void of knowledge." 

When morning dawned, the Monk found his cell destitute of his vest, and his new 
Disciple absent and invisible." 

i*i^=-U- hadget,^-' ihtiadg, and -.lis-* muhtadg, signifying " need" or " necessity," 
govern a Dative Case ; as, j^>^„ f^o- */l <-V benum ireh hadgetim yoktur, " I have no 
need of a husband;" jdijJ ^Uas-I a!U Jo benum maleh ihtiadgim yokdur, "l have no 
occasion for riches." 

Adjectives signifying "fit," "worthy," "able," or "becoming" such as, J^t laik, " worthy ;" 
J=^"»° muHehekk, "deserving;" L^Jlis talib, "desirous;" jiH kadir, " able " J»L, 
muafik, " fit ;" JjIs Aafo7, "adapted ;" <^v*ltc munaseb, "suitable ;" hJ&, rvakif, "versed," 
"skilled;" jsAc qedgiz, " unfit," " unable ;" ^iU- hazir, "prepared;" J^Li, shamil, "con- 
taining ;" govern the Dative Case ; as, jyj iJ3 zikreh laik, " worthy to be remembered ;" 

^Js^-* <Jlw kitleh mustehekk, "worthy of death;" t_ .Jds i^c ilmeh talib, "desirous of 

knowledge ;" jjU &> &LJ jj bir nesneh yeh kadir, " equal to any thing," " fit for any thing ;" 
JjI» sjliocl ejikadeh kabil, "adapted for belief," "credible." 

( no ) 

They brought Virgins, tall as the cypresses, beautiful as tulips, worthy of the presence 
of the asylum of Sovereignty." 

The Turks, when absolute Negation is signified, frequently use a Double Negative ; which 
does not, as in English, destroy itself. 

It is related, that in Hindostan there is a mountain which neither horseman nor footman 
has ever ascended." 

The Pronoun *} bu relates to the nearest objects, yi shu to those which are at a greater 
distance, and tJ«! 61 to the most remote. 

The Verb is usually preceded by its Nominative Case, with which it agrees in Person, 
though not always in Number ; a Noun in the Plural being frequently joined to a Verb 
in the Singular, and a Noun in the Singular to a Verb in the Plural ; as, <_gdjS J3\ anlar 
gitfy, "they came," for \>.&i£ gittiler ; i^s^)) 4<il jJi J bir hatch ddem vardi, "some 
men went." 

" Again the dew glitters on the leaves of the lily, like the sparkling of a 

bright scymetar : 
"The dew-drops fall through the air on the garden of roses." 

" His Highness the Emperor shewed us honour, and conferred many benefits on us." 

The Third Person Plural of a Verb is frequently used for the Third Person Singular, as a 
mark of respect or regard ; as, JoO.^jo id ,_$&*»] J^sr" Mohammed Efendi neh biurdUar ? 
" What has Mohammed Efendi prescribed ? 

The First Person Plural is sometimes employed when the speaker or writer alludes to himself, 
instead of the First Person Singular; as, \JJii.S i.iioJjj ^jU^J li.ii Jfy*- ** j^- uS^ 
Dqai khair neh tchiok derde derman bulundughun gurduk, "I have seen, by devout 
prayers we find solace for many evils," instead of *&jS gurdum. 

( 111 ) 

Active Verbs generally govern the Accusative Case ; which, however, if not used in a deter- 
minate sense, is the same as the Nominative ; as, ^jJI C^l at aldum, "i have bought a horse ;" 
*iii] J\yj bu dti aldum, " I have bought this horse." 

This, let me say, after wishing thee happiness, — 
My heart aspires to love thee." 

l_>Lk»j CJJj^ <sXL,_j! ^tUi ^yi^y jBjl ^5- 

The sweetness of the rose-bed has made the air so fragrant, 

That the dew, before it falls, is changed into rose-water : 

The sky has spread a pavilion of bright clouds over the garden." 

The Defective Verb ^1 im, and the Verb Substantive jjy olmak, "To be," require 
the Nominative Case; as, jt i *xaljj| ( _ sr Jl ismi Ibrahim dur, "His name is Ibrahim;" 
yl X£Jjl jij) li\i babam Vezir olmishtur, "My father was Vizier." 

When the Defective Verb is employed to signify possession, the Genitive Case is used ; as, 
j! y> jii i-LKfS kimun dur bu ev, "Whose house is this?" "Of whom is this the house?" 
jO t^Jol t_£tf j> bu kitab anuh dur, " This book is his." 

The Verb Impersonal j) } rear, signifying possession, also requires the Genitive Case ; as, 
S^ - )) ^r$° J. ^^jf- ji t>i r awretun bir taughi rear idi, " A woman had a hen." 

The Prince of Albania had a handsome son, named Alexander." 

As great numbers of Turkish Verbs govern the Dative and Ablative Cases, a List of the 
Verbs usually requiring those Cases is subjoined ; which may be usefully referred to, when the 
regimen is doubtful. 

( 112 ) 





idgiazet itmek, to allow. 

idgiazet virmek, to permit. 

irzani kilmak, to concede. 

istikbal itmek, to go against. 

ishtighal 'itmek, to attend, to 

itraf itmek, to confess, to ac- 

itibar itmek, to esteem, to 

ikrar itmek, to promise, to 

iltidgia itmek, to take re- 
fuge, to flee to. 

inkar itmek, to deny. 

iirmak, to beat, to strike. 

iilashmak, to arrive at, to 

irmek, to reach, to arrive at. 

bais Slmak, to be the cause 
or origin. 

bashlamak, to begin. 

baghishlamak, to give. 

bakmak, to look. 

benzemek, to resemble, to be 

bildurmek, to be ashamed. 

tehemmel itmek, to suffer, to 

fe*#A; itmek, to affirm. 

ti^vijl *a1*j tealim itmek, to teach. 
J^S.I l«_^i* J teadgiub olmak, to wonder. 
CJvLl JoLsj tikiyed itmek, to attend dili- 
Jfjj) *yj1 J>J&> tikiyed iizreh olmak, to 
ijjl ■^.-■■■~- rijg'wfj olmak, to be quick. 
(ilvLl i\y»- dgehid itmek, to work hard. 
sjl*- tchalmak, to beat, to strike. 
i^U- tchalishmak, to attempt. 
CXej. a»- kheber virmek, to be 

tjjl <*Lel»- hamileh olmak, to be pre- 
Cl^u! S-'lsr*- hidgiab itmek, to be modest, 
to be ashamed. 
t^A^Jul lW»- toe(J itmek, to envy. 
.VJUl ^V*- Airan olmak, to be astonished. 
sy.l (Ji-)j rfaM olmak, to reach. 

J»V (. 

.J cfosA olmak J to happen. 
CLJySjt) doshmek, to fall into. 
viJ^Jjii donmek, to revert, to convert. 
CJ»»Ji> dimek, to say, to call 
CAyi J degmek, to be worth, to touch. 
tiA^il ei^J . raff gelmek, to meet, to 
£,j.l y**>\ ra %i olmak, to acquiesce. 
^J.l <^-^cly raghib olmak, to desire, to 

( H3 ) 

,jf»V t»«>JUu sebeb olmak, to cause. 
zj*] j]j\jm sizavar olmak, to be fit, 
to be worthy. 
ijjl M'.v-f" sust olmak, to be slow, re- 
miss, careless. 
CA^juI jt»M sqi itmek, to attempt. 
CJv-vJ J[y ?««^ itmek, to ask, to in- 
quire, to seek. 
\iX^Xi\ Jjgi shughul itmek, to apply 
jJt^JLo satishmak, to happen, to 
CA^ju I yyo saber itmek, to bear patiently, 
to be patient. 
Jf^ii-o saghinmak, to flee to, to 

trust in. 
Jyo.yo sormak,to, seek, inquire. 
CX^yS c^JilL taket geturmek, to suffice. 
jfr&As dokunmak, to touch, to reach. 
jfj^yili zw/er bidmak, to conquer, 
to overcome. 
liX^olyLe afu itmek, to pardon, forgive. 
tiJvV I A^c osAefi? itmek, to promise. 
JhJjl l«_-~ilc ghalib olmak, to conquer. 
j^Jjl ^ Jls A;a«ftr olmak, to be able. 
J^l «&' kaneq olmak, to be content, 
to have sufficient. 
^J^AJilj kakimak, to get angry. 
CJvL I *X»- <tUi' #«7feA hukem itmek, to pass 

sentence of death. 
*i^vLj i^eUi' kenaet itmek, to have suf- 

J}***? katchinmak, to flee to. 
t^ji' kimak, to destroy, kill, hurt, 
dA^ol ,>£<£»£ koshish itmek, to endeavour, 
to try to do. 
,?J)1 l5^ ^ a ^ olmak, to be worthy. 
.♦JO CAJU malik olmak, to be rich. 
tj .1 tLyo mubtela olmak, to be seized 
JiJ .1 tis^-* mutehiyer olmak, to won- 
der, to be astonished. 
C»l^u] tj^ocs-! -o muradgeat itmek, to flee to, 
to take refuge, to call upon. 
^J.l ( js^ M *-« mustehekk olmak, to be 

worthy, to deserve. 
JfJ . I J»ii^o mushghul olmak, to be em- 
ployed, to apply, to devote. 
ij.l i\>Jl« mufid olmak, to be useful, 
to produce. 
.Sjjl (JjIsU mukabil olmak, to happen, 

to occur. 
.*Jj! AlLe makied olmak, to attend, 
to apply, to bend oneself. 
^jl t_^s3-^o mudgib olmak, to be the 
Jfjjl ^klj racmV olmak, to look! 
JrJjl l»k'-> wa ^ olmak, to overtake, 

to follow. 
Jf»!}' (j|/^ nigeran olmak, to look. 
ti^LI ^laj na£ir itmek, to look. 

Jf^lj tvarmak, to go. 
jfj.l (J*«s)« was# olmak, to reach. 

( IH ) 

( S Y J«I «i'l} vakea olmak, to happen. 

ivljl i ail. vakif olmak, to be versed 

in, to be learned. 
.jijjl dy°) vusul olmak, to arrive at. 
^Xo J« virmek, to give. 
^jiob yapishmak, to lay hold of, 
to attack. 

^j^iilj yakmak, to burn. 
^JUiki yakishmak, to befit, to become. 

^Jlj yanmak, to light, to burn. 
wLlvJU yitmek, to suffice, to be equal to. 

Jh^ji ya>*0' r Mri i , to be worth. 

uLX^ yimek, to eat, to receive. 


d^ibl U iba itmek, to flee. 
v^lyLt <_>lil»-l idgtinab itmek, to avoid, to 
i«iX»jL>! ;1 Jto-J ihtiraz 'itmek, to take care, 

to beware. 
vi^Lj Jji»-I ihtizar itmek, to take care. 
C^L i SsLiJs-l ihtiat itmek, to take care of 
Jf*>:l azmak, to deviate, to stray, 

to wander. 
( S^>£.! ashmak, to pass over, to 
ij.l jslbl a^aA olmak, to understand. 
tiX»Iol s Ml ikrah itmek, to hate. 
CA^-M igrenmek, to abhor. 
^riUs.l osanmak, to dislike. 
cj.l ^J foW olmak, to be free. 
CX» ii bezmek, to dislike, to loathe. 
\^XJxj] JLj bihten itmek, to traduce. 
sj.) ^Ilju toar olmak, to dislike. 
^iJvVj j)^ tidgauz itmek, to exceed. 
i^jie* tchikmak, to go forth. 
uLXJlCs- tchikilmek, to restore. 

CJ^juCs- tchekinmek, to recede, to 
k^J^jjl v—jIs*" hidgiab 'itmek, to be 
CJvul «U»- hezar itmek, to take care of 
oneself, to guard against. 

^IvAjJ ia>- hezz itmek, to delight. 
tjj) Jli- Mafo' olmak, to cease. 
^Jl jAi- kheber almak, to hear, to 
understand, to receive news. 
JfJ .1 ,'t> »jr>. kheber dar olmak, to make 
known, to convince. 
lLXvLI £ ;1 > derigh itmek, to deny, 
to refuse. 
sj «! ,-tf 1 . raji olmak, to please oneself. 
(.LX,!)! U». ridgia 'itmek, to hope, to ask. 
(iA^iul Jly*. *waZ itmek, to ask to inter- 
t.JJLi9 sakinmak, to take care. 
£*.}.o sormak, to ask, to inquire. 
rjU^»-U aedgiz kalmak, to be weak, 
to be powerless. 
i^J^jjl .j*£ w6«r itmek, to pass over. 

( H5 ) 

sj.1 (Jjic-ghajil olmak, to be incautious, 
to be unmindful. 
tiH^Ll Ju: afu itmek, to pardon, to 
tj.t eJJfarigh olmak, to be free. 
\iXjx>\ \^^l\i feraghetitmek, to relinquish. 
^js-U katchmak, to flee. 

t^>Jf kopmak, to arise, to begin. 
i^o J, y kurtarmak, to free, to libe- 
.jjo , )' kurttdmak, to free, to deliver, 

to liberate. 
^+J>,t> konkmak, to fear. 

ll,1.7-j getchmek, to pass through, 
to leave, to relinquish. 
i»LJl»ijl J»*U meemul itmek, to hope, to ask. 
zj.l **js*> mehrum olmak, to be frus- 
trated, disappointed. 
JfJU t^js* mehrum kalmak, to be frus- 
sj J t>! -« murad olmak, to intend. 
CJ^LI ^,.~o marur 'itmek, to pass. 
CJ^sS ;1« vaz getchmek, to leave, to 
relinquish, to desist. 
CJO^jl 5 tf a ? gelmek, to desist. 

Verbs Passive, in like manner, sometimes govern the Dative, and sometimes the Ablative 
Case ; as, ,_$ jJojls lil ana tutuldi, " It was taken by him ;" ,_$ iioJjl as yjiXiil iJ^ M ***> Uy 
ol kelqeh Suliman elindenfeth olundi, "That castle was taken by Suliman." 

The Infinitive Mood, when used in construction with another Verb, is always put into that 
Case which the Verb governs, in the same manner as a Noun ; as, ^lj <); *r»^. L <*y mum ^ 
yakmagheh varur, " He goes to light a candle," not Jijio yakmak. 

» j f ■ * 

jio j^ii *Ju. ; jj! t^lil^JuJjl j^«j jaju AJb^l J^!j esj, ^y^W liloiw^o ( _ ? GI 

If the inhabitants of two cities have concord and unanimity among themselves, an enemy 
will not be able to conquer them ; but when their counsels and deliberations are divided by 
discord, they all perish." 

The Verbs jjjl olmak, " To be ;" (JJ^XJ istemek, " to be willing f liAy/jl ogretmek, 

to teach;" x^.^jo biurmak, to command;" CJIJj bilmek, to know;" ^-Jj 1 .yi^ 

laik olmak, to be worthy" ^ijjt 1j. rem olmak, "to be lawful;" tLl^ii) dilmek, to 

desire ;" (JLJ^aj J t_ .Ilia talib itmek, " to ask," " to seek ;" are used in the Infinitive Mood, 

without being put into any Case. 

Participles and Gerunds govern the same Cases as the Verbs from which they are derived. 

( 116 ) 

The Declinable Participles are subject to Number and Case, in the same manner as Nouns. 
They also take the Possessive Affixes. 

The sense of the Gerunds is generally governed by the Verb on which the sentence depends, 
whose Mood, Tense, Number, and Person are understood to the Gerund. In long sentences, 
they serve to point out the suspension of the sense at the various divisions, until the concluding 
member is formed by the Governing Verb ; in the same manner as our marks of Punctuation, 
to the use of which the Turks are strangers. 

3J ^\ CJh> i Jil±. t_jjijl jji. JU» ^ <fci, J4 > *jil d ^S f> tj$ )*)) J^J *>J && 

"it is related, that in the Sea of Karkisa there is a certain place, called The Lion's Mouth', 
■ in Persian, Dehani Shir ; and it is said, that there is not a higher place on the borders of 
" that sea. A river which runs from beneath this place, is called Murde Ab, The Dead 
Water.' They say no ship can go beyond this place ; for that whatever vessel falls unto this 
gulph is completely overwhelmed, the men perish, and the goods on board are lost On 
this account, a pillar of bronze has been erected in the place, called The Lion's Mouth'; on 
which is placed a statue of human form, standing on its feet. This statue has been so con- 
structed, that, whenever the wind blows, it moves its hands, as it were to point out Go not 
any further ; for any ship that passes this spot shall not escape.' As soon as the sailors behold 
this statue they proceed not any further, nor go near the side where it stands, but imme- 
diately return." 











Sunday, Bazar giuni, 

Monday, Bazar ertesi, t*" 11 ^} )P, 
Tuesday, Sali giuni, i_s^ JLs 

Wednesday, Tchehar shembeh, &&Z J^*. 



Thursday, Pendg shembeh, AjjJms** 

Friday, Dgiumah, <Osr=>- 

Saturday, Dgiumah ertesi, ^jute) <**»*- 







Kianuni sard, 






J^ *#* 

July, Temuz, 

August, Ab, 

September, Eilul, 




Dec. 1831, to Jan. 4, 1832. 
January 5, to February 2, 
February 3, to March 3, 
March 4, to April 1, 
April 2, to May 1, 
May 2, to May 30, 
May 31, to June 29, 
June 30, to July 28, 
July 29, to Aug. 27, 
August 28, to September 25, 
September 26, to October 25, 
October 26, to November 23, 











Bebiul evel, 

Bebiul akher, 

Dgemazi el evel 

Dgemazi elakher, 

Tesherini evel, 
Tesherini sani, 
Kianuni evel, 

J J!^ 

'j ISiXkAjI ,_£ J 

f f>f 

Si W & 

* The Turks have two sorts of Months — the Solar Months, and the Lunar Months : the latter are 
moveable, and, in a revolution of 32 years, pass through each of our months. In writing the names of the 
Lunar Months, the letters alone are generally used. 

+ These are the corresponding Months in our Calendar to the Turkish Lunar Months for the year 1832. 

( 120 ) 


God, Creator of the Universe, 

Allah khalik almugiudat, 

uul d^il jJU- M 

The Creation, 




Tabiat, mudgiudat, t£j 

\&J(lyC C^sJtUls 

A body, 


A — r- 

A spirit, 







The world, 




Giog, giogler, 

PI. ^ ^ 




The Saints, 



The Angels, 



A Martyr, 



A Prophet, 

Peighamber, restd, 

<Jrv s**a 

An Apostle, 



The Evangelists, 



The four elements, 

Anasiri erbeah, 

&*>) jdj& 

The firmament. 

Hdixler giogi, 


The empyreal heavens, 

Alemi dgeberut, 

UU}J*2- JU 







The Devils, 



A day, 


. ■* 

The dawn, 

Giun agharmasi, 

^j^^cl 0/ 


Giun doghusi, 












Yari gidgeh, 

**f i/A: 




( 121 ) 

The evening, 




Gunesh batdughi, 

^jJsb ,J6£ 

Between sunrise and mid-day, 




Akhsham nemazi, 

^U ^lii-i 

A holy day, 

lid, yorti-gun, beiram, 

fliS tpgfotAp 






uj J 

The day before yesterday, 


bir gun, 

&£j>> ] 




The day after to-morrow, 

Yarin degutt 6 bir gun, 

vlfjij J* J Ujk 

An hour, 

Bir saet, 



Yarim saet, 

d-vcl" j,Jj 

A quarter-of-an-hour, 

Bir tchirek saet, 

eucL CJjt^j 


Utch tchirek saet, 

c ^ cL ^^r ^ 

A minute, 



A week, 



A month, 



A year, 



Leap year, 



The equinox, 

Eitid al leil ve nihar, 

)^> i JjJ Jl.iicl 







The beginning. 



The middle, 



The end, 




A star, 


The sun, 


The moon, 


Half moon, 

Yarim ai, 

A planet, 



( 122 ) 

A comet, 

Kuirukli yeldiz, 

}*k J*j?f 

The Signs of the Zodiac, 

Burudgi sema, 


The sunbeams, 

Ziya, pertev, 

fji w 







A vapour, 


or 9 

The wind, 



The Autumnal wind, 

Bad hizan, 


A strong wind. 


Jj Ci^s^ 

A favourable wind, 



The East, 
The West, 

Gun doghusi, 

The South, 



The South-East, 



The South-West, 



The North, 



The North-East, 



The North- West, 

Karah yil, 


Fair weather, 

' Atchik hava, 

iy» j^i 

Rainy weather, 
A cloud, 

Yaghmurlu hava, 





Suk, shebnem, 
Buzlarun inmesi, 




A fog, 
A tempest, 


( 123 ) 

A storm, 


A flash of lightning, 


*^i r r r _i< 




A thunderbolt, 

Yashin 6ki, 

j> ] yk 

The rainbow, 

Kusi kuxah, 

z? v-ry 

An earthquake, 

Zilxeleh, ditremeh, 

i~< >Jiii &$j 

A solar eclipse, 

Gunesh dutulmasi, 

^j»&j£jb fjjS 

The Equator, 

Muadili leil v nehar, 

y ly)j JjkJ Jjao 

The line of the Equator, 

Khali istiva, 

Ll«) ]as>- 

A Zone, 



The Frozen Zone, 

Mintakahi mebrudeh, 

3 Jj^c > <HalaJu 1 

The Torrid Zone, 

Mintakahi mahrukah, 

tetjs*' &9r\k* 

The Temperate Zone, 

Mintakahi muledileh, 

X^lx^ 'a&kJu, 

The Sign of the Ram, Aries, 

Hamil burdgi, 

lfTj/1 Jv»" 


Sur burdgi, 



Dguxa burdgi, 



Sertan burdgi, 



Used burdgi, 



Sunbuleh burdgi, 

-a-y adjJu, 


Mixan burdgi, 



Akreb burdgi, 

sT^V/ 5 * 


Kous burdgi, 



Dgedi burdgi, 

^fyj <J**- 


Delu burdgi, 

/i 11 


Hout burdgi, 


Ursa Major, 

Dubbi ekber, 

jS,\ i_jj 

Ursa Minor, 

Dubbi asgher, 

jk*>] (_jj 










( 124. ) 






The Four Seasons, Dort, 
The Spring, Behar, 

The Summer, Fa?, 

The Autumn, Son bahar, 

A man, 

A woman, 

An old man, 

An old woman, 

A young man, 

A married woman, 

A bachelor, 

A maid, 

A child, 

A youth, 

A virgin, 



Old age, 

The sight, 
The hearing, 
The smell, 
The taste, 
The feeling, 
A colour, 
A sound, 




The Winter, 

Kith, iuti 

The Dog-days, Eyamibahur, m»»(j *Ij1 
The harvest-time, Orak zemani, ^)Lj il..| 
The rose-season, Gul mutimi, ^,w Ji 



Kodgiah, ekhtiyar, 


Gunedg, dgiuvan, 

Evlu evret, 









Ekhtiarlik, kodgialik, 


Kuvveti basireh 
Kuvveti samieh, 
Kuvveti thameh, 

Kuvveti hasseh, hiss, 
Boia, reng, 
Soda, sess, 


( 125 ) 

A smell, 

Koku, bui, 

<-S* ft 

A sweet smell, 



A stench, 

Fena koku, 

The body, 

Vudgiud, beden, 

&<*. tyti 

The shoulders, 




A limb, 



The breast, 



The head, 



The elbows, 



The forehead 

, Alen, 


The arms, 



The crown, 

Bash tepehsi, 

^mSM l)*<~ 

The hand, 



The scull, 

Bash tchinaghi, 


The finger, 



The face, 



The nails, 



The eyes, 



The belly, 



The eyebrows,JTa#/«, 


The stomach, 



The temples, 

Tchengneh bash, 


The ribs, 



The eyelid, ' 

\ Kirpuk, 


The navel, 



I Giox, kapaghi, 


The knees, 



The eye-ball, 

Gioz bebegi, 


The calf, 



The nose, 



The feet, 



The ears, 



The ancle, 



The cheeks, 



The brain, 








A moustache, 



A vein, 



The beard, 



An artery, 

Shah damar, 

mC JSL« 

The mouth, 



A nerve, 



A tooth, 



A muscle, 

Sihirli ct, 

ul>! J/-, 

The tongue, 



The heart, 



The palate, 



The liver, 



The lips, 



The lungs, 

Ak dgiger, 


The chin, 



The spleen, 



The neck, 



The bladder, 



The gullet, 



The veins, 



( 126 ) 

The bowels, 



The skin, 



The milk, 



A bone, 



A cartilage, 



The flesh, 



A membrane, 

Yufkah deridgek, <^Xs>ii <tai»j 

The fat, 




The soul, 




Timid, me'mul, Jm>L AxJ 

The mind, 






The understanding,.^/, 





The will, 

Niet, iradet, 

i£jt>y e^ju 




The reason, 

Nutk, hush, 

U"}* J^ 



















Desire, ^ 




Wish, J 








cj ; L» 

Forgetfulness, Nisian, 


















Ilm, bilgu, 





A mistake, 







Eshk, muhebbif, u^J«"* >$*>£ 





Nefret, kin, 

u/^ 1 ^ 















Oiushdirmeh, , 


The breath, 







A sigh, 







A disease, 


CJJ il^i. 




y? ] 

A tooth-ache, 

Dish agi 


i^fifl fJ^A 

( 127 ) 

A head-ache, 
A fever, 

Bash aghrisi, 
Humma, istima, 

Malignant fever, 
The tertian ague, 

Istimai muhrika, 
Istimai muselesah, 

The quartan ague, 

Istimai murebbi', 


A hot fit, 
A cough, 




The jaundice, 



A rheum, 



The plague, 
The small-pox, 

Yumrudgiak, khestehlek, 

The measles, 



The gout, 
The dropsy, 


A swelling, 
A cancer, 



The cholic, 


The heartburn, 
A fistula, 

Tek nefeslik, 
Mideh bozuklighi, 
Yurek aghrisi, 




Lues Venereae, 

Itch aghrisi, 
Frenk zahmeti, 
Bel sovuklughi, 
Maieh sil, 


The eye-ache, 

Sidik xor\ 
Gioz agh, 


( 128 ) 

A wart, 

The quinsy, 

A swoon, 


Palpitation of the heart, 


Tavuk giuti, 
Dolmah boghaz, 
Yurek bailmasi, 

Yurek diterrnesi, 
Karah sevda, 









Kior, .J 

Bir giozli, i^j^jl 

Kambour, ^jJLs 

Topal, JL,^ 

Shashi giozli, ^\S ^^ 











Tas bashlu, 







A son, 






A great-grandfather, 

A great-grandmother, 

A grandson, 

A granddaughter, 

Eldest brother, 

Youngest brother, 

Uterine brother, 

Adopted brother, 

A cousin, 




Kiz kardash, 
Buiuk ana, 
Dedehnun babasi, 
Buiuk validehnun anasi, ^JSl 
Oghul oghlu, 


Oghlunun kizi, 


Olu kardash, 
Kotchik kardash, 
Ogi kardash, 
Akhret kardash, 
Amudgieh oghli, 

-^'olj v^Jo xJJ 

( 129 ) 

Paternal uncle, 




Maternal uncle, 



Paternal aunt, 



Maternal aunt, 







Kain ata, 

» J* 


Kain ana, 

W Jt 







Brother-in-law, 1 

Wife's brother, / 



Wife's sister, 



Husband's brother 

's wife, 






A mistress, 


Yaouklu, 1 
Mqeshukah, J 


&3 **+****> 

A wedding, 



A widow, 

Dul evret, 

sSjjf. Jj»J 

A widower, 

Dul ir, 


An orphan, 






A trade, 


'■.1'" t- f 




















































> _ i>1 at 




( 130 ) 

Brazier, Ghazghandgi, js'iijc 

Watchmaker, Saettchi, js^Ui 

Glass-maker, Dgiamdgi, ^*W~ 

A banker, Saraf, t_jl .o 

Vinegar-merchant, Sirkehdgi, j*-s£.», 

Needle-merchant, Ignedgi, _=>-<KJi) 

Water-seller, Saka, LiLu 

Labourer, Tchifttchi, -==***- 

Trunk-maker, Sanduktchi, -sr'.JuLo 

Ring- maker, Yuzuktchi, js^i^j 

Cloth-of-gold vender, Dibadgi, 







Bird- seller, 










Xa l\-^i 



Tallow-chandler, Mumdgi, ^s^y 6 

Lamp-seller, Shamadandgijjs 3 ]^*^ 

Coal-merchant, Kumurdgi, ^s?~jy^ 

Wool-carder, Haladg, r^*~ 

Carpenter, Dulgier, j&.£ 

Joiner, Doghramadgi, _k"°! .£ Js 

Onion-vender, Soghandgi, -jsAkyu 

Cobbler, Eskidgi, ^s*^) 

Fishmonger, Baliktchi, l _e^^i 

Cutler, Bitchaktchi, .s^U^ 

Pioneer, Laghimdgi, i_c?^ 

Vender of sweetmeats, Helvadgi, j>-LL»- 

Lead-merchant, Kurshundgi, js^ytjJ) 

Corn-fector, Undgi, lJ^^ 

Flute-seller, Duduktchi, -x*J>ji> 


Founder, Dukdgi, 

Dealer in pre- \ . 

cious-stones, J 

Boot-maker, Tchizmehdgi, ,»-<U£*- 

Lime-burner, Kiretchtchi, t<^~^ 

Old- clothes-man, Bozmadgi, i _c?"'-*iy 

Milk-man, Sudtchi, ^^.dy» 

Stonemason, Tashtchi, -s^lb 

Tilemaker, Kiremidtchi, -a*iX«.£ 

Lantern- seller, Fenerdgi, lJ^'j*' 

Flax-seller, Kitandgi, -sr'lif 

Linendraper, Astardgi, j*-Jju» ! 



s rV U " 













A huckster, 









Astronomer, Ehli heiet, ■._",- 1! " (Jj&! 

Grammarian, Ehliilmisarf,^^fO Jxjjjbl 
Geometrician, Muhendis, .-.JuL*, 

Geographer, Ehli dgeografiah, &*i\jt*. Jjbl 
Musician, Tchalidgi, -s^U- 

Chemist, Kimiadgi, ^sJj^jJ 

Orator, Ehli kelam, ^iS (J.&I 

Poet, Shair, xL, 

Philosopher, Filsqf, i_ayjui 

Historian, Tevarikhdgi, jsr^-.}jj 

Logician, ManHki, JiiaJu> 

Physiognomer, Firaset sahibi, l ~y*-\*o &Jj 

( 131 ) 



Prince Royal, 

Resident Minister, 
Turkish Prime-Minister, 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
Minister of the Interior and 
Secretary of War, 


Intendant of Police, 

Chief Justice, 

Grand Chamberlain, 

Keeper of the Privy-Purse, 

Treasurer of the Harem, 

Chief Lady of the Harem, 

Chief of the Eunuchs, 


Governor of a Province, 

A Governor, 


Grand Admiral, 



Beg, or Bey, 

Ikamet iltchisi, 
Bash vekil, 
Veziri aezim, 
Beis efendi, 

Kiahia beg, 

Tchavush bashi, 
Kazi ulqsker, 
Kapudgi bashi, 
Khazineh darbashi, 
Khazineh dar iistah, 
Kiahia kadin, 
Kizlar agha, 
Menzil bashi, 
Begler begi, 

Kapudan Pasha, 
Kapudan beg, 

] r 




Jib Jy*, 


( 132 ) 

The pawns, 
The king, 
The queen, 
The elephant, 
The rook, 
A knight, 




The Clergy, 








Patrona beg, 
Behala beg, 



The pieces,Shatrendg tashleri^lZ&if Sa& 

_ , \ Shatrandg f „ . , 

Chessboard, jjjj^^ J ^^ £>i 

Draughts, Damah oiuni, ^4j' <ult> 

S I O N S. 

Draughts-man, Tavla tashi, 
Cards, Kiaghidler, 

Backgammon, Tavla oiuni, 
Gambling-house, Oiun evi, 
Dice, Zar, 

Throw of the dice, Zar atmahsi, 
Gamester, Kitnar baz, 

Dgerid play, Dgerid oiun, 
A dance, Khorah, 

A dancer, Tchengi, 

A rope-dancer, Dganbat, 




An animal, 



The buffalo, 

Su sighiri, 

^/oc yC 

The lion, 






Yeban donuzi 

wsf^ J*. 













Horse, ' 







KehUan at, 

uj] Jh^Z 










A stumbling horse, Surtchek at, i 

ijTviU ;r . 




A sorrel-coloured horse, Al at, 





An unbroken horse, Kureh at, 

\sJ\ *j£ 




A jolting horse, 

Tchialik at, 

m>~ jflf- 




The lynx, 






A she-goat, 






A he-goat, 



( 133 ) 

The Fox, 



The Roebuck 














(__j| iS -i<*i 














Adah tawshani 

, ji-Sjis *y 











A bird, 



A capon, 



The Eagle, 

Karah kush, 






Huma kushi, 

i^*y ■■'•» 


Hind taoughi 

■ jCjlls SSi> 










Wren, Bukludgeh bulbul, 

(JjJj &&-Afj> 


Kuku kushi, 

sf>$ )':' 


Yelveh kushi, 


Yellow-hammer, Pari kush, 

jjiy ^Sjle 


Deveh kushi, 

^y s j4 > 


Toighar kushi, 



Ak baba 

" Wjfl 





Hakik kushi, 

\j»f J***" 











Yeban iirdeki, 

J*j) JH 







Black stork, 

Karah leklek, 









Aghadg kakan, ii pS _li' 


Indgir delen, 






Kitan kushi, 






Karah taouk, 

" Ji^ */ 








Saka kushi, 

, <*"^ u**« 


Ukiek, iiiiek, 





The Phoenix, 

Anka kushi, 

-iyi liuc 






















( 134 ) 

The swallow, Kirlanghitch, 


The goose, 


Swan, Kughu, 




Pelican, Bakham, 



Ev giugierdgi 

Drake, Ourdek, 

J^9 z^ 

\ Yeban | 

Thrush, Ardidg kushi, 

A wild-pigeon, 

(giugierdgini, ' 


A fish, 



The sturgeon, 

Mersin balighi, 



Eadirghah balighi, 

^u itjji 


Kalkan balighi, 

ij"k d& 


Yonos balighi, 



Kia balighi, 



Morinah balighi, 



Tekir balighi, 



Kiopek balighi, 



Sardela balighi, 

^Jh aJi^L 


At balighi, 

^b ujT 


Aiu balighi, 



Dtdgir balighi, 



Turna balighi, 

uS^ ^jj° 


Deniz ilan balighi, 



Kedi balighi, 

" jk ^ 





Sipia balighi, 

^J&j U«-. 


Saxan balighi, 



Dil balighi, 

,/fc <J* 


Ban balighi, 



Ala balik, 

" Jib » 










( 135 ) 




A reptile 

, Budgek, 


A caterpillar 

, Bok budgegi, 

vA* J* 

A serpent, Han, 



Karah kurbaghah, ik> . J jsj' 


Saghir ilan, 



Boinuzlu budgek, <JLX*-*i Jj*>y> 








Karah ilan, 

Jk V 


, Tchikergeh, 














Salamander, Semender, 






Engirek Hani, 






Semuklu budgek, CJ^-jj J^jv*" 


Suri sinek, 



, Akreb, 



At sinegi, 

^jwL «jT 











Yeban arisi, 

«_s"H/' ah. 





Kodoz budgegi, j£».»j • Aj j' 





Yeldiz kourdi 

> <-? d jfj>^. 


Su semuri, 



Ipek kourdi, 

J^y M 


;, Timsah, 






A tree, 


A shrub, 



Kaisi aghadgi, 




Badam aghadgi, 



Kodgiah yemish aghadgi, -a-lil (Ar> **■*» 


Kiras aghadgi, 




Kestaneh aghadgi, 




Aiva aghadgi, 


xl j^l 


Uves aghadgi, 




Khorma aghadgi, 

( _ 5 ^lilU^- 


Bugurtlen aghadgi, 

H^j J*Jh 


Sakiz ag 



( 136 ) 

















A cypress, 

An oak, 


A laurel, 








A cedar, 





Morur aghadgi, 
Mersin aghadgi, 
Indgir aghadgi, 
Enar aghadgi, 
Limon aghadgi 
Turundg aghadgi, 
Mushmtdah aghadgi, 
Funduk aghadgi, 
Dguz aghadgi, 
Zitun aghadgi, 
Sheftalu aghadgi, 
Erik aghadgi, 
Emroud aghadgi. 
Alma aghadgi, 
Sham aghadgi, 
Tcham aghadgi, 
Serv aghadgi, 
Misheh aghadgi, 


Oghlamur aghadgi, 

Defneh aghadgi, 

Aghadg kaouni aghadgi, 

Vishneh aghadgi, 

Ak diken, 

Sham fistiki aghadgi, 

Mian kuki, 

Kizel aghadg, 

Rain aghadgi, 

Serv azad, 

Grutgen aghadgi, 

Kizeldgek aghadgi, 

Ilghun aghadgi, 


J if" 

( 137 ) 


Gul aghadgi, 



Satch aghadgi, 



Bohur aghadgi, 



Ukseh aghadgi, 

^s-lil &j»i J 


Termentin aghadgi, 

JfW «/***•> 








Dish budak aghadgi, 

l^J J**}! <jki> 


Ak gulgen aghadgi, 

" &* J*j J 





Mantar aghadgi, 

ur ai, / i< 


Karah aghadg, 

" -^titj 


Kavak aghadgi, 

+* j-y 


Tchinar agliadgi, 






Sugut aghadgi, 

jjj^lcl iJ^Jyu 


Adgi badam aghadgi, 

Jim r !^b ^j 


Tchimshir aghadgi, 

" ,/rtoJ/BA-f 


Dartchin aghadgi, 

J*& «*?■;«» 


Kibereh agliadgi, 

^^ *> 


Gunluk aghadgi, 

j^tfel CJJJ/ 

Sloe- tree, 

Yeban erik, 






Yeban asmah, 

*^»' «/« 





Mirsim aghadgi, 

^lil j^U,^. 

Fruit, Yemish, 

Apricot, Kaisi, 

Almond, Badam, 

Strawberry, Kodgieh yemish, ii^vi <*?-y 
Cherry, Kires, \j^J 

Black cherry, Vishneh, &x£j 

( 138 ) 


























Bugurtlen yemish 




d sr «\ 







Pomegranate, Enar, 



Aghatch kavuni, 

Jfi ^ 





Sham fistiki, 

JuuJ ^Li 


























A Herb, 







































Rush konmqzy 

j*9 ift 







French beans, 









( 139 ) 






















Little centaury, 

Great centaury, 


Black hellebore, 

White hellebore, 






Birthwort (round), 


Merdgian gush, 



Duragh oti, 

Koien oti, 

Lisani suri, 

Yeban lisani suri, 






Adgi marol, 


Arnaud darusi, 



Zufa 6ti, 

Tul evret oti, 


Kantaverion saghir, 

Kantaverion kebir, 


Kharbak siah, 

Kharbak sefid, 

Oghul oti, 



Kirlanghitch oti, 


Ziravendi mudever, 

yfc] \j& 

Sfjy u U 

(_5,y ^U Jq 





A* \! 


( 140 ) 

Birthwort (long), 

Ziravendi tavil, 

&J° **&) 


Misk 8ti, 

J'^l U^LmmIi 





Kedi Sti, 

JJ <-?** 


Setniz kabak, 






Baldiri karah, 



Kopek dili, 



Karah tchurek oti, 

J> ] **W V 








Arslan pantchahsi, 

^^k *?**) 








Altun oti, 



Biberieh oti, 

J) ] W 


Frenk salatah, 

ikl^ \JJjJ 











Nan eh, 




v*l<!blj (jUo 





Sinirlu 6t, 



Ebeh gumedgi, 






Dikenlu 6t, 

CL>y yj£>.<S 


Girit oti, 

Jl ] ^>J 


Pireh oti, 

J) U jH 


Yeban merveri, 

>rSj)S* J*i 

( 141 ) 






ow, Kibriti, 





Deep red, 

Ashi boyasi, 

i_S*"ktf uS^' 




Bright red, 

Badeh rengi 

" Jbj "Wi< 















Sud mavisi, 

Fawn- \ Kizil tchubuk \ 
colour, L rengi, J 












Giuk al, 



Deveh tuyi, 

<J? V 


Atesh rengi, 













. JY* 





























Bastik tashi, 






Sitehan 6ti, 

Ji ] vfa" 











The Earth, 










Bair depeh, 

H* j& 








Nim dgezirah, 













Dagh bumi, 











( 142 ) 

Water, Su, 

The sea, Dehiz, 

The ocean, Bahr i mohit, 
The Mediterranean,^^ de/'iir, 

Black Sea, Karah dehiz, 

Red Sea, Suis deniz, 

Caspian Sea, Bahr hazez, 

The Adriatic, \ , m f ;\ ,_* jl£»J tiL.Jo 


\boghazi, f S«W 

The Bosphorus, Z)e«w boghazi, ,_y :lc»j ji J 

Lake, Gfw/, 

River, Tchai, 

Brook, Irmadgik, 

Stream, Irmak, t< 1 

Torrent, <S7/, Jju, 
Spring-water, Tcheshmeh suyi, Jy*> <*sA»- 

Well-water, 5mim swy/, j„u -aj> 

Rain-water, Yaghmur suyi, ^,y« ;>*?• 



A man-of-war, Dgeng gemisi 

, i ^ r x$>\L&*- 

Keel, Sentina, 





Deck, Bankah, 


Flag- ship, 



Prow, Geminun oni, 


Merchant-ship, Bazirgan genii, ** id&jk 

Oar, Gurek, 





Cable, Demir aleti, 





Rope, Geminun aleti, 





Anchor, Geminun demiri, , 

.S^ii i-i^Uv^ 




Mariner's compass, Busolah, 


Skiff, , 



Chart, Kharti, 





Flag, Bairak, 





Shipwreck, Dalghahlik, 





Ebb and flow, ikfe^ « d^ar^, 

iAj ^ 

Main- sail, 

Maistra yelkeni, JJli KlwJ U 

Wave, Dalghah, 


Mizen, Tirinketeh yelkeni, JXb iOJUS 

Port, Liman, 





Fleet, Donanmah, 


An army, 



Rear- guard, Leshker ard 

!*, (j^lyCU 


Askier alai, 

k j'h) yc>*xc 

Line, tSVl/j 

I -- 




Soldier, Tcheri, 





Garrison troops, Oturak, 



Leshker oni, 

JJ^ [ 

Disbanded troops, Kurudgi, 


( 143 ) 



















Soldier of the waggon- train, Arabdgi, ^jsijC- 


Keman yai, 

uS 1 -?. J^ 








Atlu sipah, 

sLuu Jbl 



A , A 



























* * 






























i ijji, 








Alai topi, 

^ '^" 














Savash yeri, 

<4& lA 1 * 









Tufenk giurehsi, -^x^CLaj 







A city, 



Custom-house, Gumruk, 














Cross- way, Dortyol aghizi, ^jjc) Ju ^j) 1 * 



tWj .iXo 






c u 











Menzil khaneh, 

*ilo- JjjU 





Balik bazari, 



At midani, 

^Ijju uyl 


Sal khaneh, 



At bazari, 

gbj/i ^-> 1 


Bimar khaneh, 

AiU^ ^t^JO 

( 144 ) 


Household utensils, Ev alati, 















, Sirkeh kabi, 

JS iSj^ 





Tuz kabi, 



Bash yasdughi 
























Faghfuri tabak,zAs ^jJJii 











Alesh kuregi, 












Kebab shishi, 

u5 £x£ c-jW 



J 1 ^ 














Salch ayak, 

J« ^ 
































Diz pishikeri, 






Mum mikrazi, 






Seni bezi, 














• €^ 










Glazed window, Dgam, 




















( 145 ) 















Sherab khaneh, 





Court- yard, 






Store- closet, 



Hall of audience, Selamlik, 






Kitab khaneh, 














}f*- ] 













Leather cap, 

Kelleh posh, 





Under-waistcoat, Zebun, 


























Summer mantle, Kerekeh, 










^Jv V 







Lady's cloak, 




















" > 







Live coal, 

Atesh kuzi, 

Vfjj (J^l 



' j^ 








Yel mumi, 
















l >^ir^ 

Wax taper, 

Bal mumi, 

^J-o JW 




( 1*6 ) 





















Sheet of paper, Kaghid, 




O 1 ^ 











Frengi mum, 






Pish takhteh, 

*^ ? U 2 iJ 
















Bill of Exchange, Temisuk, 














Tatar bureki, 










t -r'l/ i 














Sai yaghi, 

yjk i/L* 

Boiled meat, 

Kainemish et, 

c^l tj^iji 

Fresh butter, 

Tereh yaghi, 

J*- v" 

Roast meat, 




Arpah suyi, 



Et myi, 


Force-meat balls, Bombar, 



Sighir dili, 






Sighir eti, 






Tanah eti, 






Koiun eti, 

J 5 ' ^ 





Kuzi eti, 

J ] if# 




Calf's head, 

Bozaghu bashi, 

i/b f^tf 










Sheep's feet, 

Koiun patchahsi, ^hSj^j ^yfS 
















( 147 ) 










Nutmeg, Hindostan dgeviii tl _sjjs. ^Im&Sa 
Capers, Kibereh, 1>J& 

Breakfast, Kahvah alti. 

Dinner, Kushlik yedgigi, 

Akhsluim ) 
mandgiahsi, ( 

Collation, Kolazion, 

JP ] *jV 



A precious- 

stone, Kimetlu tosh, 





















Baba kuri, 

<-?)? ^i 


Yakut, laal, 

JjJ euyta 

















Kiem, fena, 

li» f£ 



























tf 8 





















oQd 1 





















w ... v 






sT 1 













( 148 ) 


















i j**Am*^- 












































To love, 



To understand, Anlamak, 


To look, 



To know, 



To sharpen, 



To find, 



To open, 


J^ 1 

To oppress, 



To shut, 



To be ill, 

Khastahlenmek,\JJ^M <Lu*i- 

To lose, 



To resemble, 



To gain, 



To affirm, 



To come, 



To deny, 

Inkiar itmek, 


To dig, 



To say, 



To swim, 



To speak, 



To fly, 



To be silent, 

Sus Slmak, 

Jfjjl ^J-JMi 

To ride, 



To commence 



To run, 


J** 1 ? 

To mark, Nishanlik itmek, CJl»ajI ^UtU 

To walk, 



To dress, 



To admire, Teadgiub itmek, CJ^jj) L^s* 1 

To do, 



To rise, 



To touch, 



To lie down, 



To see, 



To turn, 



To feel, 


j^j j 

To believe, 



To hear, 



To think, 



To agitate, 



( 149 ) 

To nourish, Beslemek, ^XJmj 

To kiss, Opmek, { ~^.J 

To embrace, Kudgaklamak, ^jjjls-y 

To command, Biurmek, CXc,»ju 

To join, Katmak, 

To bring, Geturmek, 

To be present, Bulunmak, 

To present, Sunmak, 

To blush, Kizarmak, 

To be patient, Katlanmak, 

To count, Saimak, j^_l« 

To polish, Perdahlemek, liXJia-! i)j 



To pay, Eudehmek, 

To remain, Kalmak, 
To resuscitate, Diriltmek, 

To pray, Yalvarmak, 

To sleep, Uiumak, 

To awaken, Koparmak, 

To laugh, Gulmek, 

To cry, Yasharmak, 

To paint, Nakishlamak, 

To take, Almak, 


JJ 1 

Adavet itmek, \£XjxA cu.liXc 

To hate, 

To beat, Dogmek, 

To wound, Yarahlamak, 

To destroy, Bozmak, 

To build, Yapmak, 

To place, Komak, 3*9 

To make, Yaratmak, v5*^ji 

To burn, Yakmak, z^su 

To light, Nurlandurmak, jf^oJJ^i 

To inflame, ^feM virmek, CLJu^j ijfiS 

To remember, Khatirlamak, zjjbli- 

To forget, Unutmak, J™^' 

To learn, Ogrenmek, <^X^^\ 

To read, Okumak, Jr*?) 

To write, Yazmak, JKi^. 

To advance, Otehlenmek, j^ij^ 

To retire, Saulmak, J^j'"* 

To eat, FmeA, CJ^. 

To drink, Itchmek, <^Xr^- ] 

To dance, Sitchramak, j^^ar"* 

To sing, irlamak, Jr*^i' 

To rain, Yaghmak, J^V. 

To hail, ZWw yaghmak, J^Ij ^jt> 

To snow, Karlamak, yj^ft 

To thunder, Gurlemek, ^*>jj> 

To lighten, Shimsheklemek, <JLX)SJU^& 

To hope, TJmak, Jf-ejl 

To persuade, Inandurmak, j^iioli! 

To grieve^ Osanmak, J^lojl 

To pacify, Barishdurmak, j^J^l) 

To prepare, Hazirlamak, jfj^ela- 




To approach, Yaklashmak, 

To wish, Arzulamak, 

To appear, ZaAw* olmak, j^jjlyblfe 

To go, Varmak, JfrV^j 

To depart, Getchmek, <— A»=r 

To be absent, I?aid olmak, JfJ?' lijM i 

To diminish, Azaltmak, l5»^!j' 

To buy, Satun almak, sjl ^jjLo 

To sell, Satmak, Jf^ 1 -* 

To exchange, Degish itmek, t^J^Jul i>iS J 

To call, Tchaghirmak, 

( 150 ) 

wer, Dgevab virmek, CJ 

-<J • l_JU»- 

To fight, 

Dgenklemek, liAvlXi*. 

tiply, Tchoghaltmak, 


To shoot, 

Tufenk atmak, zj) i^JuaJ 

lungry, Adg olmak, 


To cut, 

Kesmek, \£X*mi 












Yehi dunia, 


A country, 



A kingdom, 



A nation, 




Osmanli vilaieti, 

j>J) J*± 

An Ottoman, 




Ingliz vilaieti, 


An Englishman, 




Frantcheh vilaieti, 

J&s vV 


Batch eulkehsi, 



Nemtcheh vilaieti, 




* ^1**' 

A Spaniard, 




Portugal vilaieti, 

sW> J4* 


Filemenk vilaieti, 

^ ^Wi 


Leh vilaieti, 



Tcheh vilaieti, 



Madgiar vilaieti, 





An Italian, 




Isvetch vilaieti, 

Jhh «H 


Danehmarkah memleketi, ,£&*«> is.Laii]i} 


Rus memleketi, 

{ J £l ^'\J^}j 


Dgeneviz vilaieti, 


( 151 ) 


Venedik memleketi, 

JP**&** 3 





Bulgar memleketi, 


The Crimea, 




Khervat memleketi, 



Dobrah venedik, 

^JoJoj X^.i) 




The Morea, 




Serb vilaieti, 

^Jih *-r>S° 


Erdel vilaieti, 

~J>h d*J 

The Ukraine, 

Kazak vilaieti, 

Jhh J>~ 













Arabia Felix, 



Arabia Deserta, 

Arabistan tchuli, 


Arabia Petrsa, 



An Arab, 






An Armenian, 

















An Albanian, 













Irak arab, 

»*$• j'!/ 


Bilad al berber, 


( 152 ) 




An Indian, 




Sham vilaieti, 

J& ffc 











FUibeh vilaieti, 

Ju5lj sAi 






u' 1 ^ 




















Medilli adahsi, 

^«&s\ Jj'lVc 


Nakshah adahsi, 

^^-dsl <t£J>'l; 


Barreh adahsi, 

^1 *jM 





Boztcheh adahsi, 

^jW t^-jyi 





Shirah adahsi, 

mi&jo] i *K*» 


Sakiz adahsi, 

j*j<sis1 jSLu 


Maltah adahsi, 

v«<d:l <)JaiU 























Kizil alma, 


( 153 ) 



































Eghri boz, 









Kazi kuyi, 

s^s^ 6 


Sham sherif, 

i_IU Jli >UJ 

A Damascene, 










Kudsi sherif, 

i_*J Ju |»i) 


Mekehi mukeremeh, 

<Le-Co &*~o 


Medinehi munevereh, 

J^yu 'Jiu iiln 






















Eski Stamboul, 

EsH istambol, 

(JjJJuUil gCnl 





( 154 ) 
















The Alps, 




Emaus daghi, 

^cIIb ^.jLI 


Libnan daghi, 



Dgebeli tabur, 



Keshish daghi, 



Agheri daghi, 

Jtic ^f\ 

The Balkan, 

Balkan daghleri, 


The Dardanelles, 

Boghaz hisar, 


The Borysthenes, 

Euzi suyi, 

^y ^ji ] 

The Danube, 



The Euphrates, 



The Jordan, 



The Nile, 





Good morning, Sir ! Sabahinuz kheir 6la Efendim. wOiil Ijj ^ j^^> 

You are welcome. f 1 *** ****** *«Uamm,\ flOA jmW^ &itf t j%*. 

( efendim, or £«/« #e/af«w. j i-^ijJi lLo 

How are you ? JBffow* fe*tf ^ ^ 

How are you, Sir? N>asi siz svltanum. JILL,";* J*1 rf 

Ver y weU - &«,**»*. ^ y , 

How do you do ? jfe^. , Acn>? ^ ? „. Ml dw A J*U jfc^ft 1 " 

Well, thank God ! How are you ? Sfcrtwr, ya siz nidgeh siz. jj, *J jjQtt 
I am glad to see you in good [Sizi saghselimgurdukmeden \ ^d 4jiL. Su"*i* 

health ! ( smrcwraw. j 7,V7I lU^T 

I am,thankGod! in perfect health, ^ff«fc A ^«**r M if. jj) JS^^f^l 

Wel1 met ! **** bidduk sultanum. J±L> j jj y ^ 

Good - da y ! #« **fr6i« *A«r #«. ty ^ JEjjj ~ 

Good-bye, Sir ! ) (lit. May your end ^Akibetunuz kheir 6la sul- ) 

Your servant, Sir; J be fortunate l) ) tanum. ' J f$^ tyj^ j&jjfa 

Your servant! (lit. I kiss your) 

hand I) r Sendehnuz el ilper. ^ ) J| J's j^j 

What is the news ? iV ^ MaSer. \± a 

Is there no news ? £fr MaSerm j*j»k r y _ yj^. 

What say the Gazettes ? KiaghiMer neh dirler. Jj^ * j^ 

I have heard nothing. Hitch Mr shei ishitmedum. A^l *JtJ &> 

I thank you. (lit. May your life ) " 

lank you. (#fc May your life ) " ' S 

be long !) f Umrinuz tchiok 6lah. ^ J^f-p 

m much obliged. (/#. May ) 

God be pleased l) \ Allah ra & 6lah ' <djl ^j, *fil 

( 156 ) 

I commend you to God. Allah ismarladuk. CJjJ^^I <)di) 

God be with you ! Allah bilindgeh olsun. tjr^J < t ^ - H <*Iil 
I wish you good health, and a \Varih saghlik ileh, Allah yol\ J >j lm £>) ilclet^J .1. 

prosperous voyage. ) atchiklighi vireh. ( u, j«JjL».| 

Good evening ! Akhshamnuz, kheir ilia. JU jki- J^lSLi.) 

I wish you good night ! Gidgehhuz kheir olah. tS . I jki- £&^i? 

How have you passed the night? Bu gidgeh riasil idihuz. S&i) J*^! <tj As^y 

Very bad. Pekfena idum. .jol Ui i«iL 

I did not sleep. Ouiumadam. ,,X«»j,l 

How is it that you are in bed at j Ya daha bu saatehdek ) \ZJdt&£.[>» y ^-0 U 

this hour? ) dushekdeh mi-siz. J y»j*c aJJwi.J 

Make haste, and rise. TVs AaM;. rill . .? 

. *-£ >^ 
I went to bed late last night. Dun gidgeh gitch yatdum. * JoL> £ fesr** M J 

[• " 5. • " A WJ 

I have heard that your brother J Kardashuh khastah dur diul *>J .& &i«*i- (.^JLiliJj 

was ill. ) ishitdum. { .».xl£,| 

How is he now? N'asl dur shimdi. ^•K& ,* J-sl-ti 

Thank God ! he is better. Shukur Allahah eiudgeh dur. jt i As-»j| ^Ul Xi 

I hope he will soon recover. Allah saghlighi virsun. ijr".r?5 J^tLo <xill 

Give my compliments to him. Benden selam 'ileh. al>| A^, jj^, 

\ r ** * 

It is to you that this discourse I ■ ' 

. } Bu lakirdi sana dur. It > LC*i . c i> J'S j 

is addressed. J • J S? " ^ 

He has gone without saying adieu. Beni selamlamadan gitdi. ,_$ Jo£ ^ JvUX* Jb 

What do you wish? What seek you? JVeA istersih, neh ararsin. .f")) <*»> r^^I <t> 

I want your counsel. Senun iiiudun baha lazimdur. jJkjJ! l£> CJ.J^.I lLAjui 

Your good health, Sir ! Eshekineh agham. A&\ /Q n,r 
Sir, I thank you. (lit. May it be J . ^ 

to your health!) j^^n. ^^ 

My master sends his compli- j » 

(Aghamih sizeh selamivar. ,|, _JL *;** viJULcl 

ments to you. I ... y j \j> j~ 

Give my best respects to your j Aghanch benden tchok selam ) , , , r~ . 

master. I i/eA. j " f ^-^ u ' 

Holla, fellow! I am hoarse with ( Bireh Sghlan tchagireh tchagi-)tjt[s>- Xjcb- ^Jlcjl ij> 

calling you. J reh sesim boghuldi. j ^ JJ>c«J *«*<« 

( 157 ) 

What do you wish, Sir? Lebik sultanum. *iUaL« CJ-w) 

Go, and ask AH Tchelebi to ( War Ali Tchelebiyeh burayeh | &})jji <0 ^d*- ic L 

come here. | gelsun di. \ ^ti ,jyu]S 

Most willingly, Sir. 5awA iistineh sultanum. JUaL*. <XJiL^) ^ib 

Very well, Sir. Pek Uu sultanum. *jtlal» J\ Cb 

It is a lonar time since I have !_,,.,, . . ? 

\ Tchwkdan sent gurmedum. (• Jc *;r i_s^ tO^y^ 

Where have you been all this time ? Bukadar zeman nerehyehgetdun. CJ&iS &Xji ^Lcj .lily 
Why have you not been to see me ? Neh sebebden bana gelmedun. ^Js^i Uo (jJou.* ii 

I thought you had forgotten me. Sen beni iinutduh sandum. * JoUs l£j Jojj! Jb a* 

Pardon me, Sir. Meazour buiurun sultanum. *}UaL« viJ .»ju ..j** 

If I have not come to see you &?,(E'ierist,erdeimkadarhazretleri-\^^^jJi^j^^sLJ\i] 

often as I could wish, it is< nizi selamlamaghah gelmedum\ tagl *Jv^ JLi^LcSL 

not my fault. v *? e ^ kabahat benum de'iul. ) Ji J Ju ei~»-lw 

T ., , ( Sizehgelmiehisterdum adgiak\.'isA *i>Ju,l <tO£ 8^ 

I wished to come to see you, I ■• " I .. ' , , , 

_, . , , < ishim tchiok oldughindeny^Sjs.^.} i> ^£j| 

but my affairs prevented me. I I w J J ^J* X ". 

\ gelehmedum. ) *&*,£)$ 

My will was good. Muradum var idi. US' 30 .' j'i i* li lr c 

You are come in good time, Sir. Tchelebum mehelindeh geldun. l£J J>il sjjd-r* *jd»- 

Where are you going ? Nerehieh gidersiz. y*.&j& texS 

T .... <•• j . \Yakindehbirdostunziaretineh)iXili;CJ^M.d j XJJoiu 

I must visit a friend near by. ^ • \ J*i 3 r. .■ ■■ 

y gitsem gerek. j lil^s *«i$ 


Have you any thing ready for ( Kahvehaltiyeh hazir Mr sh'iifi)j-> _^l»- &->-X\hJi 

breakfast? ) yokmi. \ rjAi £-)jJ*i, 

What do you wish, Sir ? Neh istersiz sultanum. JllaJuw l*,jLJ <o 

Have you any lamb ? Kuzi eti yokmi. _j'»j o] t _y;«i> 

Yes, Sir. Evet sultanum. JUaLi j«j. 1 

Very well: get some wine, and \ Pek eiu war sherabtchek ve ) t^JiiM_>!^£. ,!. jj| CJL> 

put it to cool. | sootmagheh ko. j J iJ^yc , 

One of my friends breakfasts \Dostlarimdanbirisi gelub benum) ««W^?j| *v"9 
with me. } jtfeA kahvahalti idehdgik. \ '^? ■** " . I* - ^ 

( 158 ) 

Every thing is ready. Her she'i hazir itdirdum. f&j 1 ^**} j^=>- i l J^ /» 

Make haste : lay the table. Tiz sofrayi kuruh. ^ji* .^.V 1 *" ji* 
Bring the plates, the knives and j Tepsileri bitchakleri tchatallari) ^jAJsis! ,_g A a.«».xj 

forks, and the spoons. ) kashikleri getur. j ,o& ,_$ JjliJi i_g IXxs- 

Make no ceremonies, Sir. Teklifsiz Cluh sultanum. *Slialwj v^J^S.1 i»»JL0jo 

Try if the wine is good. Bakalum slwrab eiu midur. r^b"$ S- , |r*' i»^* J 

What wine is this? N'asil slier ab dur bu. y> jA l_j'.£ (J^el ii 

Do you call it good ? Neh dirsin eiu midur. .&y* »jI CJL* o J *j 

It is excellent ! Pe£ eiu dur. . j »j! jjJL> 

- ' ~" » 

Shall I send you a piece of tongue ? Sighir dilini dilersehiz getureliim. I ■'''" S?y f?~ 

- I ^vys 

Carry this piece for the Gentleman j Getur tchelebi andan birlokmah ) S^&jt ^Sj] ^*1»- ,<$ 

to taste. ) yisun. i giyuftj 

You do not appear to like this ) - 

, > -Bm am be'ienmedehiz zahir. ytlB jSa^Jo IjJ ^ 

You do not eat any thing ! Sir she'i yimiur sen ^.^Xi * ^i _> 

Thank you, Sir ! I have eaten of J _ .. 

„. . , > Kheir sultanum yidum. „joo *JlkJu« jki- 

it sufficiently. I r — r - r- 

Excuse me, Sir ! every thing is ( Khe'ir efendim her she'i ziadeh-) iiibj '^^Ja ..Jail Jks- 
very much to my taste. ) sileh beiendum. i «JoUo <d*li 

Let us sit down, Gentlemen, and lOturalum aghaler bir lokmah) *Jm K&j* «JU»I J'-iJ.I 
partake of a slight collation, f she'i iyeldum. i J<Uj 

Bring the wine. Sherabni getur. ,J& Jul^i 

Go, and tell the gardener to bring J /Far bostandgiyeh so'ileh bizeh } <slj> »«j <0 -s^LL,^ .| . 
us some fruit. ^ 6m- a« yemish getursun. j ^y^jyA ,4^. jl J *# 

Have you still some wine left? Sherabih daha var mi. >«*!;'? t*-^ *-^>'i^ 

,,,,., , \Evet sultanum iki shisheh) hJ^jJL Jol JUaL* <jl>,I 

Yes, Sir, here are two bottles. < - ' > " <t? " i, } 

[ ffaAa »ar. J .!, ^i-J 

See what you have to give us j Bakalum akhsham mandgia- ) <KA«*<fc^l« *l£*i-] Ja> 

for supper ! ^ sinah bizeh neh virirsin. i i^jA} ** % }i 

What do you wish to have, Gen- I 

, 9 > Neh istersizbuiurun aghaler. JLcl CJ.jU jmJxm] &j 

Give us some fricasseed fowls, ( Bizeh bir taouk kavourmahsi) j*<U,»U> Jj(t j sy 
and a salad. ) salata ileh getur. ( " ,y£ *L>I t&be 

( 159 ) 

Is there nothing else you would | Ghe'iri daha bir shei buiur- | | _ ? -i ^ uS*" 4 * *£j& 

like? ) mazmisiz. J j^i^sVjtt 

No, that is sufficient. EJieir 61 yetisher. j&JJ, Jjl j^>- 

Gentlemen, the supper is ready. Aghaler sofrah kurulmish dur. jii ^jZJjj* ijL» Jt£\ 
Taste this fricassee: it is very \Shu kavourmahdan iyih pek (CJj CJm n)&*"jyi y» 

good. J eiu dur. \ fi j>\ 

I have no appetite. Ishteham yokdur. j^^.. ($*"' 

Let us take a parting-glass. Gitmetden evvel 'itcheMum. |*^*^ Vy ^j^ir 


They say that you are well versed ( Turktchehyi kiamil bilursin ) ^^^Iaj J^cK ^_ks>ji 

in the Turkish Language. ) dirler. J }/..^ 

I wish it were so. Allah vireh iiileh olaidi. iJ^J *^j' , jti ^ 

I assure you I have been told so. Inan keh baha iiileh didiler. ^?.<^A *ijjl & « ^LoJ 
Perhaps I have spoken a few (Belki ezberden iigrendighim\jt_ *L6Jj>J\ (jO^jl ( _ S ^J 

words, which I got by heart. ) bir katch suzi bilmish 61am. j Jj) ^j^Jj i_S jiy w« 
How fortunate you are, to speak ( Neh mutlea sana keh bukadar^ J J A*?. <o l£*u JlU, <ti 

so many languages ! ) dil bilursen. i iit"J^ 

It is very necessary to know them. Anlari bilmek pek lazim dur. .0 tji lib ^-K^ i_5^' 
On that account I have asked \Anunitchiunridgiaideruzkeh[££jj&)\ L»y (j^.' i«iJjl 

you to teach me Turkish. ) bizeh turktclieh ogredehsen. ( .« »«>/_jl <*^*/ XjJ 
Do you not understand what I say ? Soilduklerumi anlamazmisen. ^wXajJpl _«^li jJjy*, 
I understand, but I cannot speak. Ahlarum andgiak soiliehmem. +*,xAiyu t JrT > \ fj& 

By degrees, you will find it more easy. Gideh gideh kolai ogrenursen. ^yj^} ^y "ij> iXif t&£ 
To speak Turkish well, you must | Turktcheh eiu soilemek itchiun\ toj=^.! d»Ly* ^jl < t ^V 

speak it very frequently. J «'£ sik soilemek gerek. j C )ji <*LkJjy» J< .ytf 

To speak frequently, we must J Sik sik soilemek itchiun bir ar)^*^! lLX»Wm £*a i^s 
know something of the language. ) bilmek gerek. ( <jjj> viAJo j Lj 

Whether well or not, always speak. Eiufena daima soileh. ^}.y» W J U* yj 

I fear making mistakes in speaking. Yahlish soilemegeh korkarum. *fff ! &^..y M ij~^>. 
Do not fear: the Turkish Lan- ^Korkmah turktcheh soilemek^ijX^y* i^Ji <V»,^-» 

guage is not so difficult. ) olkadar gutch de'iul. i J^J —£ jAsAJi 

( 160 ) 

If I speak wrongly, they laugh ( Yahlish soilersem beni mas- ) ^JLj *mi Jjum> u^i. 
at me. ) kharah iderler. J " Sjd^ i J s M -' c 

~ ,. ,. ,. ,. f Bttmezmisen keh yahlish soile-\ . Jilio <K_J" , fW *x«iJa 

Do you not know, that in speaking I ' ■ * I i i" ^ \" 

,,, , „ „< mindgeh eiu soilemek ogren- >CJJb»« *>' <Kk^V.»«, 

badly you learn to speak well? | - 'I " 7 -^ ' , >, 

You say truly. Gertcheksen. ^JL^-S 


Is not this Post-day ? Bugiun posta giuni de'iul mi, ^s^^ l^T ^"H u^T^ 

Why ? Nitchiun. ^js? 

Because I have a Letter to write. Bir mektub yazadgikim. *£»-l jb t—ijiCo j 

Whom do you write to ? Kimeh yazadgeksen. j*So-\^i X^yf 

To my Brother. Kardashimeh. JLjAiiji 

Give me a sheet of paper, a pen, J Kiaghid'ileh kelem ve murekkeb^f^^Jj-* j Ji' <0ol ^o 

and some ink. ) vir baha. \ • j*~) 

Step into my closet: you williOdayeh giruh istedukleruhuzi\^js^&Jw\^j& tejAo^ 

there find all that you require. J bulursiz. i '/"}$?• 

There is no pen. Kalem yoktur. j^ii f& 

It is in the inkstand. Divituh 'itchindeh vardur. /l/l? SAW.! dJiiJji) 

They are good for nothing. Eiu deiuller. * ^iii t> J\ 

Here are some others for you. Ishteh saha ghe'iri kalem. *is t_f/jc u»" <&*'l 

They are not cut. Kesilmehmish dur. j&A~v&Jm£ 

Where is your penknife ? Kalemtrashuh kani. Jls LLLil^IJi 

Do you know how to make a pen ? Kalem kesmegeh bilurmisen. ^jjk^Jb t£^J JS 

I cut them after my own fashion. Baha goreh keserum. *jȣ Sjji 10 

This is not a bad pen. Bu kalem kiem de'iul. <Ji<) *> Ji y* 

While I finish this Letter, cut the ( Ben shu mektubi biturindgeh\s.s? J jki ^j^ y~ «rf 

others for me. ) sen 61 birleri kes. \ !~S t_sJjJ 1J5' ^ 

What was shall I seal it with? N'asil bal mumi koyaim. *Wji' ^y* Jb (J**' & 

What you please. Kanghisinden istersen. ^»JLi) ^AL^oiw 

Have you signed it? Aduhi yazduh mi. ^o '-^jb ^jf^' 

I think so ; but I have omitted ( Yazdum sanurum andgiak\ ^H.}3 ^sA tjLa ^<iji 

the date. ) tarikhini yazmadum. j f**>)k 

( 161 ) 

What is the day of the month? Aiuh katchindgisi dur. j£ ( _ s -*sr^ *— ~.' 

This is the fifteenth day of the month. Bu giun aiuh 6n beshi dur. j<^f^i ^ *■**' ^f £ 

Where is the sand? Rig kani. ^Ji ££>.j 

In the sand-box. Bigdandeh vardur. jiijy UdilAWj 

Here is your servant. Ishteh khidmetkaruh. CJ,£u>Ai>- ilm I 

Carry my Letters to the Post. Mektubleri postayeh getur. jyi <KJ,k«^ i_S^y^*° 


Pray, Sir, come here. Have you) . . 4 . ,< 

> Gel tchelebi bir shei lazvm mi. , ^o ■»;) >«. j -u*- <Ji 

need of any thing ? I <t? P S? >- H? 

I have: but whether you have ( Lazimdur emmasizdehvarmi) , , i-i . m 

what I want, I do not know. i bilmem. \ > ' V ' ' I 

Say what you require — what ( Soilehiz neh lazim dur neh ) » . . « • V 

you seek. ) istersiz. j . 

I want a handsome good cloth. 2?jV £•««? w em tchoha isterim. *Jy»i\ **j>- ^i' j Jjy /! 
Come in, Sir: you will here findf Buiuritchrulstamboluh eh eiu) ^J\ viJJyJUwl ^^.1^ 

the best cloths in Constantinople. J tchohalari bundah bulunur. tjy^ji **^>i*Ar*'jt"ji' 
I am not ashamed of my goods. i?e» malimdan otanmam, fr^y eJ'^O'-o ^ 

Shew me the best you have. Eh eiusini tchikar, Jsu>- i^^yj ^— «^ 

Here is a good cloth for you. Ishteh saha bir eiu tchoha. &>*&. y) ) ji IC* <cL£»1 

It is good; but I do not like the ( Eiu dur andgiak rengini be-\ ,* .^. •. . 

colour. | ieninedum. ( t ' Sr' y^ J * 

Here is one of a brighter colour. Ishteh daha atchik. Jfe] ,J>-i) <^l 

I like this colour; but the cloth j Bu rengi beiendum emma\&iy*- Ul *&& L J^j y) 

is of a thin texture. ) tchohahsi yufkah dur. \ jii isjy> ~^u 

Look at this cloth, Sir: you will (Bu tchohayah bakih agha\ <^Sj*£ lil CJJu <Xjt<K5^. »j 

not find anywhere else ano- < gheiriyerdehbundaneiusini\jk*£\ ^Jow Xjy 

ther as good. ^ bulamazsin. J 


At what will you sell it per yard? Arshinin kalcheh virursen. t-f")}?.} * s * .AA' 

■ , \Arshini iitch butchuk ghru-\&£*Jc- i - »te? _«] JliJ 

At three-piastres-and-a-half. < . . _ * } 3r «** £ J SfT 7 

It is dear. Behalu dur. j^i^d 

It is not dear: a month ago I J Behalu deiul dur bir aidan J Jjl ^Jol j .0 (J&J Jl^ 

sold it for six. ) evvel sekizeh sattim. j *jJlo gjC 


( 162 ) 

Son lakirdihi soileh. 
Pahasini soildum. 
TJtch ghrosh virehim. 
Bir aktcheh eksik olmaz. 

Say the lowest. 
I have told you the price. 
I will give three piastres. 
I cannot take a farthing less. 

I have met with many merchants, 

but never saw one so dear as 

you. Come, do not spoil the 

bargain : you will repent it 

afterwards. I will not give 

more than three. 
Alas ! alas ! what a hard man you l Hai ! hai ! neh oileh pek adam- ' 



Tchiok bazar gan giordum em- \ Ul f&j$ 
masendgilanbahalighigior-\ pii^cjy) ^wl# e 
madim. Gel bazari bozmah \ ijLc *•«]}> i_?y|/j J^ 
sonrah peshiman olursen :\^&»-j\ ^J^^i^x^ 

titchden ziadeh virmem. 

siz Emrallahih. Bu giun 
ber shei satmadim beri siz- 



dan istiftah olsun. Allah \ joy*!} 

are. God's will be done ! I 

have not sold any thing to-day : 

this time I'll take your hand- 
sell. God knows, I do not 

gain a halfpenny ! I hope, if 

you come again, you will let 

me gain something by you. 
Here, cut off two yards from this. Deh shundan 'iki arshin kes. 
How many yards are there ? Katch arshini var. 

There are about twenty. Ye'irmi kadar olur. 

That will be sixty piastres : hereiBudeh altmish ghrosh olur) .J.I ijitjt ifi-^i Si>jj 

bilur keh bir aktcheh faideh 
etmadim I BuldiH bir daha 
gelalisin bir faideh guste- 

&J\ j iJ jjb &) 

is that amount. 
Change this sequin. 
It is bad. 
Here is another. 

) ishteh mableghi. 
Bu altuni degishtur. 
Altchiak dur. 
Ishteh bir ghe'irisi. 

Here, boy! take this cloth, andj Gel, oghlan oshbu tchohani aZJ Ji J.xJjs-axi.l^ScJ^ 

go with the Gentleman. ) deh tchelebi ileh beraber git. \ ^£'A .1 s A\] JkLs-sJ 

Yes, Sir. Nola sultanum. JliaLw Jy 

Who is there ? 

What do you wish, Sir ? 

Kim var. 
Lebeik sultanum. 

Quickly light the fire, and dress me. Tiz atesh yak deh beni gidur. 

JILL. cLJjuu 

j*4 ^ ^ Ji cr 1 ' y? 

( 163 ) 

Give me my clothes. 
Bring me my stockings. 
Where are my slippers ? 
Here they are, Sir. 
I want a new pelisse. 
Send for the tailor. 
He is here, Sir. 

Esbabimi baha vir. 

Tchoraplerimi getur. 

Kondurahlerimi kani? 

Ishteh sultanum. 

Bir yehi Murk isterim. 

Derzini tchaghir. 

Ishteh bundeh dur sultanum. 

I wish to have a new pelisse \ Isterem bir yehi Murk yap- 

Very well, Sir. 
What colour would you like ? 

What am I to pay you for it ? 
Two piastres, Sir. 
I must have it to-morrow. 

I cannot get it done so soon. 
Can I have it the next day ? 
Yes, Sir. 
Bring me my cap. 

| derehim. 
Pek eiu sultanum. 
Bengi neh ola. 
Yeshil olsun. 
Katch verehim. 
Iki ghrosh sultanum. 
Yarin hazir olmahli. 
Sabaheh dek yapahmem. 


O bir giun olurmi. 


Olnr sultanum. 
Shapkehmi getur. 

Which one would you like, Sir ? Kanghisi istersiz sultanum. 

The one I wore yesterday. Dun Mdekimi. 

The shoemaker has not brought J Paputchdgi paputchlermi ge 

home my shoes. ) turmadi. 

I will wear my boots. Tchizmehlermi kieh'im. 

Give me my sash. Vir baha belemi. 

The tailor has brought home your \ Efendim derzi Murkenuz ge 

pelisse, Sir. | turmish. 

Let him come in. Jtchruyeh gelsun. 

You are welcome, tailor! Have J Sefa gelduh iistah derzi espa 

you brought home my dress ? ) bimi geturduh mi. 
Yes, Sir, I have brought it. Evet sultanum geturdum. 

Try it on, and see how it fits. Kiuh bakalum olurmi. 
I hope you like it, Sir ? Insh'allah khoshnud olursU. 

A 1 ? J^-Jj* 

,- - v; . J.I 

^jUaLw i«u^LmI jutmis 

C 16 * ) 

It seems to me too short. Bana kisah gorinur. 

It is too large here. Boradeh birpartcheh buiuk dur. 

I do not think it fits well. Zahira eiu de'iul. 

Pardon me ! I think it fits very weYLKheir sultanum pek eiu dur. 

It is quite fashionable. Shimdi buileh girler. 


How far is it from Constantinople ? Bundan Istamboleh iizakmi. 

About sixty miles. 

Is the road straight ? 

Is it hilly ? 

Which is the way to the pass ? 

What mountain is that? 

How wide is the plain ? 

Is that river fordable ? 

How deep is it ? 

Is that town fortified? 

How many cannon has it ? 

Who is the Governor ? 

How many soldiers has he ? 

Will you be our guide ? 

^'y al^lU jjjjjjj 

Yol dux doghri mi. 

DagMu mi. 

Getchdeh nerehdan giderler. 

Bu neh dagh dur. 

Shu bair vasi' mi. 

Shu sudan getchenur mi. 

Derin mi. 

Bu kalaeh met'm mi. 

Katch ketqeh topi var. 

Muhafizi kim dur. 

Katch ademisi var. 

Altmish kadar saetyol olur. J.I J»j {j^Am .^> { fi^ii) 

u5-° C?'-5 J^ !T 

j* fit J*^ 

Sen bizum kulauzimez olururmisen. i! f±*~»jJJ :^j.JIJ*jj .» 
How many days' journey is it (Bundan batcheh katch giun[ . , a ... 

from here to Vienna? \ yol var. yi U ^-^r^ *$ *?*# 

Yol eiu mi. ^e *>\ Jy 

Orayeh hitch gitduh mi. 
Yd ilzerindeh getchidgek yer- 
lar neh dur. 

Daha yakin yol yokmi. ■s^*'. <^ii i! f*i .e*-^ 

Kupri nerehdeh dur. jA 3i)isJ i_s *>ȣ 

Nehdan yapilmishdur. jiiifiJJj dtj 

Are there many trees in that place? Bu tarafdeh aghatch tchiok mi. ~« ^y>- 7-^' *&*k *J 
Who has passed by this road to-day? Bundan kim getchmish bugiun. ^4v i^sP **£ u)^y> 
How far is the sea from hence ? Deniz. iizak mi bu yerdan. n)^ji £ .C* ij'lb' £^ 

Are the roads good ? 
Have you ever been there ? 
Name the places you pass 

Is there no nearer way ? 
Where is the bridge ? 
Of what is it built? 


( 165 ) 

Are there any ship9 lying there ? Gemilar var-mi. -« jlj JlxJ* 

How many? Katch dur. j<i —I* 

What flags have they ? Bairaklari neh dur. jd Jb ^^j'l^j b 

Are they ships-of-war, or mer- J Dgeng gemilar mi yokhseh ba-\ <W£-y_ -^Ju^i t£_&3- 

chantmen ? ) zirgan gemilarmi. j (_s^AS^ tt/^U^ 

Three are ships-of-war: the rest ( Uichi dgeng gemiler dur kalani)jii Ji^J, £&*- ^*-^l 

are merchantmen. ) bazar gan gemiler dur. J .& lyj> l^lb JX» 


I wish you good morning, Sir. Sabahinuz kheir 8la sultanum. JllaL*. ^jl^^Ai- j£=»Uxs 

You are welcome, Sir. Khosh geldufi tchelebim. *jJu»- \^J jJi \jZ}*- 

Is Mohammed Agha with you? Mohemmed agha bileh mi. _« «*1aj let J^=^° 

Here he comes ! Ishteh geliur. .Jp *x£i! 

Good morningr, Mohammed ( Sabahinuz kheir ola Mohem-),,, . ... 5 . 

Agha! ( med Agha. j ^^ ■* - rr ^ 

Good day, Sir ! Aekibetuhuz kheir ola sultanum. JUoLj 51^1 ^*i- j£u»b; 

Do you know any news? Bir khaberin yokmi. <^y > - ^j+*~/- 
They say war is declared against j Beazi dushmen titer ineh sefer)jL» SJjjj] ^~^ii (jo*J 

our enemies. ) oladgiaktur didUer . i JaJjJ .jJb-il.l 

They say so, but it is a false) (l«^ Jr*^ t-S'^J/U' 5 

}Dirler'tdiandgiakasliyoktur.\~ " .«• 

They talk of peace. Sulh oladgiak didiler. Ju&iji £>$j\ Xe 

Do you think we shall have peace? Sulh oladgiaghen inanduhmi. .-* ^Jjoul ^i»-Xjl JUfl 

I do not think so. Oileh sanmezem. f}^ 'Hi ' 

, „ \Gazeteh diduklari kaghitni ) J&L% ,_cJ^JoJ <rio>c 

Have you seen the Paper ? \ - > Hr - ' " 5. / 

I gorduft, mi. J ^^^j* 

No ! Kheir gormamishem. JL^.J) jX±- 

Do you think that Paper will do j Faidehsi Clurmi olmazmi zen) L e<jJ^i ^(JJ ^uXJoli 

good or harm? | 'idersen. j " "jw.JjI " Jt 

It must certainly do good. Ilbeteh faidehsi tchiok olmehli. ^Wjl Jfjfr l _ s »' * ^.^ *JuJ1 

„, . . , , . ,, . ( Mezbur gazetehnun taayin et-\ jjjo CJJaLx ,,_>;-* 

(ireat praise is due to his Majesty 1 ",.,"' IC/— . -* JJ '^ . 

.. _, „ , < mehsinden shevket efendimez V^Jju c^o«<i 1 .iJou* v jl 

the Sultan, for establishing it. I * „ ' ., , ' P* ^^ U"~~»- 

^ fcmoA; medheh laik dur. ) /)<£} **■>*■* Jf**- 

( 166 ) 

It would have been well if all the COsman padshahlarun dgium-\ f ... v a ^ % 
Ottoman Princes had been like< lessi efendimez gibi olmishyrr -j"* , rf"^y| 
Mm! [ 6lseMaridinehgiuzel6lurdi.)^^" ^ J V^' 

Who is that Gentleman I some-") a f<lliLi_« iS A~>. 1,1 

.. . x . .,, I O; tchelebi keh senuhileh la-) , , .S?^ - U J 

times see in conversation with V • \ *jo .cJol.Jol cJj'X 

I kirdi ider'idi kirn, idi. 1 "•-••> ~ *r " 

y° u? J * \ jjjj] 

He is an Englishman. Ingti? dur. j jjjjj 

He speaks Turkish very well, ( Inglizeh goreh turktcheh pek\ y\ \^X> 0^2 i A sjjiX»l 

for an Englishman. ) eiu sailer. i A> v*> 

He understands Turkish better ^Turktcheh tchiok mustdman-\ ^i^JJlJui**) ;v»- &s^J 

than many Turks. ) larden eiu bilur. i Jj .>| 

I should very much like to know J Anuh 'ileh gorushmegeh pek)^Xj iJLy&.J <)1>1 Cjijl 

him. 1 ^«« idehrim. \ ^.x Joj lis. 

I will introduce you to him. Seni anuh 'ileh bulushdururum. *, ; J-£J^ A>] lLJGI Ju. 

,„,,., , _ (Dun gidgeh akhsham man-\ A L-^-s~) <x_s^ ,.,,j 

What did you do after supper,! . . . , . , I r. $ . U J 

, . . , . \ dgiasinden sonrah neh ish-\&> z&o ,.iJJU<ter>U 

last night? I , , . " I ■> ' . 

^ ledunuz. ) j»Jd&»l 

As you left, we began to play. fa" ***#* gibi 6inamagheh)*K» d \ ^ '*&& ^ 

1 bashladuk. J rjvLib 

What game did you play ? N'asil 6iun oinaduhuz. j?JJL>J j J J^! & 

Some played Chess, some Cards, ( Kimisi shatrendg kimisi Jfefa-VVrfj""-"^ £^~ S^r 
and some Draughts? | ghid ol birleri dama 6inadiler.\ ^^ ^f f*. 

Who won? who lost? Kim aldi oiuni kim ghaib itdi. t& i/W .y*" f^ 

The first game, I won ten piastres. Sir oiundeh on ghrosh aldum. «sJl i&yl u J t Jou J y 
Shall we play a game? Biz bir oiun oinalum mi. ■- -W1. .1 , 1 . ., 

With all my heart ! Let us play. Pe£ mm sultanum oinalum. JuUu .1 JllaL, y| CJL> 

Get me the cards. See who ( Kiaghid geturuh bakalum kim\ +$i Jjb ^J.3& JiK 

deals - ( taksimider. f" ^ (•*«« 

I* is I. Ben 'idedgigim. J^Jol 

Pardon me, Sir ! it is L Kheir sultanum ben idedgigim. J^StJl 1 JILL, j^. 

Shuffle the cards well. Kiaghidleri bir eiu karishdur. A£,fi j j ^jjscti 

( 167 ) 

Cut, Sir. 

O, what bad cards I hold ! 

They are not as bad as you say. 

Take them, Sir. 

The most beautiful cards come 

to you. 
I have not one good card. 

Kes sultanum. 
Nehfena kiaghidlerim var. 
Didigin kadarfena deiul. 
Al sultanum. 


I Sizeh pek guzel kiaghid gelmish. ^J^& St^Jj^CJ^ a 

Bir tin kiaghidim yok. ^y *&£§ y I j 

(diundeh senuh bakhtuh at-\^X*&. i^JJL* bjJuJ 
J chikdur. J j'**^ 

2?i'r diun daha diunialum. <yjkJu .1 ^»-*i ^jt ^ 

No, we have had enough for to-day .Kheir bu giun yeteslier oinaduk. Jf JJbj I ^ioj ^yy y*»- 
Let us take a walk. Gel sir eh gidehlum. ^^ ^ji*" <J^ 

Most wiUingly. Pek eiu sultanum. *jQaLj yl CJo 

Well met ! Good evening to you, } Khosh bulduk akhshamihiz ) yCcl£»i-l Jj>^jt U~y*~ 

You are fortunate in playing 
Let us play another game. 


What ships are those ? 
They say they are English. 
It is the English ensign. 
How many are there ? 

It is uncertain : we think five. 

How far are they off? 

j kheir olsun sultanum. 

Neh gemiler dur bunlar. 

Ingliz dirler. 

Ingliz bairaklari var. 

Katch dur. 
\Bellu deiul nihayel besh feke- 
1 rideriz. 

Nehkadar iizak dur. 


h «j. 

/>Jj3 ] j>& 

When I first saw them, they were /Ipleda giordegum zeman ye-\ ,cV& ^Uj ^J^y IjJj! 
about twenty-one miles off; | irmi bir kadar mil iizak jyj,Jol JfW iStrej^ji 

but now the men-of-war are I 
at anchor without the castle,^ 
and the merchant-ships are 
coming into the harbour with 
English colours. 

'idiler shimdi dgenk gemiler \p<S 
kalqehden dishreh demiri /,_Sj*oi) 

brakmish ve bazargan gi- 

miler Ingliz bairak 'ileh li- 

maneh ttchru giriurler. 
How many guns does the largest carry ? Buiukisi katch top tcheker. JL&. t_>J jJi -«jiyj 
About fifty. Elli andgiak. ss^l .Jul 

How many tons are they ? Katch kantar geturur. „£$ ftsji -Jj> 

The largest of them is about a (Buiukisi ye'irmi bin kantar \\^Xxt ^*r& L /»ff}*i 
thousand tons. ) dur. J . J ikJlji 

( 168 ) 

How many men has she ? Katch adamisi var. )$ ^j*tX*ii\ ^.li' 

Near two hundred. Iki yoz andgiak. Jf^t jjl l _^>\ 

Do you know who is the captain? Beis olan kim dur bilermisin. i jmX*^j jii f*f,Ji^ LT«; 
No. Kheir. ^Ai- 

Let us take a boat. Kaigheh binelum. Jjm <X*jI* 

I will send my servant. Khedmetkiarimi yollahiem. *±!&ji ^oJ&Lo&s- 

Have you found a boat? Kaik buldunmi. ^Jdij* jfjl» 

Yes, Sir, I have got a very good | Evet sultanum bir pek eiusi)i£A-} j-j jJllaL- \JDj\ 





For how much have you agreed ? Katchiah totduh. CJdiylo <tes* 

I have agreed for three piastres. Utch ghrosheh totdum. f^j* *^)f- rcj' 

Here, boy! bring the provisions) Bir eh oghlan mandgiahyi al)J\ ^AtqA* J&j [ *j> 

with you, and follow us. i deh bilemiztcheh gel. J " J^ &&. y^xi a J 

What weather is it? 

It is very bad weather ? 

It is very fair. 

Is it cold ? 

It is rather warm. 

It appears to rain. 

It will not rain to-day. 

The wind is changed. 

It thunders. 

It hails. 

It lightens. 

Did it freeze to-night? 

No, but it is freezing now. 

There seems to be a great mist. 

There is so. 

Hava n'asil dur. 
Hava buzuk dur. 
Hava guzel dur. 
Hava souk mi dur. 
Hava isklgaktur. 
Yaghmur yaghiur gibi. 
Bu giun yaghmur yaghmaz. 
Buzgar degishildi. 
Giuk gurliur. 
Dolu yaghiur. 
Shimshek oinaiur. 
Bu gidgeh dohdi mi 
Kheir emma shimdi dohiur. 
Pus vardur gibi. 
Oileh dur. 



*> r-QAJ— 

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Extract frorrv the 

Bakhtllr Sameh, 

An OttujrourM.S. i-n, lJu Jlodleum . 

a^~**i o ^JLAs-t 


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ts^l lL&x<, As^a ^J ^^1 ^jtfjl jvl^ji *-r^=y= *j>?" *3 (ii/j* (^ s^;' Srvv 

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C) Commencement of page 214 of the Manuscript in the Bodleian. See Lithographic Plate II. The 
latter part of the Title is unknown. 

( b ) Commencement of page 215. 

( c ) Commencement of page 216 of the Manuscript, and end of the Lithographic Specimen. 

( d ) Page 217. 

( 172 ) 

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( e ) Page 218. ( f ) Page 219. (*) Page 220. ( h ) Page 221. 

( 173 ) 

ICU Jy i^ ^^ ^ ^Ur J* i_S^b X/J ^^j te.,b u-yi^ol gg)« y ^ *-,1 

^jotiCL] i^XUxii' u^ ^li ^^ ^ ^ik i^JUajUAjiI y jj?^ ;^V ^^ ^/^J 

jj ^;j^>i (***>* ^Ay cjpaa* <-^ us^* 3 s* 1 ^ ^^ J^ c ^° *";' s? 1 ^ >" uteM 
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^ ^ c5^/ sl^lJ *4*h))l V^V i^^l urv^ I? J^s- Jjl jbi) ^ Xj^ Jjl 'c-ijJol 

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^Ui" ij^r^ ttjj*'* - y: {*? i^ *Sftl ** t-^ / ^p- *>i ci ^y^ ij^ <^^" u^ i^y J^* 

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u5^ V c/^y Jji U 1 *; Jjl (*> c5^^ ^Jj 1 ^^ ( ^^.'> *^~ ^4 ur» J^^^P 
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( ! ) Page 222. ( k ) Page 223. ( l ) Page 224. ( m ) Page 225. 

( 174- ) 

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cfXU! ^JbJ vj^ T ^ j^oji <J^*- U <xJL£,l bti* ( _ s »-i> ^ ;J i> (__>^ liiSijlijii" tL&xL- 
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^jl>! 6 CJoLo ^j 1^5^ &?**• e^V us^*" - tjMJ'Jr u^" fe fci ^*4' .H* <-V 
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^^Xj^ ^Axib tL^ijj! tsstfjXijxiji lS^jH &}* Jj' .r^/" ^y ^^jfi <*^~c^>- i— >y" 

*srM ^^ ij"? *J*J^ c/^ k*& V^ 1 ^^9 c; b > if** <JQ« £»«&J Mj£ 

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^jrAll ^X^ ^df*- J_,l jifijtfj*. if&* jy> f fi >»i> b ^ JbJ J^ i^Jp ^ 

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^UJ ( j»- cl^";' vi^iil f^A'.'^vJ 6>J^' **v' t_5 J, ^i' V^ 3 (H^y <J^V. *?-^ (»^. kS>: vJ (*^ 
J« ^5^' ej4>bc *c ^bo" J^ Lr^i/JjJ Jjl ^U; Jj'^^ c5 ^ ^^ J^r° u5**" 
( _ f U'o1 tL^kxLo *j^,a> ^gi-i) jb.Ab ^giSiiu,! i-iXixU jfii- *j^ *i<Jjj1 *x$" yOi, ^ ,_5 job! 

^^jJb' l_>jjoIjJ| ajjl ^b^l (ji^b ^J^' Jjl ^ **■ (J^- Jjl (^ ^j>.)!) jdj] J^J 
L_jlis Jjl *a> ^ Ju^jj) J^ijifc^u dtiib i^XiiXA* ^.iib u5 =-i> i_5^j' ^.^lo^ 1 e rf J ^ 1 ?-' 
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( n ) Page 226. (°) Page 227. (p) Page 228. (1) Page 229. 

( 175 ) 

^Translation. * 


One of the Vizirs having approached, said: ' O King! command that this slave be put to 
death ; for all the people, indignant at his crime, murmur, and we are afflicted at hearing 
it.' On this,. the King ordered Bakhtiar to be brought forth, and thus addressed him : ' Slave ! 
wherefore hast thou committed this crime ? To-day shalt thou suffer death.' Bakhtiar replied : 
' O King ! I am innocent ; and I trust, by Divine Mercy, that you will deliver me from my 
chains, in the same manner as the innocent Queen of King Dadin was delivered from 
hers.' 'How happened that?' said the King. 'There was in Tatary, O King!' said 
Bakhtiar, 'a Monarch named Dadin, who had a beautiful Queen, and two Vizirs; one named 
Kurdar, and the other named Kerdan. The Vizir Kurdar had a beautiful daughter, whose 
equal was not to be found in the world ; and so pious was this maiden, that not only did she 
read the Koran all day, but she passed each night in prayer. King Dadin, hearing of her 
devotion, became enamoured without ever having seen her; and asked her of her father 
in marriage, who promised him that he would consult her. On informing his daughter, she 
answered : " I cannot consent to become a Queen. I will pass my life in prayers ; and my 
only ambition is, to serve God." The Vizir returned to the King, and related the words of 
his daughter : the King became wroth, and commanded the Vizir to be put to death. He 
then ordered the maid to be conveyed to his palace ; and thus addressed her : " O maiden ! 
I wish to elevate thee to the rank of my Queen. During the whole day you shall pay your 
devotion to the Divine Being : during the night you shall serve me." At this moment a 
courier arrived with important intelligence ; and the King, having desired the maid to pray 
for him, and giving his city in charge to his Vizir Kerdan, mounted his horse, and, with a 
chosen band of followers, departed. One day, while the Vizir was reciting his prayers, his 
eyes fixed themselves upon the maiden : dazzled with the splendor of her beauty, he became 
suddenly captivated ; and approaching her, said : " O maiden ! I am enamoured of thee : if 
you fear God, take pity on me, lest I perish." The girl replied : " The King, putting con- 
fidence in thee, placed thee in his palace, and you wish me to betray him. Beware ! beware 
of committing this crime ! Do not allow yourself to be drawn into the snares of Satan, for 
a woman ; and do not imagine that all women are of the same nature. I pardon thy fault ; 
but beware of tempting thy destruction." Kerdan, having heard these words, perceived that 

* The numerous repetitions, and the peculiarities in style of the original, do not allow of a perfectly 
literal version being made in our idiom. The translation given, is as near the style of the Text as possible. 

( 176 ) 

he could not succeed in his design ; and regretted his words, saying to himself, " If the King 
hears of what I have said, I shall perish. I will employ some stratagem, which shall cause the 
King to put this girl to death." The father of the maid had brought from his native 
country a slave, who had been educated with her ; on which account she was very much 
attached to him. When the King had terminated his military expedition, and had returned, 
the Vizir came before him ; and the King demanded the news of all that had happened, and 
particularly inquired concerning the young woman. " I have many things to tell thee," said 
the Vizir ; " but, nevertheless, I fear to say them." " Why shouldst thou fear to speak what thou 
knowest ? " said the King : " I know that you are a good and faithful Minister, and that you 
would not speak falsely." Upon this, the Vizir replied : " I was informed that a slave, brought 
by the father of this damsel from his country, had an improper connexion with her : but," con- 
tinued he, " I could not believe it. — How could it be? said I to myself. The King loves this 
maiden to such a degree, that with her the pains of this world seem to him pleasures : besides, 
if it were so, some evidence would exist. — I could not believe it. One day, however, a person 
came to me, and said, ' Come, and view what the maiden does.' I went : I heard her 
voice, as well as that of the slave. She said to him : ' In thus dishonouring me, you have 
exposed me to destruction, in the same manner as my father, whose death I involuntarily 
caused. I must be your portion.' The slave replied : ' But what is your intention respecting 
the King?' 'I must kill him,' rejoined the girl, 'by means of some stratagem: if we are 
united, we shall accomplish our design. Take measures, therefore, concerning the King: 
kill him ; for he caused my father's destruction unjustly, and I ought to take vengeance.' — 
When I heard these words," continued the Vizir, " I felt my body tremble all over. The 
fact was now proved to me, as well as to the person who had informed me : nevertheless, 
it is for you to know that which ought to be done. There are many ungrateful people in this 
world." The King, on hearing this, was exceedingly irritated, and ordered the head of the 
slave to be cut off. He then commanded the damsel to be brought before him, and 
demanded what discourse she had held with the slave: — "After having loaded thee with 
honours," said he, " you have acted thus culpably." She replied : " O King ! put faith in my 
words ; and, if you fear God, do not cause me to perish upon the accusation of my cruel enemies." 
" I cannot believe thy words," said the King ; and immediately commanded her to be put to 
death. — This King had a faithful servant : he approached, and thus addressed him : " O King ! 
it would be a shameful thing to put this lady to death. Kill the slave, but spare the maiden : 
command that she be sent to sonic desert, far from human habitations ; where she must certainly 
perish; but her blood will not be upon your hands, and you will do an action agreeable 
to the Deity." The King, upon this, commanded an old woman to place the girl on a camel ; 
and to conduct her to a distant desert, and there abandon her. The old woman obeyed : and 

( 177 ) 

she was left in the desert, with no other help than the mercy of God. This desert was situated 
near the territories of the King of Persia, one of whose camel-drivers had lost a camel. In 
search of this camel, he came into the desert, and vainly sought to find it. Suddenly he 
beheld a beautiful girl, occupied in praying. Fearing to interrupt her, the camel-driver 
waited until she had finished her prayers. He then saluted her, saying, " Who art thou, 

lady ?" The damsel replied : "lama humble servant of the Deity." " Who brought thee 
hither ?" said the camel-driver. " It was the will of the Most High," replied she. At this, the 
camel-driver said within himself, This lady is certainly favoured by God. " O lady ! " he 
continued, " if you will become my wife, I shall have the greatest regard for thee : I am in 
the service of the King of Persia." " That cannot be," she replied ; but, for the love of God, 
carry me to some inhabited place, where I may procure a little water ; and I will remember 
thee in the prayers I offer." The camel-driver then seated her on a camel, and conducted 
her to a village, where he gave charge to the Chief to take care of her till his return : and 
having again gone in search of the lost camel, quickly found it. Attributing his good fortune 
to the prayers of the lady, and filled with gratitude to the Deity, he returned to the King of 
Persia, to whom he made known the beauty, the piety, and all the perfections with which 
the maiden was adorned. " I wish just such a person for my Queen !" exclaimed the King ; 
and immediately mounted his horse, attended by a great number of domestics, and rode to 
the village. When he beheld the damsel, he was filled with admiration, and thus addressed 
her : " O maiden ! I am the King of Persia : consent to become my Queen, and I shall have 
the greatest attachment for thee." " May the Divine favour bestow happiness on you, O King !" 
she replied: "you already possess great numbers of women, and I have no desire for a 
husband : the love of God is to me preferable to the whole universe :" — she then continued her 
devotions. The King immediately commanded that his tents should be pitched in that place, for 
he would stay there some days. Delighted with the conversation and the piety of the damsel, 
but being pressed by his affairs of State, he caused her to be placed in a litter, and conducted 
her to his capital, assigning his own kiosk for her habitation ; and having made a splendid 
nuptial feast, married her. He bestowed great riches on her, and gave her the most beautiful 
clothes, numerous domestics, and a magnificent palace. One night, the Queen imparted the 
history of her adventures to the King of Persia. The following day he assembled a numerous 
army, and departed. King Dadin and his Vizir Kerdan were taken prisoners, as well as the 
faithful servant to whom the Queen was indebted for her life. The whole of them were 
brought before the young woman, who thus addressed King Dadin : — " O King ! although 

1 was innocent and true, yet you left me in a desert, in order that I might perish ; but God 
took pity on me, and has caused thee to be brought here a captive." Then turning to the 
Vizir, Kerdan, she said : " How is it that the snare you laid for me you have fallen into 

A A 

( 178 ) 

yourself?" " O lady ! " replied the Vizir, " you are innocent. All that I have said is false : it 
is for that, God has punished me." " Let God be praised then !" said she, " who has permitted 
my life to be saved, and that the people should know my innocence, and that the murderers 
of my innocent father should meet the just reward of their crimes." Upon this, the King of 
Persia commanded Kerdan to be conducted to the same desert in which the young woman 
had been abandoned ; where he perished of hunger and thirst. As for King Dadin, he ordered 
his head to be cut off, as a punishment for the murder of the Queen's father ; and the domi- 
nions of Dadin were given to the faithful servant, whose advice had contributed to the 
safety of the Queen.' 




JaJJ/JS J£ji> H^ 1 ^ Jri 5 JjV ft? ** J»- ) y lSj& t-5^' U*r£ ^^^ i U"^ 
*Jj>«> & f&jyL? &") CS^l* f&* ,j!j& ^f~)j *)& OV J**h jfc£ *-SS-J}J) d te^t 

^Jm3) i^U*- @& jy&s c jiJjV. <^' j)j)<> M# j>. ( ^**^ 1 (^ ^ J)"j "UjI 
^c^j' yJXjitiiS* J^y. U^jX J^ ] &&& */Ak C^ *H' ^ ^ u ^' 

&„» t— >ljtf ^ ^j.5 ,_s .Xja» (-JuLji" <^l *Jb j*)j j l&*. b ^.J^ttf y -lis** 1 liJy <K=Aw 

Jjl ^aJUW ifijll/ ^1 ^0 jy ^o jjSjJ^I cw^. a-,1 c5 <^> ^ J^= ^f* *&& 

( a ) See Specimen of this MS. Plate III. 

( b ) The Persian Annotator translates this word by Cl»~»j J>&„f • 

( c ) Rendered, in Persian, by ^Joi and Pjc . 


fiartmct/rvm-Me Our^oicr^WS.ofthe 
' Kaofdat Koc Btiuk ,' W Science o^ Govxiurxs^rr . 


fcfb - * *o» J 



'-VJ--J ^-^.liU-^, 



<n>«^" J fcr-oa-^ 9 a*^,^ 



fc* ^ -*-n- 


-* 3, 

I *r ^> O— ■ 

O^ ^ - tV 'V 


f * 

^ / 

/■"* .?**. ■^g " » A<\*>rci » ?-> c^v 




>* o 

/ w ~«s> 

t>*rt>i > 

*°* ^<T£^f*\u 

* • 

l r*^ 

-*-Ou» J J,,, 




>-„> 9 (Q* -fr « H1MU 

*0 w >• 


( 179 ) 
»— >ji±» JJojd jsj ^1 ^iJ ^Ctf ^ U! vW ii ^T JJ4I jl/ jJ J^yo ls^cL *Lu ^jCi^ 

;jl C^J ^1 J\ id J± I, \*i \ZX&, JM * J^;fr *S&\ J^- J*?* ,J^** j/** 
;WJ J^ Jjl ,*/' (J^/ W <->J> ^ 1 Jjljl "H&6* ^?~f *»)>* \J^i *^M 

t—^y! tilL) j^)p d ^ *& dtejw* j^iS\ ^Si £\) jj/jl ^ v» Ut ;W 4> viU^ 

;W <> urojphf * J *.)S ] j>.j> < t-^J' j1 y> »/* ** «%* jW> lA* j ** e/^ 1 8U4>, i 
u 2*o J j»Jjl & S2*dXt jjpji} \J^>jyio tJ'&Jt ^jl ^^ijtji S-HMJ**' uVr^J 1 ** ^ 

i*Jio jj tjjA* vlyr* J'r 1 y $ us*° 4/^ lA^ V^ ^^1/ » i ^ ) ^Jj S-'S^ *>' 


Let praise and thanksgiving be rendered to the Most High ! whose greatness and glory is 
beyond all bounds ; who is the King of Power, and Creator of the Heaven and the Earth ; 
who has given a soul to each body ; who performs every thing by his will. God does that 
which he wills, and ordains that which he pleases. Peace and blessings from the Deity 
without end, upon the Wonder of all ages, the best of Messengers, the Great Prophet Moham- 
med Mustafa, and upon his Companions ! May the Divine blessings extend to them also I 

This book is named the precious Tang-Souk.. The Sages of Tchin have adorned it 
with their verses. The Learned of Matchin have embellished it with their sentences : those 
who read them in this book will comprehend their utility. The Learned of Tchin and 
Matchin know that there is no book more precious ; and that in the country of Turkestan 
there does not exist, either in the language of Bokhara Khan or in the Turkish idiom, a work 
superior to it. The Sages have considered that it should be studied by Kings, both on account 
of the instruction which they could derive from it, as well as of its expansion of heart (amuse- 
ment). This book is known under different titles. The Chinese name it Adeb ul Muloulc, 
" The Morals of Kings." The Learned of the kingdom of Matchin call it Anis ul Memleket, 
" The Friend of the Kingdom." The Oriental people, Shah Namehi Turki, " The Turkish 
Royal Book ;" others, Pend Namehi Mulouk, " The Counsels of Kings." The natives 

( 180 ) 

know it under the name of Kaoudat kou Bilik, or " Science of Government." This book 
is comparable to a planet which determines the horoscope at the hour of birth. This book 
was not composed in the country of Kashgar, but a King of the Eastern Countries presented 
it to the Khan of Tabaktchan : finally, the King of Bokhara Khan, having divided it, 
ordered that it should bear the name of his Vizir. It is on this account that the name of the 
Vizir, Yussuf Khan Nedgib, is written in it. 

This valuable work is divided into Four principal Parts. The first is relative to the means 
of Administering Justice ; the second relates to the Power of the Kingdom ; the third to 
Knowledge ; the fourth to Moderation. These four virtues are represented by four persons : 
Justice, or the rising sun, is represented by Jlek, or " the King." Power, or the full moon, by 
Orktourmish, or " the Vizir." Knowledge is figured under the name of Oktoulmish, " Son of 
the Vizir ;" and Otkhourmish, " Brother of the Vizir," represents Moderation. These persons 
hold counsel, and discourse by dialogue. May those who study this book take pleasure in 
reading it, and remember its Author in their prayers ! 




Julj**- ^J^=> jjjjii ^A+Z *> y> f.,<±4 ^ (_S^' *-!->./ J#»- ****& ^Ay' cS^' <^4 

Jj^il uffijt Jj^j jj***) l&< Jeirfr v 1 ^ *ifi*/*Mjte+ <jJmaM ^p^ ^s^ b 

Going out from thence, I saw a kiosk : and in one of the halls of that kiosk, I saw a person 
clothed in a long robe. Around him were many slaves. I said, "Who is this person?" 
Gabriel answered : " It is the Prophet Moses : peace be upon him ! " I advanced towards 
him, and saluted him. Moses, having returned my salute, thus addressed me : " O Mohammed ! 
you are welcome ! you have brought joy." Gabriel then said to me : " Come, let us mount 
still higher." 

( a ) MS. of the Bibliotheque du Roi; page 12 verso, line 2. See Plate IV. 


(2?tr/&zc£~ ftcvri/ ^n^y- y^stsula 

« >woi_> faLX"->JO <^-»Soo^ ' — ' **JJ y-»— ^*— c 

t^, i~^-c o /**-^ ***-y <~«- ^^^ * 

y ^ - . OOL4 > . ~<S J4**t> fJ* J-(^ oe^» /;>*»— fc-=r- ' " 0** ' »**< 


^ ^*"*y /*» >*^v <*-*-¥, «»ftv ' — ■ — <*SUs ^ f*+iL* - *-* — >o — y^i <-Saj <«■*» <■*»-* — • /^4 

SkjjAJ y— ^ — kt* o-v /-«^ *4±-v /*-<S H -o-C— ' O-^-o^Vsj ' ^^-v '/-* >°-d-v a**-j 


y^j o-JL» «-v o J-J*- 1 ^ " ' ^\2^ ' ***"4 / ^H»MS "^ 

t>T. yelher&ij} T.i&6q; 

( 181 ) 






Starts v^ ^•H^ir •»!/ sf'ir ^r*^ «ew! w£ ^ ^% ^^ JWr** &&# 

jju ^IL ^U;^ <xLu ^Us cL&J ^US i_sjiu &Ju£ Jjili uS'V 5 ^..jy^i? <-^' ^sty d$> 


It is indispensably necessary to conform to the collection of words contained in this book. 
There does not exist in the world a work superior to it ; since it explains the words of the 
Koran. The words of this book give courage to the weak — give health to the sick. It 
imposes on them the obligation of curing themselves in this world ; and makes them consider 
their duties in the way of truth, as trials to heal them. Whoever understands the meaning 
of this book will meet troubles with a hundred thanksgivings : if they visit him, he will find, 
by Divine assistance, a remedy for them ; and by the powerful effects of this resignation, he 
will attain the rank of Saint. 

(") Ibid, page 39, line 10. See Plate IV. 

( 182 ) 


<Sj&} ^^Uau Astlwj^c JjI tXJj^j ^iiJyiy li^iJjl <uU> j*, *»,! ii£ui < t )' i ^!-« ?^ 
i^&y* ^.^^ "Stiif ^us^-' **^y ***up*? L^i_s^ cJ^*" "^yy. j*ju~o ; 3Ic^aXj 

y^JU CL^y, Jjl Ji ^\ii Sxij^M uS 1 ^ U-**^U < -r^^i^ *$fji j**' j^J^~ (^^J**" 
^lji£ !yi* s^y^ .5 l^ 6 ^ u5^/ *•?*£& j f** iJ^k ,_jj*>J^^ ** ^->jyi. y 'rfrfr j ^ 

ws^-Jj c5y^' ,HyV />; ^ Sr^- ^^ i ^ «-»> ^ A* 3 * 1 S^£U /* 
jfobjj&Ji i-jjjyZy ^jji c^Xjo ^^j^^y. ( _ s ^fc > . j ^/^ J\^ i_? ^^"^ ti^ us ^y^ 
S-^ ' S^^v^y (.5^^^ ejjl^i" ,_5 Jo.' «_s '^j^ ^»^ ll /^ M > J^* yj ^.^ <*W Jy" 

i—ib duLs- &s)^jt> j.\j ,5t*xo ^i, aJy ;_$ "ty.U? i_s^^" ej4**J^ l --^%. J ^~*^ ^yV. u ' lW.j ic*^*" 
UMMtJii ^tSA sJjm j js^i- Ioc^AjJ *juj1«> ( ^J^J <iJ>V- 1^/V.^y^ ,«» jy* 1 ^' d£} t«* 

i*^ i_?v. &' u*i' ^^y L - i ^°y t-s^j^v" u;^^y !/%** (y^y «- 5 ^-' '■^i-^*^*' 
^jijij ^y i^j^, jy» i»_^xi,iiu^ v^ i_^v^y. j'y^ ^l/*^^ «-^^ us^y J^ "-s 1 ^ 

*» KjU t vo^t <x«Jjj *a ^y^jJ ^ t^V.^ t_sy^^ ji^-Ji 3 - y?"^ ^y lj" i_s^ '-/** (*^ 
IjoLcjjj'yj "-ry^» jV.^ ,«c^. '^-^V.^* 1 ^y^ ^ \J»i$** & l J^ M u?^^^ J^ jfl <^Jy 

y ijj -t > <^?-y>- *» j*^*;^ jV^y Ly' J, '^ r * tjy ^y (** <sp^ *— "y/ j'^^ jf^*i* 

( 183 ) 

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Having encamped behind the Baghi Meidan, in the meadow of Kulbeh, the soldiers and 
townsmen of Samarkand came out against us, on the side of Mohammed Chap's bridge. As 
my men were off their guard, before they could make ready for defence, the enemy threw 
Sultan Kuli from his horse, and carried him off into the town. We moved a few days after- 
wards, and encamped on the Hill of Kohik, on the side of Kulbeh. On the same day, Seyed 
Yussuf Beg was conducted from Samarkand, and entered my service at this station. The 
people of Samarkand, when they saw us move from one station to another, fancying that I had 
taken my departure, rushed out, both soldiers and citizens, and advanced as far as the Mirza's 

B B 

( 186 ) 

bridge ; and coming out by the gate of Sheikhzadeh, proceeded towards Mohammed Chap's 
bridge. According to my orders, those of my men who were at hand immediately mounted, 
and charged the enemy on both sides towards Mohammed Chap's bridge. God prospered 
us, and the enemy were defeated. Many brave Begs and valiant horsemen were dismounted 
and taken prisoners. Among these were Mohammed Meskin, and Hafez Duldai, who tasted 
the cup of martyrdom. Mohammed Kasim Nabireh, the younger brother of Hassan Nabireh, 
was also thrown from his horse, and taken. Many other officers and men of distinction 
were also brought in. Of the towns-people, there were seized, Divaneh, a dgameh- 
weaver, and Kilkashuk, who were distinguished as the instigators of the rabble in the riots- 
In retaliation for the foot-soldiers who were slain at the Lover's Cave, they were put to 
death with torture. 

The defeat of the men of Samarkand was complete. From that time they found it impos- 
sible to venture out ; and matters came to such a pass, that our people advanced close to the 
ditch, and carried off numbers of male and female slaves. 

The sun now entered the sign of the Balance, and the cold became severe. I therefore 
assembled the Begs, and held a consultation. It was agreed that the towns-people were 
reduced to great distress ; and that, by the favour of God, we should shortly be able to take 
the place : but that as we were exposed to great inconvenience from the cold, and from being 
encamped in an open country, we should, for the present, withdraw from the city, and take 
winter-quarters in the neighbourhood ; whence, if necessary, we could draw off, without con- 
fusion. The fort of Khojah Didar appearing a fit place for that purpose, we marched from 
our position, and halted in a plain in front of the fort. After having marked out the ground 
for the houses and huts, we appointed workmen and overseers for the work, and returned to 
our camp. In the mean time, Baisangher Mirza sent repeated messengers into Turkestan 
to Sheibani Khan, inviting him to come to his assistance. The winter-houses in the fort 
being completed, we took up our quarters in them. 

The very next morning, Sheibani Khan, who had hastened by forced marches from Turkestan, 
advanced, and presented himself before our cantonments. My army was not in very good 
condition ; for some of my people had gone to Rabat-Khojeh, some to Kand, and others to 
Shiraz, to secure winter-quarters. Notwithstanding, I assembled what men were at hand, and 
marched out. Sheibani Khan did not venture to keep his ground, but drew off towards 
Samarkand, and halted in its environs. Baisangher Mirza, disappointed in not receiving 
sufficient assistance from Sheibani Khan, did not give him a good reception ; and after a few 
days, Sheibani Khan, seeing that nothing could be done, returned in despair to Turkestan. 
Baisangher Mirza had now maintained the blockade for seven months, and had placed his 
last hopes in this succour. Disappointed in this too, he resigned himself to despair ; and with 

( 187 ) 

two or three hundred hungry wretches set out for Kundez, to take refuge with Khosrou 
Shah. In the vicinity of Termez, as he was crossing the river Amu, Seyed Hussain Akber, 
the governor of Termez, who was related to Sultan Masoud Mirza, and high in his con- 
fidence, having received information of his motions, came out against him. The Mirza 
himself had just passed the river, but several of his men and horses that had fallen behind 
were taken. Mirim Terkhan perished in the stream. One Mohammed Taher, a horseman 
of Baisangher Mirza's, was taken prisoner. Baisangher Mirza was well received by Khosrou 
Shah. The same year, information was brought to me of the flight of Baisangher Mirza. 
We instantly mounted, and set out from Khojah Didar for Samarkand. On the road we 
were met by the Grandees, the Begs, and the young cavaliers, who came out to welcome us. 
I alighted at the Bostan Serai ; and towards the end of the month Rebiul evel, by the favour 
of God, the city and country of Samarkand were completely subdued. 

In the four quarters of the habitable globe there are few cities so pleasantly situated as 
Samarkand. It is in the fifth climate. The city is called Samarkand, and the country Mawera'- 
an-nahar (Transoxania). No enemy having ever attacked or succeeded in taking it, it is called 
" The protected city." Samarkand embraced Islamism in the time of Osman, the Commander 
of the Faithful, through the means of Kasim Ben Abbas, who visited the city. His tomb is 
near to the Iron-gate. It is now called Mezari Shah, i. e. " the Shah's Tomb." Samarkand 
was founded by Iskender (Alexander the Great). The Mogul and Turk hordes call it 
Samarkund. Timur Beg made it his capital. Before Timur Beg, no such great monarch 
had ever made it his capital. I directed its wall to be paced round the rampart, and found 
that it was ten thousand six hundred paces in circumference. The inhabitants are all orthodox 
Sunnis, observant of the law, and very religious. From the time of the Holy Prophet (upon 
whom be the blessing of God!) downwards, no other country has produced so many 
learned theologians as Mawera-an-nahar. Among these is the great Sheikh, Abul Mansur, 
the expounder of Scripture, who was of the quarter of Materid in Samarkand. There are two 
sects of Aimeh Kelam, or Scriptural Expositors ; the one called Materidiah, and the other 
Ashariah. This Sheikh, Abu Mansur, was the founder of the Materidiah. Another eminent 
divine was Sahib Bokhari Khoajeh Ismail Haram. The author of the Hedaya, too, than 
which, according to the sect of Hanifeh, there is none of greater authority, was of Marghinan 
in Ferghanah, which is also in Mawera'-an-nahr, though situated on the farthest bounds of 
this populous country. 

On the east it has Ferghanah and Kashghar ; on the west, Bokhara and Khoarizm ; on the 
north, Tashkend and Shahrokhiah, which are usually called Shashkenit and Benaket ; and on the 
south, Balkh and Termez. The river Kohik flows from t i north of Samarkand, and passes 
at the distance of two keroh from the city. Between the river and the city there is a rising 

( 188 ) 

ground called Kohik ; and as the river flows close by the base of this hillock, it is thence called 
the River of Kohik. From this river a large stream, separating itself, flows on the south of 
Samarkand, under the name of the River Dargham. It is about a sharoa from Samarkand, 
the gardens and suburbs of which are watered by it For about thirty or forty yakadg, the 
country as far as Bokhara and Karakoul is very populous, and the fields are irrigated by 
the River Kohik. This river, Jarge as it is, is hardly sufficient for the cultivation of the fields 
and for the use of houses ; and for three or four months during the summer, the waters do 
not reach Bokhara. 

The grapes, melons, apples, and pomegranates, and indeed all the fruits of Samarkand, are 
excellent and plentiful. Samarkand is however particularly famous for two kinds of fruit — 
the apple, and the grape called sahibi. Its winter is very cold ; but less snow falls than at 
Kabul. Its climate is fine, though its summer does not equal that of Kabul. There are 
many palaces and gardens that belonged to Timur Beg and Ulugh Beg Mirza, both in 
Samarkand and its suburbs. Timur Beg built in the citadel of Samarkand a stately palace, four 
stories high, which is known by the name of Giok-Serai. There are many other magnificent 
buildings. One of these is the Grand Mosque, which is situated near the Iron-gate, within 
the citadel. A number of stone-cutters were brought from Hindustan to work upon it. In 
the frontispiece over the portico is inscribed the verse of the Koran, Wa az yerfa Ibrahim 
al kowada &c. to the end, in such large characters that they may be read one or two keroh off. 
It is a very large building. To the east of Samarkand there are two gardens : the more distant 
one is called Bagh-i-Boldi, or " the Perfect Garden ;"" the nearer, Bagh-i-Dilkusha, or " the 
Heart-delighting Garden." From the Baghi-Dilkusha to the Firozeh-gate, there is a khiaban, 
or public avenue, planted on each side with pine-trees. In the garden of Dilkusha there has 
also been built a large kioshk or palace, in which are paintings representing the wars of 
Timur Beg in Hindustan. There is also a garden on the skirts of the Hill of Kohik, on the 
banks of the Kara-su (Black Water) of Kangul, which they call Ab-i-Rehmet, and this is 
denominated Naksh-i-Jehan, " the Miniature of the World." At the time I saw it, it was 
laid waste, and scarcely any thing of it remained. On the south of Samarkand is the Bagh- 
i-Chinar, or " Plane-tree Garden," in the immediate vicinity of the citadel. A little below 
Samarkand are the Bagh-i-Shemal, or " Northern Garden," and the Bagh-i-Behesht, or 
" Garden of Paradise." Mohammed Sultan Mirza, the son of Jehangir Mirza, and grandson 
of Timur Beg, built a College, just as you go out of the stone fort of Samarkand. The Tombs 
of all such of the descendants of Timur Beg as have reigned in Samarkand are in that College. 
Among the edifices built by Ulugh Beg Mirza are the College and Convent within the 
citadel of Samarkand. The dome of the Convent is very large ; indeed, few domes in the 
world can equal it Near this Convent there is an excellent bath, called the Mirza's 

( 189 ) 

Bath. The floor is paved with stones of every variety. No baths in Khorasan or Samarkand 
are to be compared with this. 

On the south of the College is situated a Mosque, which is called Mesjid-i-Makata, or 
•' the Carved Mosque," because its timbers are carved with ornaments and flowers ; and the 
whole of the walls and roof are adorned in the same manner. There is a great difference 
between the direction of the Kibleh of this Mosque, and that of the College ; and it is probable 
that the Kibleh of the former was adjusted by astronomical observation. 

Another great and important building is the Observatory, erected on the skirts of the Hill 
of Kohik, which is provided with astronomical apparatus, and is three stories high. By means 
of this Observatory, Ulugh Beg Mirza composed the Zidg Gurkani, or " Gurkani Astrono- 
mical Tables," which are followed in the present time, scarcely any others being used. Before 
they were published, the likhani Astronomical Tables were chiefly used, constructed by 
Khoajeh Nasir Tusi, in the time of Holagu Khan, who built an Observatory at Maragha. 
Holagu was also named likhani. Not more than seven or eight Observatories have been 
constructed in the world. Among these, one was erected by the Khalif Mamun ; and in it the 
Astronomical Tables entitled Zidg Mamuni were drawn up. Another was built by Btolimus 
(Ptolemy). Another was the Observatory erected in Hindustan, in the time of Raja Biker- 
majet, a Hindu in the country of Adgin, in the kingdom of Malwah, now known as the 
kingdom of Mandu. The Hindus still use the Astronomical Tables which were then con- 
structed. Since the building of that Observatory till the present time, is a period of 584 years. 
These Tables are, however, more imperfect than any of the others. 


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( 190 ) 

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Oghuz Khan having assembled the whole of his Moghul and Tatar armies, went to attack 
Tilash, Siram, and Tashkend. The kings of Samarkand and Bokhara drew out their forces ; 
but unable to meet him, they shut up their great cities and strong fortresses. Oghuz Khan 
now sent out his sons ; who in the space of six months conquered Turkestan and Andjan, and 
returned to the service of their father. Oghuz Khan having appointed governors in all the 
countries which he had conquered, marched against Samarkand; which having taken, he 
placed rulers over it, and then proceeded to Bokhara. Having taken Bokhara, he went to 
Balk ; and after reducing Balk, he marched into the country of Ghour. It was the winter 
season, and the time was bitterly cold : a great quantity of snow had fallen on the mountains 
of Ghour, and much retarded the march of the troops. The Khan gave orders that no one 
was to loiter behind ; and immediately advanced to the attack of Ghour, which he at last 
tpok. When the weather became milder, he registered his men, and found that a few were 
wanting : on inquiry being made, no one knew any thing about them. A few days after, 
however, these men returned to the service of the Khan. The Khan asked concerning their 

( 191 ) 

circumstances. They said : " We were following in the rear of the army, when one night 
a great quantity of snow fell in the mountains, and entirely prevented our marching. There 
we lay ; and most of our horses and cattle died. On the return of spring, we renewed our 
march on foot ; and have thus returned." 

By the command of the Khan, this troop was called Karlik (Snowy) ; and all the tribe 
called Karlik are descended from them. — The Khan, moving hence, proceeded to Kabul and 
Ghuzbin, which he took ; and then directed his course to Kashmir. At this time the King of 
Kashmir was one called Yaghma. The mountains of Kashmir are very high, and the rivers 
are numerous : amongst the former Yaghma took refuge, and would not come near to Oghuz 
Khan. They fought for a whole year, and many men fell on both sides. At last the Khan 
took Kashmir, slew Yaghma, and ordered a general massacre of his army. After having 
remained here for some time, he came to Badakhshan and Samarkand ; and passing through 
Moghulistan, he returned home. 




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He was a well-educated king, and possessed many accomplishments. He could read the 
Sacred Koran with the seven different readings. In Astronomy and Geometry he was well 
versed ; so much so, that he drew up Astronomical Tables, and built an Observatory. His 
Tables are now very celebrated. Besides these qualifications, he sometimes applied himself 
to Poetry. The following verse is his : 

" Though the empire of Beauty is under thy power, 

" Be not vain ; for the eyes of the evil are secretly upon thee." 

( 192 ) 
III. KAPTCHAK. kasan. 


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( 193 ) 

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We will first speak of his ancestors. In ancient times there was a city in the White Sea 
(Mediterranean), which they called Malta. The name of the king of that city was Altun 
Khan, and that of the queen Kurlautch. Of these royal personages was born a daughter, 
whom they called Ulemalik Kurekli. She was placed in a palace of stone, forty fathoms 
in height, where neither the sun nor the moon could be seen. Such however was her 
beauty, that if she smiled upon dry wood it would immediately be covered with leaves ; or 
if upon barren ground, the grass would spring up. If she combed her hair, she showered 
precious stones ; and if she shed tears, they produced gold and silver. But another soul was 
born into the world. Amongst the nurses around her, the one nearest to her, i.e. her 
favourite, was called Ordeh Khan. One day, when the princess was grown up, she said to 
her, " O Ordeh Khan ! when you go out of this palace, what do you see ? Is this palace 
what they call the world ? or are there other places besides it ? or is this palace within any 
thing?" Ordeh Khan replied: "What they call the world is outside. There are also things 
which they call the sun and the moon, from which the world has its light." Then Ulemalik 


( 194 ) 

Kurekli said: "O Ordeh Khan, shew me these things!" Ordeh Khan replied: "If you 3ee 
these things, you will die." " If I die, let me die !" answered Ulemalik Kurekli, " Do thou 
shew me these things." Ordeh Khan then threw open the window, and the light entered 
the house. When Ulemalik Kurekli saw this, she was instantly deprived of her senses, and 
she remained dead. Her nurses sat down and wept, saying, " What shall we go and tell the 
Khan ! " After one day had thus passed, the hreath of Ulemalik Kurekli began to return ; and 
the nurses were glad, and asked her what she had seen. She said, "***». And what 
shall you say to my father?" for Altun Khan was in the habit of coming frequently to see 
his daughter. One day, Altun Khan came to visit his daughter, and observed that she was 
pregnant. He said : " Alas, my daughter ! your countenance is sorrowful : what calamity has 
befallen you?" and he returned full of grief to his house. He said to his wife, "Alas, 
O Kurlautch ! such a disgrace as this has never happened to us since we have been married ! 
A grievous calamity has befallen our daughter : what shall we do ? " Kurlautch said, " It 
will not do to take her to this and that place (i. e. expose her publicly), for man is inclined 
to evil, and many reports will be spread, We must therefore put her on board a very hand- 
some ship, and send her into the Southern Ocean." After this, they built a ship, into which 
they put hen-partridges, wood-pigeons, lambs, parrots — forty of each; inextinguishable 
lamps ; and all sorts of food. In this ship they sent the young princess from the mountain 
of Tura, with wishes for her prosperity. Some days passed in this way. At that time 
Tumaul Merkan, the son of Turmatai Tchitchan, being displeased with his father, went 
outside his village, and remained there, having with him forty men. Amongst these was a 
man who had one eye in his forehead, whom they called Shaba Soker (cross-eyed), a 
Turcoman guard. One day Shaba Soker exclaimed : " O Tumaul Merkan ! I see something 
dark at a distance, which must be a golden vessel : it is high as a mountain ! Now I beg one 
thing of you : — what is within shall be yours, but that without must be mine. It will make 
its appearance to-morrow at mid-day." Tumaul Merkan replied : " Well,_be it so." Next day 
they saw the golden vessel approach, but they did not know how to attack it. Shaba Soker 
said : " Now, Tumaul Merkan, shoot, and hit it." Tumaul Merkan replied : " Shall I aim at 
the centre, or at the side ?" " Should there be any living thing in it, you will injure it by 
aiming at the centre," said Shaba Soker ; " therefore aim at the side, and break it." He 
answered : " Be it so : I will aim at the side :" and he tightened his bow, took aim, and so 
struck the vessel that its three planks went to pieces. On account of his having thus struck 
the side (lu» Kia) of the vessel, he was called Kiat Tumaul Merkan. 



fivm a 6ea/tti/ul ^ffS. irv the -British. lAfiwatm . 

- < i 



" 1 •• V 

*7. JTetft*>vtyi Zi&+p.*f*-Lei'&s£BrJfc*a**- 

( 193 ) 




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Let us display our love, like the nightingale : 

Let us demonstrate our joy, like the rose. 

We must not go to the banquet like dew (i.e. weeping) : we will be mirthful. 

Let us adorn ourselves with gold, as with roses. 

Let us affix the seal (inscribe the Toghra) to the law of Love : 

Let us abandon the dictates of Reason. 

The cup of Mirth shall smile like the rose : 

The spirit of Jemshid shall be made glad. 

» Jlj ^.i>. Bibl. Rich. 7922. Pint cnvm. g. See Plate V. 

( 196 ) 

Let him come, whose heart is firm as gold : 

We will try it by the fire of wine. 

Let not the austere approach our joyful assembly : 

The narcissus of the bower shall be our sentinel. 

We will make the gay and rosy-cheeked of the banquet intoxicated, and 

head-drooping like rose-buds. 
May the cheeks of the jessamin-faced bloom with roses ! 
In the morning, we will take our pleasure in the rose-garden. 
Khosru has associated the feast with the rose : 
The purple goblet we will make our companion : 
Causing the new wine to gush through the mouth of the bottle, we will let 

it flow like the blood of the sacrifice. 
There is no time for delay, O Baki ! Our intention is good : let us then perform it. 

This is the ocean of love ; and my tears burst like waves, at the gust of my sighs. 
My head is the firmament of reproach ; and my eyebrows are like anchors. 
The tiger of love agitates the forest of my grey hairs : 
My head is the barren desert of grief and despair. 

Though in the banquet I quaff the cup in memory of thy ruby lip, my sighs have left 
me no companion but the dregs. 


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( _ r *-£-tf <d -du^J us'^-* uS^I j^^j us-^r" i? P j 16 ^ ***• f-*-^ *-s ,J ^ 

* See Translation. Preliminary Discourse, p. lxvii. 

( 197 ) 


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( 198 ) 

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( 199 ) 

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Mohammed II. being, like Jem, a very passionate monarch, severely rebuked his architect 
for not having built his mosque of the same height as Aya Sofiyah ; and for having cut 
down the columns, which were each worth the whole tribute of Rum (Asia Minor). The 
architect excused himself, by saying, that he had reduced the two columns three cubits each, 
in order to give his building more solidity and strength, against the earthquakes, so common 
in Islambol ; and had thus made the mosque lower than Aya Sofiyah. The emperor, not 
satisfied with this excuse, ordered the architect's hands to be cut off"; which was done 
accordingly. On the following day, the architect appeared with his family before the 
tribunal of the Kazi, styled Islambol Mollasi, to lay his complaint against the emperor, and 
appeal to the sentence of the Law. The judge immediately sent his officer to cite the emperor 
to appear in court. The conqueror, on receiving this summons, said : " The command of 
the Prophet's Law must be obeyed ! " and putting on his mantle, and thrusting a mace into 
his belt, went into the Court of Law. After having given the Selam Aleik, he was about to 
seat himself in the highest place, when the Kazi said : " Sit not down, O prince ! but stand 
on thy feet, together with thine adversary, who has made an appeal to the Law." The 
architect then made his complaint : — " My lord, I am a perfect master-builder, and a skilful 
mathematician; but this man, because I made his mosque low, and cut down two of his 
columns, has cut off my two hands ; which has ruined me, and deprived me of the means of 
supporting my family : it is thy part to pronounce the sentence of the noble Law." The 
judge, upon this, thus addressed the emperor: "What sayest thou, prince! Have you 
caused this man's hands to be cut off innocently ?" The emperor immediately replied : " By 
Heaven, my lord ! this man lowered my mosque ; and for having reduced two columns of 
mine, each worth the produce of Misr (Egypt), thus robbing my Mosque of all renown by 
making it so low, I did cut off his hands:, it is for thee to pronounce the sentence of the 
noble Law." The Kazi answered : " Prince, renown is a misfortune ! If a mosque be upon a 
plain, and low and open, worship in it is not thereby prevented. If each column had been 
a precious stone, its value would have been only that of a stone ; but the hands of this man, 

* In some parts of this Translation, dialogue has heen turned into narrative, in order to render it 
more agreeable to our idiom. 

( 200 ) 

which have enabled him for these forty years to subsist by his skilful workmanship, you have 
illegally cut off. He can henceforth do no more than attend to his domestic affairs. The 
maintenance of him and his numerous family necessarily, by law, falls upon thee. — What 
sayest thou, prince?" Sultan Mohammed answered: "Thou must pronounce the sentence 
of the Law ! " " This is the legal sentence," replied the Kazi : " If the architect requires 
the law to be strictly enforced, your hands must be cut off; for if a man do an illegal act 
which the noble Law doth not allow, that Law decrees that he shall be requited according to 
Iris deeds." The Sultan then offered to grant him a pension from the public treasury of the 
Mussulmans. "No!" replied the Molla: "it is not lawful to take this from the public 
treasury : the offence was yours : my sentence therefore is, that from your own private purse 
you allow this maimed man ten aktchahs a-day." "Tt is well!" said the conqueror, "let it 
be twenty aktchahs a day ; but let the cutting off his hands be legalized." The architect, in 
the contentment of his heart, exclaimed: "Be it accounted lawful in this world and the next!" 
and having received a patent for his pension, withdrew. Sultan Mohammed also received a 
certificate of his entire acquittal. The Kazi then apologized for having treated him as an 
ordinary suitor ; pleading the impartiality of Law, which requires justice to be administered 
to all without distinction ; and entreating the Emperor to seat himself on the sacred carpet. 
" Efendi," said Sultan Mohammed, angrily, " if thou hadst shewn favour to me, saying to 
thyself, ' This is the Sultan,' and hadst wronged the architect, I would have broken thee in 
pieces with this mace," at the same time drawing it out from under the skirt of his robe. 
" And if thou, prince," said the Kazi, " hadst refused to obey the legal sentence pronounced 
by me, thou wouldst have fallen a victim to divine vengeance ; for I should have delivered thee 
up, to be destroyed by the dragon beneath this carpet." On saying which, he lifted up his 
carpet, and an enormous dragon put forth its head, vomiting fire from its mouth : " Be still," 
said the Kazi; and again laid the carpet smooth: on which the Sultan kissed his noble hands, 
wished him good day, and returned to his palace. 


Usr^j ; y!j! xsyuJ U*jj <)Ju«Uu^ »>J*!1 j& *jj 3 \ ^j^y Q&, XlwIIjI ^jj^ i£Aj><X>j 

* Translation. Preliminary Discourse, p. lviii. 

( 201 ) 

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( 202 ) 




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( 203 ) 


In this year, an officer of high rank in the Polish army arrived, bringing with him a Letter ; 
in which, after expressions of friendship, it was stated that the Cossacks had attacked them, 
had put some thousands of them to the sword, and, having set fire to the greater part of their 
boats, had strictly prohibited the remainder from entering the Black Sea. On a former 
occasion, when the Cossacks and Tatars of Kilia and Akkerman and the Katmer Tatars 
attacked them, they begged that the Cossacks and Tatars might be removed : in consequence 
of which, the Emperor (the Sultan) sent a mandate, and had all the Katmer and other Tatars, 
who had been for many years settled in those parts, removed, whether they would or no, to 
the Crimea, in order that the Rayas of both sides might enjoy peace. After that, the 
Cossacks again went out to the Black Sea, with four hundred boats ; when Redgeb Pasha, 
who was then Kapudan, entirely dispersed them. Those who escaped the edge of the sword 
were attacked by the King of Poland, who made a great slaughter of them. On the present 
occasion they issued from the Gulf of Ouzi (Okzakov), with sixty boats ; and whilst they 
were preparing to attack and plunder, a few galleys, which happened to be ready at the 
Sublime Porte, were sent against them. Fifteen or twenty of the boats were taken, and the 
rest were permitted to disperse. Mohammed Gerai and Shahin Gerai demanded to know 
why, if the Cossacks were thus allowed to go at large, they were prevented from plundering. 
They received answer, that it was only to deter the robbers from disturbing the peace in 
future. After this, an Envoy brought a Letter, with the presents which it had been customary 
to present to the Porte since the time of Sultan Soliman, and the tribute usually paid to the 
Khan of the Crimea ; and earnestly praying that they might have a treaty of protection 
against the Cossack robbers. This was graciously accorded ; and the treaty being signed, 
a copy of it was sent to the Khan, for his information. 


An Ambassador arrived from the King of England (Charles I.), bringing a Letter expressive 
of the king's friendly disposition, and announcing his accession in the room of his father. He 
also requested to have a treaty to carry on a peaceful trade with the Tunisians and Algerines. 
In consequence of this, the Sublime Porte despatched a Kapudgi Bashi to the Beglerbegs 
of Algiers and Tunis. A treaty was also signed, by which it was forbidden to exact any 
unjust tribute — such as the Masderieh, or any other tribute whatever — in any of the ports of 
the kingdom, except the Custom-house duties. The late Beglerbeg of Algiers, Khosru 
Pasha, having imprisoned some Englishmen at Algiers and Tunis, and taken some thousands 
of piastres from them, it was ordered that the money should be repaid them from his private 

( 204 ) 

property. A Letter was also sent, demanding' that the twenty-four merchant vessels which 
had been seized by the English men-of-war, on their way from India to the ports of Yemen, 
should, with their cargoes, be returned to the owners. 


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* Harleian Coll. 5500. Pint, xxvnr. b. fol. 337. 

( 205 ) 


It is related, that in Greece there was a king whose name was Kostantin; and it is 
said that this name has survived him because he built Constantinople. He had a wife. 
One hundred and seventy years after the birth of the Lord Jesus (on whom be peace !) he 
built a magnificent church. Should a person commit murder, and taking refuge in this 
church remain in it two or three months, the priest of the church puts a mark upon his 
hand, intimating that the person has been a recluse for such a period, and has performed 
his devotions in the church. No one after this is allowed to seize him, or do him any injury : 
in short, he becomes a Dervish. It is also related, that there is a square which they call 
the Afet Meidan, in which there are several statues of brass. Amongst these is a black 
figure, which, like a man calling the Ezan (the summons to prayer), has his fingers in his ears. 
Besides this, there is a figure of the Prophet of the latter times, Mohammed, (upon whom be 
the blessing and peace of God !) who is again to appear at the end of time. Upon the breast 
of this figure it is written, that when one of the hands drop off", the half of his Law is to be 
annulled. There is also another figure, in copper, of a person on horseback, in armour ; 
and a spear in his hand, with which he is piercing a serpent*: he sits on his horse, and 
the serpent lies before him. There is also a figure which the Greeks say represents Ali 
(upon whom be the favour of God !) . On the right side of this, pointing to the sea, 
King Kostantin had his own portrait drawn. His left-hand points to the west, and his 
face is turned towards Constantinople. It represents, that a storm should arise from the 
west, which should destroy the city. There are also figures of scorpions and snakes without 
number. It is said, that should a person in the castle take in his hands a scorpion or snake, 
it will immediately die, and no harm will happen to the person. Without the castle, should - 
they attack a person, he is strangely affected, becomes powerless, and utters piercing cries ; 
and it is very seldom that he is not destroyed. Within, however, they are quite harmless. 
It is said that some wise men converted the figures within into talismans ; and hence their 
inability to do harm. They say there is no end to the number of such figures in Greece : 
but God knows best. 

* This evidently alludes to a representation of our Legend of St. George and the Dragon ; and in 
the Manuscript, which is illustrated by numerous most singular pictures, St. George and the Dragon are 
delineated in the same manner as pictured by us. 

( 206 ) 

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* MS. Brit. Mus. Bibl. Sloan. 3586. Plat. cm. E. 71,dorso. 

( 207 ) 

*, * ( 

<«LLJ c^jw ^jJjj ti/ 1 ^' \S^ J* ^^ i ci^*»-lj {J~°j$$ e^J&<> <>Jve yt <0 ^.^' 


It is related, that in ancient times there was a king who with the hand of violence and 
oppression had torn the collars of his subjects, and who with the foot of tyranny had out- 
stepped the bounds of justice and goodness. " He seemed, as it were, full of evil and oppres- 
sion : he appeared as if created of tyranny, deceit, and wickedness." His oppression and 
cruelty had reached such a height, that the hands of his subjects were at all hours raised to 
supplicate for his removal, and to heap curses on him. So notorious was he for his injustice, 
that the neighbouring princes always styled him the Tyrant King. One day, on his returning 
from the pleasures of the chase, he mounted the throne of royalty, and made the heralds thus 
proclaim: — "O subjects! during the time that is past, until this moment, the veil of ignorance, 
having covered the eye of my reason, has prevented my seeing the path of justice, and my 
oppressive hand has drawn the dagger of tyranny against the unfortunate and afflicted. Be it 
known, that I have now stepped into the province of protecting my subjects, and my foot is 
firmly established in the stirrup of justice. I trust that henceforth no spark of the fire of 
oppression will consume the stores of any created being, and that neither the hand nor the foot 
of any afflicted soul will be pierced by the thorn of violence. " I will fortify the earth with 
justice : I will make the age glad with beneficence." 

His subjects at hearing of this proclamation received fresh life, their joy and gladness had 
no bounds, and the rose-bud of desire blew gaily in the garden of the hopes of the afflicted. 
" At this fortunate news, which arrived so unexpectedly, the heart and soul were delighted." 
In short, his just laws were such, that the young deer was suckled by the lioness, the wild hare 
sported with the huntsman, the hawk and the partridge dwelt in the same nest, and the falcon 
and the goose breathed the same atmosphere : — 

" By his justice the white hawk paired with the stork ; 

" By his protection the lion associated with the jackal. 

" The former did not oppose their bills to each other, in the air ; 

" Nor did the latter, on the earth, attack each other with their claws." 

( 208 ) 

He now became so celebrated for his justice, that the name ofNushirvan* fell into the 
corner of oblivion, and his surname was now changed into that of the Just King. One day, 
one of his nobles, availing himself of a favourable opportunity, asked to be informed of the 
cause that had produced the change from oppression and tyranny to justice and generosity. 
The king replied : " On the day that I went out to hunt, and had entered the field for sport, 1 
was running about and looking in every direction. By chance I saw a fox pursued by a dog, 
which soon fell upon him, and with his teeth tore his sinews. The unfortunate fox, however, 
with his lame foot, made his way into a hole, and thus saved himself. Whilst the dog was 
returning, a traveller by chance threw a stone, which reached the leg of the dog and broke 
it. Before an hour had passed, the traveller's foot was struck by a horse, and thus the dog 
was revenged. Shortly after, the horse's foot fell into a hole, and was broken. When I saw 
them in this state, I said to myself, What have these done ? and how have they been requited ? 
' The reward of evil is evil ;' as saith the sacred verse — ' A partridge swallowed an ant, and 
retribution came and demanded it from the partridge : afterwards came an eagle, and did the 
same to the partridge.' ' If thou slay, thou wilt be slain : thy slayer will be slain.' It now 
became known to me, that for every action there is a retribution, and that every one receives 
according to the good or evil which he does :" — 

' Do good, but beware of doing evil ; 

' For according to thy good and evil thou wilt receive.' 

* A Persian king, celebrated for his justice. 




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